Serverless beyond Functions

Serverless beyond Functions

Voxxed Days, Bucharest, March 22nd, 2018

With serverless development you can “chain” multiple functions together, and design event-driven architectures. Applications built in this way are easier to keep under control because our human minds are much better in looking for cause-effect relationships than understanding a complex workflow.

One of the great advantages of serverless development is the possibility to “chain” multiple functions together, and design event-driven architectures. Applications built in this way are easier to keep under control because our human minds are much better in looking for cause-effect relationships than understanding a complex workflow. But it is time now to go beyond that, considering serverless in its broader definition of building applications “without thinking about servers”, and use all available tools.

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Danilo Poccia

March 22, 2018
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  1. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Serverless beyond Functions Danilo Poccia Technical Evangelist danilop@amazon.com @danilop danilop
  2. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved.
  3. No servers to provision or manage Scales with usage Never

    pay for idle Availability and fault-tolerance built in Serverless means… © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  4. SERVICES (ANYTHING) Changes in data state Requests to endpoints Changes

    in resource state EVENT SOURCE FUNCTION Node.js Python Java C# Go Serverless applications © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. New
  5. Common serverless use cases Web applications • Static websites •

    Complex web apps • Packages for Flask and Express Data processing • Real-time • MapReduce • Batch Chatbots • Powering chatbot logic Backends • Apps and services • Mobile • IoT </> </> Amazon Alexa • Powering voice-enabled apps • Alexa Skills Kit IT automation • Policy engines • Extending AWS services • Infrastructure management © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  6. Fine-grained pricing Buy compute time in 100-ms increments Low request

    charge No hourly, daily, or monthly minimums No per-device fees Never pay for idle Free Tier 1 M requests and 400,000 GB-s of compute Every month, every customer © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  7. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. SMART RESOURCE ALLOCATION Match resource allocation (up to 3 GB!) to logic Stats for Lambda function that calculates 1000 times all prime numbers <= 1000000 128 MB 11.722965 sec $0.024628 256 MB 6.678945 sec $0.028035 512 MB 3.194954 sec $0.026830 1024 MB 1.465984 sec $0.024638
  8. Amazon S3 Amazon DynamoDB Amazon Kinesis AWS CloudFormation AWS CloudTrail

    Amazon CloudWatch Amazon Cognito Amazon SNS Amazon SES Cron events DATA STORES ENDPOINTS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT TOOLS EVENT/MESSAGE SERVICES Event sources that trigger AWS Lambda …and more! AWS CodeCommit Amazon API Gateway Amazon Alexa AWS IoT AWS Step Functions © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  9. Lambda execution model Synchronous (push) Asynchronous (event) Stream-based Amazon API

    Gateway AWS Lambda function Amazon DynamoDB Amazon SNS /order AWS Lambda function Amazon S3 reqs Amazon Kinesis changes AWS Lambda service function © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  10. Lambda permissions model Fine-grained security controls for both execution and

    invocation Execution policies: • Define what AWS resources/API calls this function can access via IAM • Used in streaming invocations • For example, "Lambda function A can read from DynamoDB table users" Function policies: • Used for sync and async invocations • For example, "Actions on bucket X can invoke Lambda function Z" • Resource policies allow for cross-account access © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  11. Amazon API Gateway Internet Mobile Apps Websites Services AWS Lambda

    functions AWS All private (VPC) or publicly accessible endpoints Amazon CloudWatch Monitoring Amazon CloudFront Any other AWS service Endpoints on Amazon EC2 AWS Step Functions © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  12. Create a unified API front end for multiple microservices Authenticate

    and authorize requests to a backend DDoS protection and throttling for your backend Throttle, meter, and monetize API usage by third- party developers Amazon API Gateway © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  13. Amazon API Gateway – Lambda Proxy Integration { "resource": "Resource

    path", "path": "Path parameter", "httpMethod": "Incoming request's method name", "headers": {Incoming request headers}, "queryStringParameters": {Query string parameters}, "pathParameters":{Path parameters}, "stageVariables": {Applicable stage variables}, "requestContext": {Request context, including authorizer-returned key-value pairs}, "body": "...", "isBase64Encoded": true|false } { "statusCode": httpStatusCode, "headers": { "headerName": "headerValue", ... }, "body": "...”, "isBase64Encoded": true|false } Input Format of a Lambda Function for Proxy Integration Output Format of a Lambda Function for Proxy Integration © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  14. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Demo #1: Your First Function
  15. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Infrastructure as Code: CloudFormation Provision and manage a collection of related AWS resources. Your application = CloudFormation stack Input .yaml file and output provisioned AWS resources
  16. Meet SAM!

  17. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Serverless Application Model (SAM) CloudFormation extension optimized for serverless New serverless resource types: functions, APIs, and tables Supports anything CloudFormation supports Open specification (Apache 2.0)
  18. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’ Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31 Resources: GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: s3://demo-bucket/todo_list.zip Handler: index.js Runtime: nodejs6.1 Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess Events: GetHtml: Type: Api Properties: Path: /{proxy+} Method: ANY SAM template
  19. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’ Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31 Resources: GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: s3://demo-bucket/todo_list.zip Handler: index.js Runtime: nodejs6.1 Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess Events: GetHtml: Type: Api Properties: Path: /{proxy+} Method: ANY SAM template AWS::Lambda::Function AWS::IAM::Role AWS::IAM::Policy AWS::ApiGateway::RestApi AWS::ApiGateway::Stage AWS::ApiGateway::Deployment AWS::Lambda::Permission
  20. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. CloudFormation template AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09' Resources: GetHtmlFunctionGetHtmlPermissionProd: Type: AWS::Lambda::Permission Properties: Action: lambda:invokeFunction Principal: apigateway.amazonaws.com FunctionName: Ref: GetHtmlFunction SourceArn: Fn::Sub: arn:aws:execute-api:${AWS::Region}:${AWS::AccountId}:${ServerlessRestApi}/Prod/ANY/* ServerlessRestApiProdStage: Type: AWS::ApiGateway::Stage Properties: DeploymentId: Ref: ServerlessRestApiDeployment RestApiId: Ref: ServerlessRestApi StageName: Prod ListTable: Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table Properties: ProvisionedThroughput: WriteCapacityUnits: 5 ReadCapacityUnits: 5 AttributeDefinitions: - AttributeName: id AttributeType: S KeySchema: - KeyType: HASH AttributeName: id GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Lambda::Function Properties: Handler: index.gethtml Code: S3Bucket: flourish-demo-bucket S3Key: todo_list.zip Role: Fn::GetAtt: - GetHtmlFunctionRole - Arn Runtime: nodejs4.3 GetHtmlFunctionRole: Type: AWS::IAM::Role ManagedPolicyArns: - arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess - arn:aws:iam::aws:policy/service-role/AWSLambdaBasicExecutionRole AssumeRolePolicyDocument: Version: '2012-10-17' Statement: - Action: - sts:AssumeRole Effect: Allow Principal: Service: - lambda.amazonaws.com ServerlessRestApiDeployment: Type: AWS::ApiGateway::Deployment Properties: RestApiId: Ref: ServerlessRestApi Description: 'RestApi deployment id: 127e3fb91142ab1ddc5f5446adb094442581a90d' StageName: Stage GetHtmlFunctionGetHtmlPermissionTest: Type: AWS::Lambda::Permission Properties: Action: lambda:invokeFunction Principal: apigateway.amazonaws.com FunctionName: Ref: GetHtmlFunction SourceArn: Fn::Sub: arn:aws:execute-api:${AWS::Region}:${AWS::AccountId}:${ServerlessRestApi}/*/ANY/* ServerlessRestApi: Type: AWS::ApiGateway::RestApi Properties: Body: info: version: '1.0' title: Ref: AWS::StackName paths: "/{proxy+}": x-amazon-apigateway-any-method: x-amazon-apigateway-integration: httpMethod: ANY type: aws_proxy uri: Fn::Sub: arn:aws:apigateway:${AWS::Region}:lambda:path/2015-03- 31/functions/${GetHtmlFunction.Arn}/invocations
  21. CloudFormation Package/Deploy aws cloudformation package \ --s3-bucket <BUCKET> \ --s3-prefix

    packages \ --template-file template.yaml \ --output-template-file packaged.yaml aws cloudformation deploy \ --template-file packaged.yaml \ --stack-name voxxed-bucharest \ --capabilities CAPABILITY_IAM
  22. Serverless by Design

  23. Serverless by Design https://sbd.danilop.net/

  24. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Demo #2: AWS SAM
  25. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved.
  26. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Event Sourcing
  27. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Testing serverless apps - challenges - Test in an environment that resembles Lambda: - OS - Libraries - Runtime - Configured limits (memory, timeout) - Mimic response and log outputs
  28. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Testing serverless apps - challenges - Test events need to be: - Syntactically accurate - Different for each trigger
  29. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Testing serverless apps - challenges { "Records": [ { "eventVersion": "2.0", "eventTime": "1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z", "requestParameters": { "sourceIPAddress": "127.0.0.1" }, "s3": { "configurationId": "testConfigRule", "object": { "eTag": "0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef", "sequencer": "0A1B2C3D4E5F678901", "key": "myKey", "size": 1024 }, "bucket": { "arn": "arn:aws:s3:::myBucket", "name": "myBucket", "ownerIdentity": { "principalId": "EXAMPLE" } }, "s3SchemaVersion": "1.0" }, "responseElements": { "x-amz-id-2": "EXAMPLE123/5678abcdefghijklambdaisawesome/mnop qrstuvwxyzABCDEFGH", "x-amz-request-id": "EXAMPLE123456789" }, "awsRegion": "us-east-1", "eventName": "ObjectCreated:Put", "userIdentity": { "principalId": "EXAMPLE" }, "eventSource": "aws:s3” } ] }
  30. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Introducing SAM Local CLI tool for local testing of serverless apps Leverages Docker images to mimic Lambda’s execution environment Emulates Lambda functions and APIs Event generator to help you generate event payload for common Lambda triggers sam local generate-event s3 --bucket <bucket> --key <key>
  31. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Introducing SAM Local https://github.com/awslabs/aws-sam-local Response object and function logs available on your local machine Supports live debugging Currently supports Java, Node.js, Python and Golang SAM Local is open source & accepting pull requests! npm install –g aws-sam-local
  32. $ sam --help NAME: sam - ___ _____ ___ _

    __ __ /_\ \ / / __| / __| /_\ | \/ | / _ \ \/\/ /\__ \ \__ \/ _ \| |\/| | /_/ \_\_/\_/ |___/ |___/_/ \_\_| |_| AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) CLI The AWS Serverless Application Model extends AWS CloudFormation to provide a simplified way of defining the Amazon API Gateway APIs, AWS Lambda functions, and Amazon DynamoDB tables needed by your serverless application. You can find more in-depth guide about the SAM specification here:\nhttps://github.com/awslabs/serverless-application-model. USAGE: sam [global options] command [command options] [arguments...] VERSION: 0.2.0 COMMANDS: local Run your Serverless application locally for quick development & testing validate Validates an AWS SAM template. If valid, will print a summary of the resources found within the SAM template. If the template is invalid, returns a non-zero exit code. package Package an AWS SAM application. This is an alias for 'aws cloudformation package'. deploy Deploy an AWS SAM application. This is an alias for 'aws cloudformation deploy'. help, h Shows a list of commands or help for one command GLOBAL OPTIONS: --help, -h show help --version, -v print the version
  33. $ sam local --help .. USAGE: sam local command [command

    options] [arguments...] COMMANDS: start-api Allows you to run your Serverless application locally for quick development & testing. When run in a directory that contains your Serverless functions and your AWS SAM template, it will create a local HTTP server hosting all of your functions. When accessed (via browser, cli etc), it will launch a Docker container locally to invoke the function. It will read the CodeUri property of AWS::Serverless::Function resource to find the path in your file system containing the Lambda Function code. This could be the project's root directory for interpreted languages like Node & Python, or a build directory that stores your compiled artifacts or a JAR file. If you are using a interpreted language, local changes will be available immediately in Docker container on every invoke. For more compiled languages or projects requiring complex packing support, we recommended you run your own building solution and point SAM to the directory or file containing build artifacts. invoke Invokes a local Lambda function once and quits after invocation completes. Useful for developing serverless functions that handle asynchronous events (such as S3/Kinesis etc), or if you want to compose a script of test cases. Event body can be passed in either by stdin (default), or by using the --event parameter. Runtime output (logs etc) will be outputted to stderr, and the Lambda function result will be outputted to stdout. generate-event Generates Lambda events (e.g. for S3/Kinesis etc) that can be piped to 'sam local invoke' Available out of the box in AWS Cloud9!
  34. </> GitHub Amazon S3 AWS CodeCommit AWS CodeBuild AWS CodeBuild

    Third-party tools AWS CloudFormation Source Build Test Deploy Deploying serverless applications AWS CodePipeline
  35. Use AWS CodeStar to set up a project with CI/CD

  36. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Safe deployments baked into SAM! Lambda aliases now enable traffic shifting CodeDeploy integration for deployment automation Deployment automation natively supported in SAM New
  37. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Safe deployments baked into SAM! AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’ Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31 Resources: GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: s3://demo-bucket/todo_list.zip Handler: index.js Runtime: nodejs6.1 New
  38. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Safe deployments baked into SAM! AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’ Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31 Globals: Function: AutoPublishAlias: Live DeploymentPreference: Type: Canary10Percent10Minutes Resources: GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: s3://demo-bucket/todo_list.zip Handler: index.js Runtime: nodejs6.1 Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess New
  39. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Safe deployments baked into SAM! AWSTemplateFormatVersion: '2010-09-09’ Transform: AWS::Serverless-2016-10-31 Globals: Function: AutoPublishAlias: Live DeploymentPreference: Type: Canary10Percent10Minutes Hooks: PreTraffic: !Ref CodeDeployHook_PreTest PostTraffic: !Ref CodeDeployHook_PostTest Alarms: - !Ref DurationAlarm - !Ref ErrorAlarm Resources: GetHtmlFunction: Type: AWS::Serverless::Function Properties: CodeUri: s3://demo-bucket/todo_list.zip Handler: index.js Runtime: nodejs6.1 Policies: AmazonDynamoDBReadOnlyAccess New
  40. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Code Deploy console
  41. © 2017, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. What about GraphQL?
  42. GraphQL Open, declarative data-fetching specification != Graph database Use NoSQL,

    Relational, HTTP, etc. Traditional data-fetching GraphQL /posts /postInfo /postJustTitle /postsByAuthor /postNameStartsWithX /commentsOnPost
  43. How does GraphQL work? { "id": "1", "name": "Get Milk",

    “priority": "1" }, { "id": “2", "name": “Go to gym", “priority": “5" },… type Query { getTodos: [Todo] } type Todo { id: ID! name: String description: String priority: Int duedate: String } query { getTodos { id name priority } } Model data with application schema Client requests what it needs Only that data is returned
  44. GraphQL Schema type Event { id: ID! name: String where:

    String when: String description: String comments: [Comment] } type Comment { commentId: String! eventId: ID! content: String! createdAt: String! }
  45. GraphQL Schema Mutation type Mutation { createEvent( name: String!, when:

    String!, where: String!, description: String! ): Event deleteEvent(id: ID!): Event commentOnEvent( eventId: ID!, content: String!, createdAt: String! ): Comment }
  46. GraphQL Schema Mutation Query type Query { getEvent(id: ID!): Event

    listEvents( limit: Int, nextToken: String ): EventConnection }
  47. GraphQL Schema Mutation Query Subscription type Subscription { subscribeToEventComments(eventId: String!):

    Comment @aws_subscribe(mutations: ["commentOnEvent"]) }
  48. GraphQL Schema Mutation Query Subscription Realtime? YES Batching? YES Pagination?

    YES Relations? YES Aggregations? YES Search? YES Offline? YES
  49. AWS AppSync DynamoDB Table Lambda Function Elasticsearch Service GraphQL Schema

    Upload Schema GraphQL Query Mutation Subscription Real-time Offline AppSync API Cognito User Pool
  50. AWS AppSync DynamoDB Table Lambda Function Elasticsearch Service GraphQL Schema

    Upload Schema GraphQL Query Mutation Subscription Real-time Offline AppSync API Cognito User Pool Legacy Application
  51. AWS AppSync DynamoDB Table Lambda Function Elasticsearch Service GraphQL Schema

    Upload Schema GraphQL Query Mutation Subscription Real-time Offline DynamoDB to Elasticsearch Sync Function AppSync API Cognito User Pool
  52. AWS AppSync DynamoDB Table Lambda Function Elasticsearch Service GraphQL Schema

    Autogenerate Schema GraphQL Query Mutation Subscription Real-time Offline AppSync API Cognito User Pool
  53. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Demo #3: AWS AppSync & GraphQL
  54. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. h t t p s:/ / a w s.a m a z o n .c o m / se r v e r l e ss/ d e v e l o p e r - t o o l s/
  55. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. O pen Source A nd Third-party Fram ew orks
  56. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Takeaways 1. Use the Lambda console for quick creation and iteration of simple apps 2. Use AWS SAM to describe your serverless architecture 3. Plug SAM Local into the IDE of your choice for testing and debugging 4. "Develop in the cloud" with AWS Cloud9 – optimized for serverless applications 5. Build on SAM for CI/CD capabilities, including canary deployments 6. Think of the advantages of GraphQL for your next APIs 7. Share your app with the Serverless Application Repository!
  57. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Serverless beyond Functions Danilo Poccia Technical Evangelist danilop@amazon.com @danilop danilop