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The Second Scientific Revolution

The Second Scientific Revolution

The seventh lecture for a course on science.

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GeorgeMatthews

March 27, 2018
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  1. The Second Scientific Revolution Matter and energy in the 19th

    century George Matthews CC 2018
  2. “Nature and Nature’s Laws lay hid in Night: God said,

    ‘Let Newton be!’ and all was light.” Alexander Pope, 1727
  3. The Royal Society meets the Sun King

  4. None
  5. Pittsburgh, 1900

  6. None
  7. some unknowns in 1800

  8. some unknowns in 1800 ! What are material objects made

    of?
  9. some unknowns in 1800 ! What are material objects made

    of? ! How do chemical reactions occur?
  10. some unknowns in 1800 ! What are material objects made

    of? ! How do chemical reactions occur? ! What is fire and why does it release heat?
  11. some unknowns in 1800 ! What are material objects made

    of? ! How do chemical reactions occur? ! What is fire and why does it release heat? ! What are electricity and magnetism?
  12. some unknowns in 1800 ! What are material objects made

    of? ! How do chemical reactions occur? ! What is fire and why does it release heat? ! What are electricity and magnetism? ! Why are some things living and some things not?
  13. some unknowns in 1800 ! What are material objects made

    of? ! How do chemical reactions occur? ! What is fire and why does it release heat? ! What are electricity and magnetism? ! Why are some things living and some things not? ! Why does time go in only one direction?
  14. 1750’s: Jean-Antoine Nollet builds electrostatic generators, shocks 800 monks in

    demonstration.
  15. 1750’s: Benjamin Franklin shows that lightning is the same as

    static electricity by charging Leyden jar with kite in electrical storm.
  16. 1780’s: Luigi Galvani accidentally discovers that nerves are activated by

    electrical impulses.
  17. 1780’s: Galvani believes he has discovered “vital essence” of life,

    when frog legs twitch without an apparent source of electric charge.
  18. 1800: Alessandro Volta constructs voltaic pile – first battery, source

    of continuous electric current and proves Galvani wrong.
  19. 1803: Giovanni Aldini demonstrates “animal electricity” by making a newly

    dead human corpse twitch, and inspires Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein.
  20. 1804: Humphry Davy uses electric currents to isolate sodium, potassium,

    lithium and other elements.
  21. 1831: Michael Faraday discovers electrical induction – conductor moving in

    magnetic field generates electric current; electric current generates moving magnetic field.
  22. 1861: James Clerk Maxwell formulates set of equations describing electric

    and magnetic fields and their relationships.
  23. 1869: Dmitri Mendeleev formulates periodic table of the elements

  24. 1838: Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden formulate cellular theory of

    life
  25. 1859: Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species

  26. connections

  27. connections ! Electricity is moving electrons.

  28. connections ! Electricity is moving electrons. ! Chemical reactions involve

    the sharing or exchange of electrons between atoms.
  29. connections ! Electricity is moving electrons. ! Chemical reactions involve

    the sharing or exchange of electrons between atoms. ! Heat is the average kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance.
  30. connections ! Electricity is moving electrons. ! Chemical reactions involve

    the sharing or exchange of electrons between atoms. ! Heat is the average kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance. ! Mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical can all be converted into one another, though always at a loss.
  31. connections ! Electricity is moving electrons. ! Chemical reactions involve

    the sharing or exchange of electrons between atoms. ! Heat is the average kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance. ! Mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical can all be converted into one another, though always at a loss. ! Biological cells are biochemical machines.
  32. connections ! Electricity is moving electrons. ! Chemical reactions involve

    the sharing or exchange of electrons between atoms. ! Heat is the average kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance. ! Mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical can all be converted into one another, though always at a loss. ! Biological cells are biochemical machines. ! Animal nervous systems function electro-chemically.