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06. the mind as machine

2867bb020c276f3785326ea3b8683b29?s=47 GeorgeMatthews
January 24, 2019
17

06. the mind as machine

philosophy of mind, 2018

2867bb020c276f3785326ea3b8683b29?s=128

GeorgeMatthews

January 24, 2019
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  1. Logic Machines a brief history of the idea George Matthews

    CC 2018
  2. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  3. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  4. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  5. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  6. the Aristotelian Square of opposition A E I O subalternation

    contraries c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s subalternation c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s sub-contraries All S are P. Some S are P. No S are P. Some S are not P.
  7. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  8. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  9. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  10. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  11. Lull’s Art of Finding Truth

  12. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  13. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  14. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  15. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  16. Hobbes’ Leviathan

  17. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  18. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  19. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  20. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  21. Leibniz’ calculator

  22. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  23. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  24. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  25. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  26. A Boolean circuit

  27. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  28. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  29. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  30. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  31. Babbage’s Difference Engine

  32. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954
  33. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954
  34. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954
  35. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954
  36. Turing’s Automatic Computing Engine