series March 21-23 2012 ”Innovation, society and complexity: a dynamics of detecting, solving and creating problems” March 18-22 2013 “Transition and stasis in society and biology: models, theories and narratives” May 4-8 2014: “New data – old theories: the future of theorizing about innovation in complex adaptive systems” This workshop series has attracted a large number of top people from a variety of disciplines interested in innovation from a variety of disciplines.
dynamics! Innovation in complex adaptive systems (e.g. biology, social systems, cognition...) Considerable general scientific interest Broad potential impact: INSITE has been important for getting the community to think more about this!
have looked at (in addition to INSITE in-house stuff): • Developmental evolutionary theory • Transition research/Technical change theory Why? Because they contain important insights into innovation on a general level... Insights that go very well together with the theoretical base that went into INSITE New connection between biology and social science: • Focus on process and organization • Meeting half-ways • Biology not at all obviously only a donor of models this time
Generative Entrenchment (E.g. Wimsatt and Griesemer 2007) • Multi-Level Perspective/Technical Change Theory (e.g. Geels and Schot 2007) A provisional developmental model for cultural change on the evolutionary time scale (Andersson, Törnberg and Törnberg 2014) • Lane, D. A. (2011). Complexity and Innovation Dynamics. In C. Antonelli (Ed.), Handbook on the Economic Complexity of Technological Change (pp. 63–80). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. • Wimsatt, W. C., & Griesemer, J. R. (2007). Reproducing Entrenchments to Scaffold Culture: The Central Role of Development in Cultural Evolution. In R. Sansom & R. N. Brandon (Eds.), Integrating Evolution and Development: From Theory to Practice (pp. 227–323). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. • Geels, F., & Schot, J. (2007). Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways. Research Policy, 36(3), 399–417. • Andersson, C., Törnberg, A., & Törnberg, P. (2014). An Evolutionary Developmental Approach to Cultural Evolution. Current Anthropology, 55(2), 154–174.
space is described as Exaptive Bootstrapping; a five-step cycle: 1. New artifact types are designed to achieve some particular attribution of functionality. 2. Organizational transformations are constructed to proliferate the use of tokens of the new type. 3. Novel patterns of human interaction emerge around these artifacts in use. 4. New attributions of functionality are generated – by participants or observers – to describe what the participants in these interactions are obtaining or might obtain from them. 5. New artifacts are conceived and designed to instantiate the new attributed functionality. #1=#5 – It’s a bootstrapping cycle
and institutions • Hierarchically nested • E.g. Automobility, computers, animal management. Automobility, for instance, is tangled up with ideological, technological and economical factors – stake holders with a range of interaction modes (competing, symbiotic, commensalist, parasitic, etc.) Major Regimes: strongly tied to the Core system Minor Regimes: more in- dependent of the Core system
in central elements have larger cascades Change is more likely to be preserved the ”better” its effect is. Changes near the Core have lower likelyhood of having a net beneficial effect This is because they have more dependent downstream elements The Core will have inertia and the periphery will be more flexible The Core is Entrenched Design Core Edifice Qualitative Flexibility Inertia Design Space Quantitative
Central elements (nuts & bolts, general ideas, components...) define design spaces More peripheral elements have more the character of being designs in design spaces Sociotechnical systems are thereby flexible and inert at the same time The innovation society generates a profusion of innovation: but not ANY innovation! Notably: it is incapable of mopping up all the negative side effects of the profusion of innovations that it causes! The innovation society is entrenched: it is part of a design space within which we devise our solutions
the Core – things at the side that cover for things that it cannot really deal with... (social innovation?) Substrate: A ”soup” of Minor Regimes that survive in important but marginal niches... Where they are refined. The Prodromal Phase may be mistaken as a gradual accumulation of the New Core – it is not! We rely on the Core – changing it generates destructive cascades. But the substrate undermines it... Prodromal Bootstrapping Entrenchment Old Core New Core
transition... 1) A Substrate of refined Minor Regimes that provide the embryo of an alternative 2) A destabilized Old Core: by the Substrate, by an accumulation of negative by-effects of its innovations, by external events... Prodromal Bootstrapping Entrenchment Old Core New Core
no longer sets the pace! Innovation reaches the Core – to a large extent by building upon the Substrate of Minor Regimes... But also by re-organizing fragments of the Old Core into new roles! Cascades of profound innovation on a level that constructs new major design spaces Prodromal Bootstrapping Entrenchment Old Core New Core