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06. the mind as machine

GeorgeMatthews
January 24, 2019
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06. the mind as machine

philosophy of mind, 2018

GeorgeMatthews

January 24, 2019
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  1. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  2. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  3. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  4. Aristotle’s insight ! Valid reasoning is a matter of form

    not content. ! Cognition is categorization. ! The formal structure of categorical reasoning can be exhaustively mapped out. 384 – 322 BCE
  5. the Aristotelian Square of opposition A E I O subalternation

    contraries c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s subalternation c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s sub-contraries All S are P. Some S are P. No S are P. Some S are not P.
  6. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  7. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  8. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  9. Lull’s fantasy ! All thoughts are combinations of a finite

    set of concepts. ! We can mechanically determine all possible combinations. ! The true nature of reality, God, morality can be shown for all to see. 1232 – 1316
  10. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  11. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  12. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  13. Hobbes’ analysis ! Society is made of individuals. ! Individuals

    are made of mechanical components. ! Thoughts are computations carried out by these components. 1588 – 1679
  14. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  15. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  16. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  17. Leibniz’ dream ! A perfect language expressing all truths is

    possible. ! This language could be encoded in an algebra of thought enabling only true conclusions to be derived from other thoughts. ! All questions could be resolved by a machine whose workings mirror the rules of correct thinking. 1646 – 1716
  18. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  19. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  20. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  21. Boole’s laws ! Logic is a branch of mathematics. !

    Logical reasoning can be built up from the elementary operations OR, AND, NOT and the laws governing them. ! Thinking is the mechanical application of these laws to express complex ideas and reasoning. 1816 – 1864
  22. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  23. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  24. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  25. Babbage’s ambitions ! Complex mathematical operations can be broken down

    into simple mindless steps. ! A general purpose machine can be built to carry out complex calculations. ! This machine can be programmed to perform different operations on different inputs. 1814 – 1871
  26. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954
  27. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954
  28. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954
  29. Turing’s proof ! All computations require only the ability to

    read and write symbols in some location in response to instructions. ! It is possible to construct a machine that can imitate all other machines. ! Thus a universal machine is possible. 1912 – 1954