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Graph algorithms for improving ML predictions

Graph algorithms for improving ML predictions

Graph algorithms for improving ML predictions delivered by Amy Hodler of Neo4j at Data Science DC on April 15, 2019.


Data Science DC

April 15, 2019


  1. 1 Graph Algorithms for Improving ML Predictions Data Science DC

    Meetup 4/15
  2. • Graph Analytics & Algorithms • Graph enhanced machine learning

    • ML process efficiencies • Connected feature extraction • Connected feature selection • Link prediction 2 Next 30 Mins Amy E. Hodler Graph Analytics & AI Program Manager, Neo4j Amy.Hodler@neo4j.com @amyhodler #Neo4j
  3. None
  4. 4 Free O’Reilly Book neo4j.com/ graph-algorithms-book • Spark & Neo4j

    Examples • Machine Learning Chapter
  5. Relationships Are Often the Strongest Predictors of Behavior “Increasingly we're

    learning that you can make better predictions about people by getting all the information from their friends and their friends’ friends than you can from the information you have about the person themselves” — Dr. James Fowler
  6. Average Distribution Most nodes have the same number of relationships

    Number of Nodes Number of Relationships Structured Many statistic models erroneously focus on the average Underinvested area where most nodes really exist Power-Law Distribution Most nodes have very few relationships while some have many/more Random - No Structure “There is No Network in Nature that we know of that would be described by the Random network model.” –Albert-László Barabási
  7. Graph Algorithms 7

  8. Graph Algorithms Extract Structure and Infer Behavior 8 Source: “Communities,

    modules and large-scale structure in networks“ - Mark Newman Source: “Hierarchical structure and the prediction of missing links in networks”; ”Structure and inference in annotated networks” - A. Clauset, C. Moore, and M.E.J. Newman.
  9. Extract Predictive Elements using Relations in the Bigger Picture 9

    Query (e.g. Cypher/Python) Real-time, local decisioning and pattern matching Graph Algorithms Libraries Global analysis and iterations You know what you’re looking for and making a decision You’re learning the overall structure of a network, updating data, and predicting Local Patterns Global Computation
  10. Common Types of Graph Algorithms 10 Classic Graph Algorithms Areas

    Other Common Categories Pathfinding & Search Centrality / Importance Community Detection+ Similarity Link Prediction ML Workflow Network Flow & Percolation Decomposition, Covering & Coloring Subgraph & Isomorphism Basic Stats Assortative Mixing So many others!
  11. Graph & ML Algorithms in Neo4j +35 neo4j.com/ graph-algorithms- book/

    Pathfinding & Search Centrality / Importance Community Detection Link Prediction Finds optimal paths or evaluates route availability and quality Determines the importance of distinct nodes in the network Detects group clustering or partition options Evaluates how alike nodes are Estimates the likelihood of nodes forming a future relationship Similarity
  12. Graph Enhanced AI & ML

  13. None
  14. Decisions $ Better Decisions Graphs add highly predictive features to

    models; adding accuracy and efficiencies without altering current workflows Machine Learning Pipeline Machine Learning Pipeline Traditional methods based on ”flat data” simplify, or leave out entirely, predictive relationship and network data
  15. 15 Graph accelerated ML uses context for efficiency

  16. 56% of enterprise CIOs say iterative model training is the

    largest ML challenge Graph Accelerated ML
  17. Graph filtering is quite efficient, especially compared to typical manual

    sub-setting or statistical inference Graph Accelerated ML
  18. Betweenness Centrality sums the % shortest paths that pass through

    a node, calculated by pairs Graph Filtering - Example Algorithms Community Detection Filter Groups Centrality Filter Top Influencer Strongly Connected Components are all connected in direction of relationships CC/Union Find disregards direction Closeness Centrality - which nodes can reach all other nodes the fastest
  19. Running Machine Learning within a Graph Graph Accelerated ML -

  20. Enhance Your Predictions 20 Connected Features add context to ML

    for improved accuracy, precision, and recall
  21. • Transaction Fraud • Anti-money laundering (AML) • Claims Fraud

    • Credit Fraud • Compliance and investigation 21 Improve the Predictive Power of ML Example in Fighting Financial Crimes Machine Learning Pipeline Data Machine Learning can help uncover & learn common traits so we can build more predictive models Unfortunately many machine learning methods rely on flat data structures and tables
  22. Engineering connected features improves Machine Learning by calculating relationship metrics

    when you know what’s predictive For example, adding how many fraudsters are in someone’s network is faster and simpler using connections Combat Financial Crimes using Connected Features ACCOUNT HOLDER ACCOUNT HOLDER ACCOUNT HOLDER ACCOUNT HOLDER ACCOUNT HOLDER BANK ACCOUNT SSN/ ID NUMBER UNSECURED LOAN BANK ACCOUNT BANK ACCOUNT UNSECURED LOAN PHONE NUMBER CREDIT CARD SSN/ ID NUMBER PHONE NUMBER ACCOUNT HOLDER ACCOUNT HOLDER ACCOUNT HOLDER ADDRESS PHONE NUMBER $ APPLICATION Typically a query but more advanced situations might use call for graph algorithms
  23. Connected Feature Engineering - Maybe Algorithms Pathfinding & Search Find/score

    items on a particular route
  24. Connected feature extraction and selection using graph algorithms improves accuracy

    and precision by uncovering more predictive elements to feed into ML models For example, finding anomalies of tight communities that might be money laundering networks or identifying which attributes are most predictive of fraud Combat Financial Crimes using Connected Features
  25. 25 Connected Feature Extraction - Example Algorithms Community Detection Scoring

    Connectedness u Triangles = 2 CC= 0.33 Triangle Count number of triangles passing through a node Clustering Coefficient probability that neighbors of a particular node are connected Can be normalized globally 1 2 2 5 3 2 1 6 1 5 4 Classification Label Propagation Adopts labels based on neighbors to infer clusters Great choice for fast grouping at scale and data preprocessing Well suited where groupings are less clear and weights can be used
  26. 27 Connected Feature Selection - Example Algorithm 1 1 1

    2 0.5 2.5 ADDRESSES PHONE S: 3 LOANS SSN/ IDs PHONES e.g. Graph centrality algorithms can identify influential features in our models so we can eliminate less important features and reduce overfitting Centrality Cut-out less predictive features PageRank - Measures the transitive (directional) influence of nodes and considers the influence of neighbors and their neighbors Personalized PR works well for contextual ranking
  27. 28 Connected Feature Selection - Possible Algorithm Overlap Similarity -

    Ideal choice for finding hierarchy in data and developing super and sub-categories Overlap similarity coefficient represents the co-occurrence of items between groups Similarity Feature Overlap? A B A B
  28. Link Prediction 29 Can we infer which new interactions are

    likely to occur in the future? “We formalize this question as the link prediction problem, and develop approaches to link prediction based on measures for analyzing the “proximity” of nodes in a network.” Jon Kleinberg and David Liben-Nowell A Goal, an Approach & an Algorithm Category
  29. • future associations in a terrorist network • co-authorships in

    a citation network • associations between molecules in a biology network • interest in an artist or artwork What can we use this approach for?
  30. Predicting a link means that we are predicting some future

    behaviour or an unobserved fact. For example, in a citation network, we’re actually predicting the action of two people collaborating on a paper. What's common across all these use cases?
  31. Computes a score for a pair of nodes, that can

    be considered a measure of proximity or “similarity” between those nodes based on the graph topology Graph Algorithms used with Link Prediction Link Prediction Other Algorithms Community Detection It’s common when our goal is link prediction to use a variety of algorithm types to extract features and use them together in a machine learning model Similarity
  32. Common Neighbors Based on number of potential triangles / closing

    triangles Concept is that if 2 strangers have a friend/colleague in common, they are more likely to be introduced http://be.amazd.com/link-prediction/
  33. Adamic Adar (weighted common neighbors) Refines the simple counting of

    common features by weighting rarer features more heavily. Formalizes the intuitive notion that rare features are more telling; if we both like GoT that’s less predictive than a preference for 16th century poetry http://be.amazd.com/link-prediction/
  34. Preferential Attachments Multiplies the number of connections two nodes have

    Reflects the tendency in real-world networks for highly connected nodes to become more connected. (Rich get richer, the popular get more friends. Hub-spoke structure) http://be.amazd.com/link-prediction/
  35. • Use the measures directly ◦ Set a threshold value

    used to predict a link between nodes • Use the measures as features to train a ML model ◦ e.g. A binary classifier that predicts which nodes will be linked What to do with algorithm scores? node1 node2 commonNeighbors preferentialAttachment label 1 2 4 15 1 3 4 7 12 1 5 6 1 1 0
  36. Results look too good to be true?! Consider time-based splits

    Careful of data Leakage in graphy data, especially when we randomly split the dataset. This can easily happen when working with graphs because pairs of nodes in our training set may be connected to those in the test set. Train and Test Datasets
  37. Sandbox: Data & examples neo4j.com/sandbox Neo4j Resources for Data Scientists

    Community: Ask Anything Community.neo4j.com Neuler: Run Algorithms Code-Free neo4j.com/developer/ graph-algorithms/
  38. 39 Free O’Reilly Book neo4j.com/ graph-algorithms-book • Spark & Neo4j

    Examples • Machine Learning Chapter Amy.Hodler@neo4j.com @amyhodler #Neo4j #GraphAnalytics
  39. Graph and ML Algorithms in Neo4j • Parallel Breadth First

    Search & DFS • Shortest Path • Single-Source Shortest Path • All Pairs Shortest Path • Minimum Spanning Tree • A* Shortest Path • Yen’s K Shortest Path • K-Spanning Tree (MST) • Random Walk • Degree Centrality • Closeness Centrality • CC Variations: Harmonic, Dangalchev, Wasserman & Faust • Betweenness Centrality • Approximate Betweenness Centrality • PageRank • Personalized PageRank • ArticleRank • Eigenvector Centrality • Triangle Count • Clustering Coefficients • Connected Components (Union Find) • Strongly Connected Components • Label Propagation • Louvain Modularity – 1 Step & Multi-Step • Balanced Triad (identification) • Euclidean Distance • Cosine Similarity • Jaccard Similarity • Overlap Similarity • Pearson Similarity Pathfinding & Search Centrality / Importance Community Detection Similarity Updated April 2019 Link Prediction • Adamic Adar • Common Neighbors • Preferential Attachment • Resource Allocations • Same Community • Total Neighbors