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Building a serverless 'positive chat' and why products and teams are important

Building a serverless 'positive chat' and why products and teams are important

CloudConf, Turin, March 28th, 2019

Can we use technology to improve ourselves? Communication is such an important part of our lives, and we should always strive to improve - but it is not easy. In this session, I share how I came to build a serverless 'positive chat' using sentiment analysis and automatic translation to provide a more inclusive environment. And as I was building, a few ideas popped into my mind. When you build something new, what is the meaning of a 1.0 release? And when we work together, what is the role of a team?

Danilo Poccia

March 28, 2019
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  1. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Danilo Poccia
    Principal Evangelist, Serverless
    @danilop
    danilop
    Building a serverless “posi1ve chat” and
    why products and teams are important

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  2. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.

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  3. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    HTTP protocol
    Client Server
    Request
    Response

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  4. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    WebSockets protocol
    GET /chat HTTP/1.1
    Host: server.example.com
    Upgrade: websocket
    Connection: Upgrade
    Sec-WebSocket-Key: x3JJHMbDL1EzLkh9GBhXDw==
    Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: chat, superchat
    Sec-WebSocket-Version: 13
    Origin: http://example.com
    HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols
    Upgrade: websocket
    Connection: Upgrade
    Sec-WebSocket-Accept: HSmrc0sMlYUkAGmm5OPpG2HaGWk=
    Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: chat
    Client Server
    Request
    Response
    WebSocket

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  5. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Serverless Real-Time Apps – There are a few op5ons
    • AWS IoT Core without physical devices
    • MQTT pub/sub
    • AWS AppSync
    • GraphQL subscriptions
    • Amazon API Gateway
    • WebSocket connections
    New

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  6. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Amazon API Gateway – WebSocket APIs
    Amazon API
    Gateway
    Connect
    function
    Web
    browser
    AWS Cloud
    Region
    WebSocket
    connection
    (stateful)
    Disconnect
    Connect
    By Route Key(s)
    Default
    Disconnect
    function
    Route Key
    function(s)
    Default
    function
    API Gateway
    integration
    (stateless)
    SigV4 POST
    @ConnectionId
    ConnectionId ConnectionId

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  7. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Serverless Real-Time Apps – What to build?
    • Building a chat is the mandatory example for WebSockets
    • Can I build something that can help in being a “better” person?
    • Not in person communication is hard
    • Can machine learning help? Some services are super easy to use!

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  8. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    FRAMEWORKS AND INTERFACES
    ML for data scientists
    KERAS
    Frameworks Interfaces
    APPLICATION SERVICES
    ML for everyone
    PLATFORM SERVICES
    ML for engineers
    NVIDIA
    Tesla V100 GPUs
    (14x faster than P2)
    Machine Learning
    AMIs
    INFRASTRUCTURE
    Powering the ML
    Intel Xeon
    Skylake
    (Optimized for ML)
    AW S
    G R E E N G R A SS M L
    L E X P O L L Y R E K O G N I T I O N
    I M A G E & V I D E O
    T R A N S C R I B E T R A N S L A T E C O M P R E H E N D F O R E C A S T P E R S O N A L I Z E
    A M A Z O N
    S A G E M A K E R
    A W S
    D E E P L E N S
    S A G E M A K E R
    G R O U N D T R U T H &
    M E C H A N IC A L T U R K
    S PA R K
    & E M R

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  9. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Let’s build a “Positive Chat” J
    • Avoid negative sentiment
    • Reject negative sentences
    • Positive sentiment gamification
    • Automatically translate between different languages
    • Extract message topics to improve searchability and discoverability
    • Create and update a chat room “tag cloud”
    • Search or filter messages by “tag”

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  10. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Let’s build a “Posi0ve Chat” J
    • Attach images to messages
    • Moderate content
    • Describe image content (object, people, emotions)
    • Find text in images
    • Anonymize people faces
    • For all people or based on estimated age
    • Cover faces with emoticon based on actual emotions !"#$

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  11. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Positive Chat – Serverless architecture
    Amazon
    DynamoDB
    Amazon
    Cognito
    Amazon API
    Gateway
    WebSocket
    connection
    PositiveChat
    Lambda function
    Connections
    table
    Conversations
    table
    Topics
    table
    Web
    browser
    AWS Cloud
    S3 bucket for
    static assets
    (HTML, CSS, JS)
    Authentication
    Authorization
    To be implemented
    Amazon
    Comprehend
    Amazon
    Translate
    Amazon
    Rekognition
    To be implemented

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  12. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    AWS Serverless Applica.on Model (SAM)
    AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’
    Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31
    Resources:
    GetFunction:
    Type: AWS::Serverless::Function
    Properties:
    Handler: index.get
    Runtime: nodejs8.10
    CodeUri: src/
    Policies:
    - DynamoDBReadPolicy:
    TableName: !Ref MyTable
    Events:
    GetResource:
    Type: Api
    Properties:
    Path: /resource/{resourceId}
    Method: get
    MyTable:
    Type: AWS::Serverless::SimpleTable
    Just 20 lines to create:
    • Lambda function
    • IAM role
    • API Gateway
    • DynamoDB table
    O
    pen
    Source

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  13. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    SAM CLI
    sam init --name my-function --runtime python
    cd my-function/
    sam build
    sam package --s3-bucket my-packages-bucket \
    --output-template-file packaged.yaml
    sam deploy --template-file packaged.yaml \
    --stack-name my-function-prod
    O
    pen
    Source

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  14. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Demo

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  15. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Positive Chat Demo
    • https://pchat.demo.danilop.net/
    • https://pchat.demo.danilop.net/?room=CloudConf
    • https://github.com/danilop/serverless-positive-chat

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  16. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    $ wc -l positive-chat/app.js
    320 positive-chat/app.js
    $ wc -l www/index.js
    204 www/index.js
    backend + frontend ≃ 450 lines of code
    removing empty lines and comments

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  17. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    “Launch is the starting line, not the finish line…
    It always takes a lot of listening and iterating
    and figuring out what customers want
    before you have something
    that's truly successful.”
    – Andy Jassy
    CEO, AWS

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  18. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Projects to products

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  19. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    v1 v2 v3
    Customer
    needs
    Project
    Product

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  20. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Project
    Product
    Reach
    milestone
    Customer
    value
    Lifecycle
    costs
    Cost to reach
    milestone
    Backward
    looking
    Forward
    looking

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  21. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Product
    Features
    Defects
    Risks
    Debts
    Business
    Customers
    Security &
    Compliance
    Builders
    Avoid
    Overutilization

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  22. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    “One area where I think we are
    especially distinctive is failure.
    I believe we are the best place
    in the world to fail
    (we have plenty of practice!),
    and failure and invention are
    inseparable twins.”
    To our shareowners:
    This year, Amazon became the fastest company ever to reach $100 billion in annual sales. Also this year,
    Amazon Web Services is reaching $10 billion in annual sales … doing so at a pace even faster than Amazon
    achieved that milestone.
    What’s going on here? Both were planted as tiny seeds and both have grown organically without significant
    acquisitions into meaningful and large businesses, quickly. Superficially, the two could hardly be more different.
    One serves consumers and the other serves enterprises. One is famous for brown boxes and the other for APIs. Is
    it only a coincidence that two such dissimilar offerings grew so quickly under one roof? Luck plays an outsized
    role in every endeavor, and I can assure you we’ve had a bountiful supply. But beyond that, there is a connection
    between these two businesses. Under the surface, the two are not so different after all. They share a distinctive
    organizational culture that cares deeply about and acts with conviction on a small number of principles. I’m
    talking about customer obsession rather than competitor obsession, eagerness to invent and pioneer, willingness
    to fail, the patience to think long-term, and the taking of professional pride in operational excellence. Through
    that lens, AWS and Amazon retail are very similar indeed.
    A word about corporate cultures: for better or for worse, they are enduring, stable, hard to change. They can
    be a source of advantage or disadvantage. You can write down your corporate culture, but when you do so,
    you’re discovering it, uncovering it – not creating it. It is created slowly over time by the people and by events –
    by the stories of past success and failure that become a deep part of the company lore. If it’s a distinctive culture,
    it will fit certain people like a custom-made glove. The reason cultures are so stable in time is because people
    self-select. Someone energized by competitive zeal may select and be happy in one culture, while someone who
    loves to pioneer and invent may choose another. The world, thankfully, is full of many high-performing, highly
    distinctive corporate cultures. We never claim that our approach is the right one – just that it’s ours – and over
    the last two decades, we’ve collected a large group of like-minded people. Folks who find our approach
    energizing and meaningful.
    One area where I think we are especially distinctive is failure. I believe we are the best place in the world to
    fail (we have plenty of practice!), and failure and invention are inseparable twins. To invent you have to
    experiment, and if you know in advance that it’s going to work, it’s not an experiment. Most large organizations
    embrace the idea of invention, but are not willing to suffer the string of failed experiments necessary to get there.
    Outsized returns often come from betting against conventional wisdom, and conventional wisdom is usually
    right. Given a ten percent chance of a 100 times payoff, you should take that bet every time. But you’re still
    going to be wrong nine times out of ten. We all know that if you swing for the fences, you’re going to strike out a
    lot, but you’re also going to hit some home runs. The difference between baseball and business, however, is that
    baseball has a truncated outcome distribution. When you swing, no matter how well you connect with the ball,
    the most runs you can get is four. In business, every once in a while, when you step up to the plate, you can score
    1,000 runs. This long-tailed distribution of returns is why it’s important to be bold. Big winners pay for so many
    experiments.
    AWS, Marketplace and Prime are all examples of bold bets at Amazon that worked, and we’re fortunate to
    have those three big pillars. They have helped us grow into a large company, and there are certain things that
    only large companies can do. With a tip of the hat to our Seattle neighbors, no matter how good an entrepreneur
    you are, you’re not going to build an all-composite 787 in your garage startup – not one you’d want to fly in
    anyway. Used well, our scale enables us to build services for customers that we could otherwise never even
    contemplate. But also, if we’re not vigilant and thoughtful, size could slow us down and diminish our
    inventiveness.
    2015
    Letter
    to
    Shareholders

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  23. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    What about teams?
    Photo by Perry Grone on Unsplash

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  24. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    You Build It, You Run It
    “This brings developers into
    contact with the day-to-day
    operation of their software. It
    also brings them into day-to-
    day contact with the
    customer.”
    – Werner Vogels
    CTO, Amazon.com

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  25. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Team size & communication paths
    =
    "(" − 1)
    2
    Communication paths
    in a team of N people

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  26. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Two pizza teams Photo by Kristina Bratko on Unsplash

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  27. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Separable vs complex tasks
    Separable
    task
    Complex
    task

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  28. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Ability as a collection of cognitive tools
    Adam
    Abilities = 5
    { A, B, C, D, E }
    For example:
    A – mobile development on iOS
    B – back end development in Java
    C – data analytics in Python
    D – complex SQL queries
    E – …

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  29. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Ability as a collec-on of cogni-ve tools
    Adam Carl
    Betsy
    { C, D, G }
    Abilities = 5 Abilities = 4 Abilities = 3
    { A, B, E, F }
    { A, B, C, D, E }

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  30. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Diversity bonus model – Team with best abilities
    Adam Carl
    Betsy
    { C, D, G }
    Abilities = 5 Abilities = 4 Abilities = 3
    Team Abilities = 6
    { A, B, E, F }
    { A, B, C, D, E }

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  31. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Diversity bonus model – Team with more cogni8ve tools
    Adam Carl
    Betsy
    { A, B, E, F }
    { A, B, C, D, E } { C, D, G }
    Abilities = 5 Abilities = 4 Abilities = 3
    Team Abilities = 7

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  32. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    No diversity, no bonus – Beware hiring managers
    Adam Carl
    Betsy
    { A, B, C, D }
    { A, B, C, D, E } { B, C, D }
    Abilities = 5 Abilities = 4 Abilities = 3

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  33. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Some cognitive tools must be learned in order
    Adam Carl
    Betsy
    { A, B, C, D }
    { A, B, C, D, E } { A, B, C }
    Abilities = 5 Abilities = 4 Abilities = 3

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  34. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    2,092 people who worked on
    474 musicals from 1945 to 1989
    Small world networks & creativity
    AJS Volume 111 Number 2 (September 2005): 000–000 PROOF 1
    ᭧ 2005 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.
    0002-9602/2005/11102-0003$10.00
    Thursday Oct 13 2005 11:31 AM AJS v111n2 090090 VSJ
    Collaboration and Creativity: The Small
    World Problem1
    Brian Uzzi
    Northwestern University
    Jarrett Spiro
    Stanford University
    Small world networks have received disproportionate notice in di-
    verse fields because of their suspected effect on system dynamics.
    The authors analyzed the small world network of the creative artists
    who made Broadway musicals from 1945 to 1989. Based on original
    arguments, new statistical methods, and tests of construct validity,
    they found that the varying “small world” properties of the systemic-
    level network of these artists affected their creativity in terms of the
    financial and artistic performance of the musicals they produced.
    The small world network effect was parabolic; performance in-
    creased up to a threshold after which point the positive effects
    reversed.
    Creativity aids problem solving, innovation, and aesthetics, yet our un-
    derstanding of it is still forming. We know that creativity is spurred when
    diverse ideas are united or when creative material in one domain inspires
    or forces fresh thinking in another. These structural preconditions suggest
    1 Our thanks go out to Duncan Watts; Huggy Rao; Peter Murmann; Ron Burt; Matt
    Bothner; Frank Dobbin; Bruce Kogut; Lee Fleming; David Stark; John Padgett; Dan
    Diermeier; Stuart Oken; Jerry Davis; Woody Powell; workshop participants at the
    University of Chicago, University of California at Los Angeles, Harvard, Cornell, New
    York University, the Northwestern University Institute for Complex Organizations
    (NICO); and the excellent AJS reviewers, especially the reviewer who provided a
    remarkable 15, single-spaced pages of superb commentary. We particularly wish to
    thank Mark Newman for his advice and help in developing and interpreting the
    bipartite-affiliation network statistics. We also wish to give very special thanks to the
    Santa Fe Institute for creating a rich collaborative environment wherein these ideas
    first emerged, and to John Padgett, the organizer of the States and Markets group at
    the Santa Fe Institute. Direct correspondence to Brian Uzzi, Kellog School of Man-
    agement, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208. E-mail:
    [email protected]

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  35. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    1. Write less code, be serverless
    2. Build products not projects
    3. Experiment, measure, learn
    4. Give teams ownership and autonomy
    5. Minimize communication paths
    6. Maximize different abilities
    7. Mix new and existing relationships

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  36. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates.
    Thank you!
    @danilop
    danilop

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