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The Good and the Right

The Good and the Right

Second slideshow for a course on Environmental Ethics.

GeorgeMatthews

February 19, 2017
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  1. The Good -vs- the Right two approaches to ethics George

    Matthews CC 2019
  2. Two Moral Universals

  3. Two Moral Universals ! Avoid harming others and try to

    do good things for them.
  4. Two Moral Universals ! Avoid harming others and try to

    do good things for them. ! Do the right thing and don’t do what is wrong.
  5. Question of the Day Is it ever wrong to do

    what is good?
  6. What should you do?

  7. What should you do? the runaway train car You are

    standing next to a switch on a train track when a runaway train car approaches. Five children are playing on the track. If you do nothing they will be killed. If you throw the switch, the train will be diverted but will kill one man working on the other track.
  8. What should you do?

  9. What should you do? another runaway train car You are

    standing on a bridge over a train track when a runaway train car approaches. Five children are playing on the track. If you do nothing they will be hit by the train car and killed. There is a large man standing next to you. If you push him onto the tracks, the train car will derail and not hit the children but will kill him.
  10. The Ethics of the Good

  11. The Ethics of the Good

  12. The Ethics of the Good The point of ethics is

    to make life better – more pleasure, satisfaction, happiness, benefit, welfare for more people.
  13. The Ethics of the Good The point of ethics is

    to make life better – more pleasure, satisfaction, happiness, benefit, welfare for more people. The outcomes of our actions determine their moral worth.
  14. The Ethics of the Good The point of ethics is

    to make life better – more pleasure, satisfaction, happiness, benefit, welfare for more people. The outcomes of our actions determine their moral worth. Moral thinking is future-oriented, not concerned with motives or the intrinsic nature of our acts.
  15. Utilitarianism

  16. Utilitarianism

  17. Utilitarianism Assess the situation at hand . . .

  18. Utilitarianism Assess the situation at hand . . . !

    Figure out all possible relevant actions.
  19. Utilitarianism Assess the situation at hand . . . !

    Figure out all possible relevant actions. ! Calculate their likely costs and benefits to all who will be affected by each.
  20. Utilitarianism Assess the situation at hand . . . !

    Figure out all possible relevant actions. ! Calculate their likely costs and benefits to all who will be affected by each. ! Choose the action that produces the greatest overall benefit and least overall harm.
  21. Some utilitarian policies Couples can only have one child.

  22. Some utilitarian policies Private jets can no longer land at

    US airports.
  23. Some utilitarian policies Polluting industry should be sited where there

    are less people around.
  24. The Ethics of Right

  25. The Ethics of Right

  26. The Ethics of Right Ethical action is an end in

    itself, not a means to an end.
  27. The Ethics of Right Ethical action is an end in

    itself, not a means to an end. The moral worth of an act is inherent in that act.
  28. The Ethics of Right Ethical action is an end in

    itself, not a means to an end. The moral worth of an act is inherent in that act. Moral thinking is past-oriented, concerned with our motives and the intrinsic nature of our acts, but not with their outcomes.
  29. Kantian Ethics

  30. Kantian Ethics

  31. Kantian Ethics Assess the situation at hand . . .

  32. Kantian Ethics Assess the situation at hand . . .

    ! For each possible response, would it make sense as a universal law? If not don’t do it.
  33. Kantian Ethics Assess the situation at hand . . .

    ! For each possible response, would it make sense as a universal law? If not don’t do it. ! Does it involve treating anyone as a means to an end? If so don’t do it.
  34. Kantian Ethics Assess the situation at hand . . .

    ! For each possible response, would it make sense as a universal law? If not don’t do it. ! Does it involve treating anyone as a means to an end? If so don’t do it. ! Is it done out of respect for others, just because it is right? If so do it.
  35. Three Categories of Rights

  36. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law
  37. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law individual liberties – speech, assembly, participation, ownership
  38. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law individual liberties – speech, assembly, participation, ownership
  39. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law individual liberties – speech, assembly, participation, ownership 2. Social/Economic rights assurance that social needs are met – shelter, healthcare, education, nutrition
  40. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law individual liberties – speech, assembly, participation, ownership 2. Social/Economic rights assurance that social needs are met – shelter, healthcare, education, nutrition assurance that economic needs are met – fair wages, adequate working conditions, social safety net
  41. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law individual liberties – speech, assembly, participation, ownership 2. Social/Economic rights assurance that social needs are met – shelter, healthcare, education, nutrition assurance that economic needs are met – fair wages, adequate working conditions, social safety net
  42. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law individual liberties – speech, assembly, participation, ownership 2. Social/Economic rights assurance that social needs are met – shelter, healthcare, education, nutrition assurance that economic needs are met – fair wages, adequate working conditions, social safety net 3. Collective/Developmental rights self-determination – political status, resources, sustainability
  43. Three Categories of Rights 1. Civic/Political rights physical and civil

    security – no slavery, equal treatment before law individual liberties – speech, assembly, participation, ownership 2. Social/Economic rights assurance that social needs are met – shelter, healthcare, education, nutrition assurance that economic needs are met – fair wages, adequate working conditions, social safety net 3. Collective/Developmental rights self-determination – political status, resources, sustainability rights of ethnic and religious minorities – culture, communication, religion