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The Risorgimento

8a360e5ac2a9d73b51b78de8306ddb55?s=47 Gracelle M.
February 21, 2014

The Risorgimento

Taking a look at history in preparation for the Italy trip. The purpose of this presentation was to educate the rest of the team how Italy came to be.

8a360e5ac2a9d73b51b78de8306ddb55?s=128

Gracelle M.

February 21, 2014
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Transcript

  1. R I S O R G I M E N

    T O . G R U P P O N O V E S C O T T e G R A C E L L E
  2. 19th-century movement for Italian unification that culminated in the establishment

    of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. It helped to arouse the national consciousness of the Italian people, leading to a series of political events that freed the Italian states from foreign domination and united them politically. Inspired by: realities of the new economic and political forces at work after 1815; the liberal and nationalist ideologies spawned by the French Revolution of 1789; and the ideas of eighteenth century Italian reformers and illuministi. “ R E S U R G E N C E ”
  3. K I N G D O M O F T

    H E T W O S I C I L I E S R U L E D B Y T H E B O U R B O N K I N G P I E D M O N T S A R D I N I A R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A K I N G D O M O F L O M B A R D Y V E N E T I A R U L E D B Y A U S T R I A T U S C A N Y M O D E N A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y T H E P O P E P A R M A R U L E D B Y M A R I E L O U I S E R U L E D B Y H A B S B U R G P R I N C E S S A R D I N I A S I C I L Y A D I V I D E D I T A L Y Italy around 1845 was divided into 7 different regions that were goverened by different rulers and had varying cultures. But one thing was for certain, the people wanted unity; the Italian people desired freedom from foreign control, particularly from the French + Austrians. 1 8 4 5
  4. Two distinct phases: the first, idealistic, romantic, revolutionary began in

    1815 and climaxed in the revolutions of 1848-49. The second, pragmatic, diplomatic, and practical during the 1850s, culminated in the creation of a united Italian kingdom by 1861. Significance was two-fold: as a manifestation of the nationalism sweeping over Europe during the nineteenth century, the Risorgimento aimed to unite Italy under one flag and one government. For many Italians, however, Risorgimento meant more than political unity. It described a movement for the renewal of Italian society and people beyond purely political aims. P H A S E S A N D S I G N I F I C A N C E 1 6 2 2 2 5
  5. 1 8 1 5 1 8 5 0 1 8

    6 0 1 8 6 6 1 8 7 1 1 8 9 5 1 9 1 1 1 9 3 5 1 9 4 6 Garibaldi’s Master Plan First phase was an idealistic and romantic revolution Second phase more pragmatic, diplomatic and practical Unification of Italy Vittoriano DESIGN CONSTRUCTION Monarchy Abolished R I S O R G I M E N T O
  6. Known as the “beating heart of Italy”, he formed Brotherhood

    of Young Italy (Garibaldi was among them) and planted idea of republic in their minds. His views were romantic and democratic, but unrealistic. His enthusiasm, however, was inflammatory, as Europe exploded with revolutions in 1848. Saw the state as: “The totality of citizens speaking the same language, associated together with equal political and civil rights in the common aim of bringing the forces of society… progressively to greater perfection” G I U S E P P E M A Z Z I N I 1 8 0 5 7 2
  7. Was a flamboyant figure, impassioned speech and messianic appearance. Embodied

    nationalist ideal and become a symbol of an age in which men fought for self-determination. Although most of his objectives attained by politicians/statement, Garibaldi’s bold adventure in name of freedom captured the imagination of European people. He strived for national freedom and integrity, one of the great romantic movements - most romantic and popular figure in all of Europe. Had a dream of a single Italian nation. G I U S E P P E G A R I B A L D I 1 8 0 7 8 2
  8. K I N G D O M O F T

    H E T W O S I C I L I E S R U L E D B Y T H E B O U R B O N K I N G P I E D M O N T S A R D I N I A R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A K I N G D O M O F L O M B A R D Y V E N E T I A R U L E D B Y A U S T R I A T U S C A N Y M O D E N A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y T H E P O P E P A R M A S A R D I N I A S I C I L Y T H E E N D O F A R O M A N T I C R E V O L U T I O N Giuseppe Garibaldi takes action in the unification of Italy by leading an attack against the French soldiers occupying Rome. Realizing that his army were no match against the Pope’s soldiers he retreats to the Tuscan coast. This loss signified the end of the first phase of the Risorgimento, one that was idealistic, and perhaps too ambitious. 1 8 4 8 4 9
  9. 1 8 1 5 1 8 5 0 1 8

    6 0 1 8 6 6 1 8 7 1 1 8 9 5 1 9 1 1 1 9 3 5 1 9 4 6 Garibaldi’s Master Plan First phase was an idealistic and romantic revolution Second phase more pragmatic, diplomatic and practical Unification of Italy Vittoriano DESIGN CONSTRUCTION Monarchy Abolished R I S O R G I M E N T O
  10. K I N G D O M O F T

    H E T W O S I C I L I E S R U L E D B Y T H E B O U R B O N K I N G P I E D M O N T S A R D I N I A R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A K I N G D O M O F L O M B A R D Y V E N E T I A R U L E D B Y A U S T R I A T U S C A N Y M O D E N A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y T H E P O P E P A R M A S A R D I N I A S I C I L Y V I T T O R I O E M M A N U E L E I I He was the King of Sardinia and was no exception to wanting a united Italia. Perhaps his intentions may have been less patriotic and more for his personal gain to increase his power... Regardless, his vision of ruling the Italian nation initiated the second phase of the Risorgimento on a practical and Realpolitik level. 1 8 2 0 7 8
  11. Hailed as the architect of Italian unification and possessing a

    unique competence as a parliamentary leader. Ambition to extend the rule of his kind over the whole Italian peninsula. While there was little hope for Italy as a nation, even with the uprisings in Two Sicilies, Napolean started listening to Cavour’s pleas to aid the Mediterranean land where the Bonapartes had originated. Eventually drove the Austrians out of Lombardy. C O U N T C A M I L L O D E C A V O U R 1 8 1 0 6 1
  12. K I N G D O M O F T

    H E T W O S I C I L I E S R U L E D B Y T H E B O U R B O N K I N G V E N E T I A R U L E D B Y A U S T R I A T U S C A N Y M O D E N A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y T H E P O P E P A R M A S A R D I N I A S I C I L Y 1 D O W N , 2 L O S T , 6 T O G O . Several years prior, Cavour butters Britain and France up to get them as allies. Eventually, France agrees to provide military assistance to Sardinia in return for Savoy and Nice. Sardinia then provokes a war in Lombardy against Austria. With the help of France, they were successful in taking the region, pushing the Austrians back to Venetia. P I E D M O N T S A R D I N I A R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A S A V O Y N I C E 1 8 5 8
  13. K I N G D O M O F T

    H E T W O S I C I L I E S R U L E D B Y T H E B O U R B O N K I N G V E N E T I A R U L E D B Y A U S T R I A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y T H E P O P E S A R D I N I A S I C I L Y T H E A N N E X A T I O N O F T H E N O R T H Sardinia’s win with Lombardy sets an example for the rest of Northern Italy. Nationalist leaders and patriots in Parma, Tuscany and Modena overthrow their foreign leaders allowing Sardinia to absorb those regions. P I E D M O N T S A R D I N I A R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A S A V O Y N I C E 1 8 5 9
  14. 1 8 1 5 1 8 5 0 1 8

    6 0 1 8 6 6 1 8 7 1 1 8 9 5 1 9 1 1 1 9 3 5 1 9 4 6 Garibaldi’s Master Plan First phase was an idealistic and romantic revolution Second phase more pragmatic, diplomatic and practical Unification of Italy Vittoriano DESIGN CONSTRUCTION Monarchy Abolished R I S O R G I M E N T O
  15. B R A N D I N G U N

    I T Y G A R I B A L D I ’ S R E D S H I R T S Original attempts to librerate Italy were unsuccessful, Garibaldi’s red shirt became symbol for struggle of Italian unity. In 1860 he devised a master plan to join forces with King Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont. With Emmanuel commanding a powerful army in the north, a decisive win in the south by Garibaldi would allow the two forces to merge and crush enemies between them.
  16. After master plan, Garibaldi immediatly Garibaldi immediatly gathered 1000 volunteers

    (with obsolete rifles and rusty bayonets). Called against more than 3,000 Bourbon troops and were continously getting thrown back after each attack. After getting hit with a stone, Garibaldi knew the Bourbon’s were out of ammo, called for an attack that led to a massive hand-to-hand fight which lasted for hours - ended with rebels holding the field. M I L L E : T H E T H O U S A N D
  17. V E N E T I A R U L

    E D B Y A U S T R I A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y T H E P O P E S A R D I N I A S I C I L Y U P T H E B O O T Garibaldi and his red shirts defeat the Bourbons using guerilla warfare. After crossing the Strait of Messina, they marched to Naples without needing to fire a single shot. He proclaims himself as the dictator of Sicily/Naples and is greeted with cheers from the people residing there. Meanwhile, back in the North, Cavour starts to worry that Garibaldi will try conquering more of Italy with his army, and therefore gathers Sardinian troops to meet Garibaldi in Naples. P I E D M O N T S A R D I N I A R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A S A V O Y N I C E N A P L E S M E S S I N A 1 8 6 0 K I N G D O M O F T H E T W O S I C I L I E S C O N Q U E R E D B Y T H E “ R E D S H I R T S ”
  18. V E N E T I A R U L

    E D B Y A U S T R I A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y T H E P O P E S A R D I N I A S I C I L Y C L O S I N G T H E G A P . . . Garibaldi surrenders power of the Two Sicilies over to Vittorio Emmanuele II, as he didn’t want to rule. Garibaldi was a simple man, he fought not for power or fame, but for his fellow man. P I E D M O N T S A R D I N I A R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A S A V O Y N I C E 1 8 6 0 K I N G D O M O F T H E T W O S I C I L I E S R U L E D B Y K I N G O F S A R D I N I A
  19. After success in the Mille battle, Garibaldi joined forced with

    Emmanuel, with intentions to hand over his conquests once victory was complete - going as far as wearing the uniform of Royal Piedmontese Army to prove allegiance. Having success yet again, Garibaldi hailed Emmanuel as the King of Italy, thus sacrificing republic hopes for the sake of Italian unity under a monarchy. Italy had become a nation and Garibaldi’s example spread throughout Europe, showing that men willing to fight and die could overthrow rulers. “ S A L U T O I L P R I M O R E D ’ I T A L I A ! ”
  20. Italy gained Venetia in 1866 and Rome in 1870. Both

    were byproducts of international crises and had little to do with national movements. By 1870, all but 109 acres of the Papal State belonged to Italy - but was later claimed when the French troops that protected it finally left Rome. In 1871 Rome officially becomes the nation’s capital, marking the end of the Risorgimento. U N I F I C A T I O N O F I T A L Y 1 8 6 6 7 1
  21. V I V A I T A L I A

    ! Since the fall of the Roman Empire, this would be the first time in centuries that Italy is unified (po- litically), however social and cultural gaps exist between the North and the South. N O R T H E R N I T A L Y R U L E D B Y K I N G O F I T A L I A 1 8 7 0 S O U T H E R N I T A L Y R U L E D B Y K I N G O F I T A L I A P A P A L S T A T E S R U L E D B Y K I N G O F I T A L I A
  22. M O N A R C H Y A B

    O L I S H M E N T Italy was a kingdom ruled by the House of Savoy - Kings of Italy since the Risorgimento. Benito Mussolini enjoyed the support of the reigning monarch, imposed fascism after the march on Rome in October of 1922. Eventually engaged Italy in World War II alongside Nazi Germany. Victor Emmanuel III was left in a strange position - had dismissed Mussolini and defected to the Allies but he had also put Mussolini in his position in the first place.
  23. The country was divided; a fascist puppet state was set

    up in Northern Italy while the Kingdom of Italy still controlled the South. In Rome fight- ing broke out between Mussolini supporters and anti-Mussolini forces including leftist who had returned from hiding. After the war, Italy was badly damaged and republicanism grew. Victor Emmanuel refused to abdicate in 1944, which could have saved the monarchy. The royal house (House of Savoy) wanted a popular king on stage, Umberto was most acceptable. A D I V I D E D I T A L I A 1 9 4 3 1 9 4 6
  24. 1 9 4 6 K I N G U M

    B E R T O I I T O O L I T T L E , T O O L A T E Umberto was a stark contrast to that of Victor Emmanuel - young, elegant, and cultivated. Finally given full power in May 1946 but ruled for only forty-three days - too little, too late to save the monarchy. A constitutional referendum was held in Italy in June 1946 (54.3% voted in favour). Mostly wanted to get rid of the monarchy because of its association with the fascists led by the dictator Benito.
  25. Placed at the highest point of Janiculum Hill in 1985,

    the Statue of Garibaldi show him gazing toward the Vatican and towards his wife, Anita, whose statue and tomb lies further down the hill - intenionally placed there by Garibaldi himself. Anita Garibaldi was a BAMF horsewoman who fought alongside her lover, her statue is of her holding her son while carrying a pistol. Janiculum Hill has always been used as a Roman defense, mainly during the unification of Italy - thus the placement of both statues. J A N I C U L U M H I L L
  26. Also known as “Altare della Patria” (Altar of the Fatherland).

    Located in between the Piazza Venezia and Capitoline Hill, this marble monument was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi to commemorate the first king of a unified Italy. At the base is the Central Museum of the Italian Risorgimento, which holds a large archive of crucial artifacts belonging to the protagonists of the Risorgimento. I L V I T T O R I A N O
  27. Although a hot tourist attraction, Il Vittoriano is criticized by

    the locals as being too pompous, especially because of what had to be destroyed in order to build it; some of the important parts of the Ancient Roman Forum had to be demolished, and medieval churches had to be cleared. Also, its bright white marble contrasts sharply with the earthly-tones of the rest of the city. Many call it “The Wedding Cake” or “False Teeth” or “The Typewriter”. C O N T R O V E R S Y .
  28. The monument is meant to demonstrate the strength of Italy’s

    military power and new empire from the old as King Vittorio’s equestrian statue is positioned higher than all of Rome and it faces the Via Flaminia, which was the triumphal road used in ancient times. During Mussolini’s time in power, the building was used as propaganda as a place for rallies and speeches. S Y M B O L I S M O F I L V I T T O R I A N O
  29. I L V I T T O R I A

    N O V I T T O R I O E M A N U E L E I I T O M B @ P A N T H E O N G A R I B A L D I S T A T U E S
  30. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7BVo7fERTQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IE9Kc-Dn4fA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GvCqmsv9RY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_J19CK6Um0 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/225978/Gi- useppe-Garibaldi#ref111090 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/504489/Ris- orgimento http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/rz/risorgim.htm R

    E F E R E N C E S