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Automating Citrix with PowerShell

Automating Citrix with PowerShell

How to use PowerShell to create new MCS and PVS devices in Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops along with cmdlets typically used for making changes and troubleshooting.
Delivered, with demos, to Central XL CUGC 14th April 2021

Guy Leech

April 14, 2021
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  1. Automating Citrix with PowerShell
    GUY LEECH (@GUYRLEECH) CUGC XL CENTRAL, APRIL 2021

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  2. Why?
     Usually easier/quicker than using consoles/installers from (multiple) vendors (once automated)
     Save time & increase reliability of bulk/repeated operations
     Repeatability
     Eliminate human error (once you've tested scripts thoroughly)
     Scheduled tasks
     Easy to import/export to csv/xml/json and send emails & other methods of notification
     Large number of scripts and learning resources out there
     But check/test all scripts before running them as admin on production systems!
    @guyrleech

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  3. What?
     CVAD builds – install and configure
     Creating new end-points
     Reboot schedules
     Updates
     Backups
     Problem identification/mitigation
     Daily Health Checks
     NetScaler builds & configuration
     … whatever is tedious, time consuming, error prone, boring, not fun, etc
     But only if it's worthwhile/time efficient
    @guyrleech

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  4. Creating New MCS Devices
     Active Directory Machine Accounts
     Get-AcctIdentityPool
     New-AcctADAccount
     Create new machine
     New-ProvVM
     -ADAccountName
     -ProvisioningSchemeName
     -RunAsynchronously
     Add to Machine Catalog
     New-BrokerMachine
     Add to Delivery Group
     Add-BrokerMachinesToDesktopGroup
     Using PowerShell to Create New Citrix MCS Machines | ScriptRunner
    @guyrleech

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  5. Creating New PVS Devices
     Active Directory Machine Accounts
     Citrix won't do it for you – use ActiveDirectory module or ADSI to find unused machine
     Also check PVS, Hypervisor & CVAD for orphans/remnants
     Create new machine
     New-VM via VMware PowerCLI (-template)
     Add to PVS
     New-PvsDevice with MAC address via Get-NetworkAdapter
     Add-PvsDiskLocatorToDevice
     Add-PvsDeviceToDomain
     Add to Machine Catalog
     New-BrokerMachine (must specify -HypervisorConnectionUid & -HostedMachineId)
     Add to Delivery Group
     Add-BrokerMachinesToDesktopGroup
     Using PowerShell to Create new Citrix PVS Machines | ScriptRunner
    @guyrleech

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  6. Configuring/Changing CVAD via PowerShell
     Set-BrokerMachine
     -InMaintenanceMode
     Set-BrokerDesktopGroup (aka Delivery Group)
     -InMaintenanceMode
     -Enabled
     Set-BrokerCatalog
     Disconnect-BrokerSession / Stop-BrokerSession
     Send-BrokerSessionMessage
    @guyrleech

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  7. Admin/Checking CVAD via PowerShell
     Get-BrokerSession
     Filter left for speed: -username, -machinename, -sessionstate, etc
     Get-BrokerMachine
     -InMaintenanceMode
     -Filter e.g. -Filter { InMaintenanceMode -eq 'True' -or RegistrationState -ne 'Registered' }
     Get-PvsDevice
     "join" with Get-PvsDiskInfo, hypervisor, CVAD
     Get-BrokerCatalog
     Get-BrokerDesktopGroup
     Get-BrokerController
    @guyrleech

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  8. CVAD PowerShell Considerations
     -AdminAddress (on every call, consider splatting)
     Set-PVSConnection (once)
     -MaxRecordCount & -ReturnTotalRecordCount
     Cloud – create credential profile via downloaded secrets csv file
     But then most things are the same as on-premises, with a few restrictions
     PowerShell view in Citrix Studio – helps you figure out the "how"
     (Legacy) Snapins versus Modules (latter from 1912 LTSR onwards)
     But still not real modules – won't work with Pwsh 7.x
     Account used to run – least privileged
    @guyrleech

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  9. Scheduled Tasks
     Least privileged service account (with "log on as a batch job" privilege)
     Test command line via (legacy) cmd.exe running as account set to run task
     Write a log file (Start-Transcript/Stop-Transcript)
     Use a single management machine ("jump box") – install all cmdlets, SDKs, etc
     Create separate task folders
     Notifications on success/failure - email
     Gotchas
     Single quotes
     Nested quotes (if all else fails, base64 encode the command line)
     Array flattening (resurrect with –split)
     $true/$false treated as string literals (use [switch] or [bool]::Parse() )
     Easy to copy with PowerShell
    @guyrleech

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  10. CVAD PowerShell Pre-requisites
     PowerShell cmdlets
     Installed with Studio (but don't use a Delivery Controller)
     PowerShell MSI files from CVAD ISO
     Remote PowerShell SDK (for Cloud ONLY)
     PVS (7.8 onwards) uses console dlls for modules
     Not available on PowerShell Gallery, etc
    @guyrleech

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  11. Guy's Top Tips
     Test, test, test (automate with Pester?)
     Boundary conditions – too big/small?
     Bad input – users do the stupidest things
     Scale – works ok with 2 but what about 2222 ?
     What if ("no sane person should ever do this but …")
     Document – are comments in the code really enough?
     No Clear Text Passwords
     Least Privilege
     Annotate
     Error Handling & Reporting
     Change & Version Control
     Use a Jump Box, not production servers
     Backup
     Systems before changing
     Scripts, config files, command lines, scheduled tasks
     Audit trail (Write-EventLog) @guyrleech

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  12. Useful Resources
     github.com/guyrleech
     github.com/guyrleech/Citrix
     carlwebster.com
     workspace-guru.com
     github.com/citrix
     www.scriptrunner.com/en/software/script-collections/
     developer.cloud.com
     jgspiers.com
    @guyrleech

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  13. The End (or is it the Beginning?)
     Go forth and automate
     Or fifth 😄
    @guyrleech

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