contraries c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s subalternation c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s sub-contraries All S are P. Some S are P. No S are P. Some S are not P.

set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316

set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316

set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316

set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316

possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716

possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716

possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716

possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716

Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864

Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864

Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864

Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864

into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform diﬀerent operations on diﬀerent inputs. 1814 – 1871

into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform diﬀerent operations on diﬀerent inputs. 1814 – 1871

into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform diﬀerent operations on diﬀerent inputs. 1814 – 1871

into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform diﬀerent operations on diﬀerent inputs. 1814 – 1871

read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954

read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954

read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954

read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954