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インターネットの技術とガバナンス / Internet Technology and Governance

インターネットの技術とガバナンス / Internet Technology and Governance

2021年6月7日、早稲田大学 大学院経営管理研究科の「フィンテック ─ 金融革新とインターネット (2021夏)」第2-3回にて使用したスライドです。

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Kenji Saito
PRO

June 07, 2021
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  1. — 2021 2-3 (WBS) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 –

    p.1/59
  2. https://speakerdeck.com/ks91 — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.2/59

  3. ( ) 1 5 31 • 2 6 7 (1)

    3 6 7 (2) 4 6 14 (1) 5 6 14 (2) 6 6 21 (1) 7 6 21 (2) 8 6 28 ( ) (1) 9 6 28 ( ) (2) 10 7 5 (1) 11 7 5 (2) 12 7 12 (1) 13 7 12 (2) 14 7 19 (1) 15 7 19 (2) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.3/59
  4. 1. 2. 3. 4. : 5. — 2021 2-3 —

    2021-06-07 – p.4/59
  5. 1. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.5/59

  6. 1. (1) (2) 2021 6 3 ( ) 23:59 JST

    ( ) Waseda Moodle — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.6/59
  7. . . . . . . 23 19 (6/4( )

    15:30 ) ( ) 20 (1990 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.7/59
  8. (tetrad) ( ) ( ) (= ) 4 . .

    . ? . . . ? . . . ? . . . ? – — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.8/59
  9. ڧԽ ਰୀ ճ෮ ൓స ॏཁ͕ͩݟམͱ͞Ε͕ͪͳޮՌ ਰୀʹΑΓ෮׆ ൓సʹΑΓਰୀ σʔλૄ௨σʔλอଘσʔλܭࢉɾॲཧ ࣮ମͷফࣦ ΫϩʔζυͳίϛϡχςΟϞϊͷҠಈ

    ࢿຊओٛͷऑऀ ݸਓ৘ใͷੈք؂ࢹࣾձαΠόʔ൜ࡑ ɾ৘ใͷྲྀ௨εϐʔυɾ৘ใൃ͢Δࣗ༝ɺΞΫηε͢Δࣗ༝ ɾ৘ใΛѻ͏ͨΊʹඞཁͱͳΔ৽͍ٕ͠ज़ɾ෼ݖɺ෼ࢄʢओମͷ਺ɺओݖͷ਺͕૿͑ͨʣ ɾ৘ใΛѻ͏ϑΟʔϧυͷ૑Δ૑࡞׆ಈɾදݱํ๏ɺදݱͰ͖Δ৔ॴͷ਺ ɾݱ෺ʹΑΔه࿥ഔମʢࢴʣ ɾಛݖɺಠ઎͕؇͘ͳΓͭͭ͋Δ࢓૊Έ ɾ෺తʹ͍ۙͱऔಘͰ͖͍ͯͨ৘ใྔʢᄿ֮ɺ৮֮ʣ ௚઀ͷίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ ʢچੈلʹߦΘΕ͍ͯͨޱ಄఻ঝ‎จࣈʹΑΔه࿥‎ ॠ࣌ʹՄೳͱͳͬͨిࢠతίϛϡχέʔγϣϯʣ ɾແҠಈɺແ઀৮ɾݸਓؒͷোน͕ͳ͘ͳΔɺڥ͕ͳ͘ͳΔɺϓϥΠόγʔ͕ͳ͘ͳΔ ɾਓؒಉ࢜ͷឺͷ࠶ߏஙʢ৘ใͷ஌Γ͗͢஌ΒΕ͗͢΋গʑ৺഑ʹͳΔΑ͏ͳؾ͕͠·͢ʣ ɾݸͷදݱɺ ɹɾڑ཭ͷ੍໿Λແ͘͢ ɾ෼அɾଟۃԽɺ ɹɾεϚϗ *05ʢ͢΂͕ͯΠϯλʔωοτʹͭͳ͕Δʣ ɾݸͷೳྗʢὃ͞Εͳ͍ɺऔࣺબ୒Λࣗ෼Ͱ͢Δྗʣ ɺ ɹɾࣗ༝ͳܨ͕Γ ɾݖҖʢίϯτϩʔϧ͞Εͨ΋ͷʣ ɹ&Yɿࡶࢽ౳ͰߍӾ͞Εͨ΋ͷɹ㱺ɹݸਓͰॻ͘ϒϩά΍ 4/4 ɾίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͷػձͱස౓ɾ৘ใͷऔಘɺڞ༗ʢ֨ࠩੋਖ਼ʣ ɾ࢈ۀʹ͓͚Δੜ࢈ੑɾޮ཰ੑͷ޲্ ɾ৘ใͷ൙ཞʢϑΣΠΫχϡʔεؚΉʣ ɾαΠόʔςϩɾ൜ࡑɺԌ্ɾࣾձతͳ෼அ ɾͲ͜Ͱ΋ಇ͚Δ؀ڥʢࡏ୐ۈ຿౳ʣ ɾϑϦʔϥϯεʢݸਓͷೳྗ࣍ୈͷੈքʣ ɾ஍ํҠసʢͷՄೳੑʣ ɾϞϊͷՁ஋ɺॴ༗͢Δ͜ͱɾେ౎ࢢू໿ɺதԝूݖతϏδωεɾ'BDFUPʵ'BDF ͷػձɾՁ஋ ɾࣗ෼ʢΠϯλʔωοτΛհͯ͠ɺ஌ࣝɺߦಈɺ࣌ؒͳͲॾ੍໿΍ݶք͔Βղ์͞Εͯɺ ɹࣗ෼͚ͩͰͰ͖ͳ͔ͬͨ͜ͱ͕ͲΜͲΜͰ͖͍ͯΔͱײ͡·ͤΜ͔ɻ ʣ ɾॠؒʢੲ͸ɺҰॠͷײಈΛࣗ෼͚ͩͰ͔͠ײ͡ΒΕͳ͔ͬͨ͜ͱ͕ɺ ɹ୭΋͕ମݧͨ͜͠ͱΛɺ୭͔ͱڞ༗͍ͯ͠Δɻ·ͨͦΕΛ൓ᢸ͍ͯ͠Δʣ ௒ೳྗతͳ΋ͷʢ̑(ɾ̒( ͷઌʹ͸೴ʹ௨৴ػثΛຒΊࠐΉҎ֎ʹͳ͍ɻ ໨ΛͭΉΓ໧ͬͨ··୭͔ͱʮձ࿩ʯ͢Δੈքɻ ʣ ຊɺ૝૾ྗʢͲͪΒ΋ɺ݁࿦Λάʔάϧઌੜ͕ҰܸͰڭ͑ͯ͘ΕΔɻ ʣ ɾ৘ใΞΫηείετ͕Լ͕Δ ɹ ʢ࣌ؒతʹ΋ڑ཭తʹ΋ʣ ɾిྗʹཔͬͨߏ଄ ɹ ʢిྗ͕ͳ͚Ε͹੒ཱ͠ͳ͍ߏ଄ɾ؀ڥෛՙʣ ɾݴ࿦ͷຽओԽ ɹ ʢ5XJUUFS ͳͲʹΑΔʣ ɾ৽ฉɺࡶࢽͳͲͷࢴϝσΟΞɺҹ࡮ձࣾ ɾࢴฎٴͼ՟ฎɺ௨ாʢΩϟογϡϨεԽʣ ৘ใ؅ཧʢੈքதͷ৘ใू໿ʣ ɺ৘ใ΁ͷΞΫηεͷ؆ศԽɺ৘ใަ׵ͷ׆ൃԽɺखஈͷ૿Ճ ϖʔύʔ࡞ۀɺϋʔυίϐʔͷॻ੶ ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ৔ͷ૑ग़ɺ ো֕ऀͷಇ͘৔ͷఏڙ ωοτ্Ͱਓ΍Ϟϊʹܨ͕Γ͗ͨ࣌͢ɺ ϦΞϧͳݱ࣮ࣾձͰͷίϛϡχέʔγϣϯΛٻΊΔΑ͏ʹͳΔ ˔࣌ؒ  ৔ॴΛબ͹ͣʹ৘ใऩू  ҙࢥܾఆ  ׆ಈ͕Մೳ ˔ਓʑͷࣗΒௐ΂Δೳྗɺ ˔ॻ੶  ֶߍڭҭͷඞཁੑɺ ˔ݴޠΛֶͿҙཉ  ݴޠೳྗ ˔ֶྺ  ֶߍڭҭʹΑΔ৘ใ֨ࠩͷݮগɺ ˔͓ۚΛֻ͚ͣʹҰൠڭཆ  ஌ࣝΛ޿͘ઙֶ͘Ϳ͜ͱ͕Մೳ ˔Πϯλʔωοτ࢖༻Մೳऀ  ෆՄೳऀؒͷ৘ใ͕֨ࠩੜ·Εͯ͠·͏͜ͱɺ ˔ָఱ -JOF ͳͲΠϯλʔωοτΛར༻ͨ͠ϓϥοτϑΥʔϚʕͷग़ݱ ৘ใ֦ࢄൣғ֦େɺ৘ใ఻ୡεϐʔυ޲্ɺ৘ใड৴ྔ૿Ճɺ ݕࡧೳྗɾޮ཰্ঢɺಗ໊Ͱͷ৘ใൃ৴ɾड৴ ࢴഔମʹΑΔ৘ใ఻ୡɺϦΞϧͰͷަྲྀɺࡋఆऔҾػձʢ৘ใͷඇରশੑʣ ɺϓϥΠόγʔ ৘ใ֨ࠩͷগͳ͍ࣾձ ৘ใड৴ɾൃ৴΁ͷґଘɺ ӡಈෆ଍ɺҠಈɾ࣮෺Λඞཁͱ͠ͳ͍ੈք ɾ ʢ৘ใͷʣ֦ࢄྗɺڞ༗ྗɻɾΑ͘ଟ͘ͷਓͱΑΓૣ͘ɺΑΓ؆୯ʹɻ ɾݟ͑ͳ͔ͬͨ΋ͷΛݟ͑ΔΑ͏ʹɻ ʢݸਓͷݟ͑ͳ͔ͬͨߟ͑Λൃ৴͢Δ 4/4ɾϒϩάɺݸਓͷৄࡉͳߦಈཤྺʣ ɾࢴ΍ςϨϏͳͲͷ͜Ε·Ͱͷ৘ใͷڞ༗఻ୡखஈɾϓϥΠόγʔ ɾlࠃz ͳͲैདྷͷ࿮૊Έɾ՟ฎ ɾϦΞϧͳίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ ɾ৘ใͷ໨ར͖ྗʢ৘ใͷւ͔Β৘ใΛऔΔྗɻ৘ใΛऔΓ͗͢ͳ͍ʣ ɾϥδΦ ɾͭͳ͕Βͳ͍ࣗ༝ɾ؅ཧࣾձɾωοτ൜ࡑɾԌ্ εϐʔυɺڑ཭͕ͳ͘ͳͬͨɺΩϟογϡϨεɺ ࢴϨεɺωοτ༻ޠɺϏοΫσʔλ खࢴɺ'"9ɺݻఆి࿩ɺςϨϏɺ؆୯ͳख࡞ۀɺࢴྨ෺ ຊɺࡶࢽɺࢴฎ౳ ɺݴ༿ ੡଄ۀɺ࣮ళฮ ਓؾళɺϑΝγϣϯɾγϣοϓ ܭࢉೳྗɺ૝૾ྗɺσΟβΠϯྗɺ σʔληϯλʔɺిྗࢪઃ ৘ใॲཧεϐʔυɺ৘ใऩूྗɾ֦ࢄྗɺҰݩ؅ཧ ࢴഔମɺςϨϏɺ࣮ళฮ ݸਓؒωοτϫʔΫ ݸਓ৴༻είΞɺγΣΞɺϑΝϯ ɾ৘ใΞΫηε ɾ࿈བྷखஈͷଟ༷Խ ɹ ʢϝʔϧɺి࿩ɺνϟοτͳͲʣ ɾՋͭͿ͠ɻޘָɾه࿥ɾ؅ཧ ɾి࿩ɺखࢴɾϓϥΠόγʔ ɾචه༻۩ɾ৘ใͷඇରশੑ ɾݱ࣮ͷ৔ॴɾҐஔͱ͍͏֓೦ ɾਓؒؔ܎ɾࣗ෼ʹͱͬͯ౎߹ͷ͍͍΋ͷ΍ਓͱ͔ؔ͠ΘΒͳ͍ʢଜࣾձʣ ɾεϐʔυײ ɾ৘ใऑऀͱڧऀͷ֨ࠩɾԾ૝ݱ࣮ɺԾ૝௨՟ ɾ"*ɾαΠόʔ൜ࡑɾ)'5ɺΞϧΰϦζϜ ɾωοτϫʔΫίϛϡχςΟ ɾ৘ใ఻ୡεϐʔυ ɾൃ৴ྗɾάϩʔόϧԽ ɾਖ਼͍͠৘ใͷऩू ɾिץࢽɺ৽ฉ ɾखॻ͖ɺखࢴɺख࡞ۀ ɾϦΞϧίϛϡχςΟ ɾ஍ํҠॅ ɾ৘ใ౷੍ ɾαΠόʔηΩϡϦςΟ ɾ؂ࢹࣾձ ΑΓ࿈བྷ͕ૣ͘ͳΔ ৘ใͷඇରশੑ͕ݮগ͢Δ ϑΝΠϧͷ΍ΓऔΓ͕ૣ͘ͳΔ ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯૣ͍ ݸਓ৘ใͷྲྀग़ ϑΟογϯά࠮ٗ 4/4 Πδϝ खࢴ ి࿩ ਤॻؗ ඦՊࣄయ إ߹Θͤͨίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ ෆಛఆଟ਺ͱͷ࿈བྷ ͓ݟ߹͍ ৘ใͷྲྀ௨ ඼࣭ɾՁ֨ڝ૪ ௚઀औҾ ҟछίϛϡχςΟ ୯ҰίϛϡχςΟʢֶൊɾϩʔΧϧʣ རݖɺओैߏ଄ ઐ໳ੑ ैདྷܕͷ൜ࡑ ߏ଄త֨ࠩ ෺ཧతͳྲྀ௨໢ɹθωϥϦετ จষɹදݱͷࣗ༝ αΠόʔ൜ࡑ ࢥ૝ͷ୯ҰԽʢ෼அʣ ೳྗత֨ࠩ Ӭଓతͳ؇͍ܨ͕Γ ɾΑΓ଎͘ҙࢥૄ௨ɹɾΑΓԕ͘΁ҙࢥૄ௨ ɾઐ໳஌ࣝ΁ͷΞΫηε ৘ใྔͷଟ͞ ɾ஍ཧతͳ੍໿ഉআ Ͳ͜Ͱ΋ಉ͡஌ࣝɾ৘ใ΁ΞΫηεɺ஍ํͰ࢓ࣄ΋Մೳ ɾਓͷೳྗ هԱ΍ߟ͑Δྗ ɾαΠόʔ൜ࡑϦεΫ શࣗಈͰ੍ޚ͞Ε͍ͯΔγεςϜ͕ςϩʹ߹͏Մೳੑ΍ݸਓͷ৘ใ͕࿙ΕΔϦεΫ ɾ౎ࢢͷډॅۭؒ ɾֶߍɺձࣾΦϑΟε ɾࢴഔମ खࢴɺॻྨɺ͓ۚ౳ ɾݹ͍ه࿥ϝσΟΞ 7)4 $% %7% #% ϑϩοϐʔ ɾՙ෺ݮগ ɾϓϥΠϕʔτۭؒͷҡ࣋ ɾ஍ҬʹറΒΕͳ͍ϦΞϧλΠϜͰͷ৘ใڞ༗ɻ ɾίϛϡχέʔγϣϯίετͷ௿Լɻ ɾΦϑΟεɺ௨ۈ ɾ3FDPNNFOEBUJPO Ͱ͸ͳ͍ۮൃੑ ɾډॅબ୒ͷ੍໿৚݅ͷ؇࿨ ɾ஍ํͷ஍Ҭࢿݯͷ׆༻ ɾ஍ҬʹറΒΕͳ͍׆ಈ ɾࢿۚௐୡखஈͷଟ༷Խ . . . ^^; — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.9/59
  10. : End-to-End, GAFA — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.10/59

  11. M ⇒ — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.11/59

  12. K e-sports Wiifit e-sports VR ⇒ VR ( ) —

    2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.12/59
  13. 2. ← TCP/IP — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.13/59

  14. 1 : ( ) (65 (0x41)) (97 (0x61)) ASCII (American

    Standard Code for Information Interchange) 32 (0x20) 2 : CD ( ) ← CD 44.1kHz 16bit — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.14/59
  15. → USB USB (Universal Serial Bus) (bus) → → →

    — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.15/59
  16. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.16/59

  17. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.17/59

  18. photo by nikoretro — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.18/59

  19. Communication 1. The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as

    by speech, signals, writing, or behavior 2. Interpersonal rapport — “The American Heritage Dictionary” . . . — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.19/59
  20. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.20/59

  21. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.21/59

  22. Photo by SLU Madrid Campus — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07

    – p.22/59
  23. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.23/59

  24. Protocol 1. the official procedure or system of rules governing

    affairs of state or diplomatic occasions 2. the original draft of a diplomatic document, especially of the terms of a treaty agreed to in conference and signed by the parties 3. a formal or official record of scientific experimental observations 4. Computing a set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices — “Oxford Dictionary of English” — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.24/59
  25. OSI OSI : Open Systems Interconnection — 2021 2-3 —

    2021-06-07 – p.25/59
  26. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.26/59

  27. Network 2. a group or system of interconnected people or

    things a complex system of railways, roads, or other routes: the railway network a group of people who exchange information and contacts for professional or social purposes: a support network . . . a number of interconnected computers, machines, or operations: a computer network . . . — “Oxford Dictionary of English” — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.27/59
  28. ×× — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.28/59

  29. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.29/59

  30. TCP/IP — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.30/59

  31. TCP/IP — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.31/59

  32. IP ← TCP — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.32/59

  33. TCP/IP ( ) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.33/59

  34. Story of Students Sending Scrolls (1/3) Background — Waseda and

    Keio Univ. Two among the best private universities in Japan These two universities are known for their rivalry and matches in baseball and other sports known as “ ” (first characters of Waseda, Keio and match), although Keio students would often call it “ ” ;) For undergraduates, classes may have to be cancelled for students to go cheer on the baseball team Story The head of the Keio cheerleading squad sends a letter of challenge in the form of a traditional scroll to the head of Waseda’s cheerleading squad It is a very long scroll that has to be untied from Keio’s Mita campus, slipped into Mita Station on the Mita Line, and then slipped out from Waseda Station on the Tozai Line to reach the Waseda campus so that the head of Waseda’s cheerleading squad can read it This is a metaphor of stream communication over the Internet as we do it via Zoom at the class Two ways TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) . . . Don’t miss reading every word of it (e.g. browsing a web page) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) . . . Well, it’s a long scroll, and it’s okay if it’s missing parts (e.g. Zoom) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.34/59
  35. Story of Students Sending Scrolls (2/3) Story – continued Either

    way, inside the entrance of Mita Station, there is a photocopier, which copies just part of the scroll at a time, and students pass through the ticket gate with one fragment each in their hand Each fragment is sequentially numbered from the top of the scroll Students are not familiar with the railway network, and when they ask the station staff how to get to Waseda, they are told to go to Otemachi, so they do Students ask again at Otemachi Station (router), and are told to change to the Tozai Line When they arrive at Waseda Station, a student operates a scanner/printer before the exit, scanning the fragments in numerical order and outputting a long scroll on the printer, and students pull it to the Waseda campus Now, some students may get lost on the way What would you do? — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.35/59
  36. Story of Students Sending Scrolls (3/3) Story – still continued

    TCP Students pick up their receipts (with fragment #) at Waseda Station and take them back to Mita Station At Mita Station, if a receipt is not returned, it is assumed that the fragment was not delivered, and another student is sent out with the fragment UDP Why do we care if some students are lost? (They are grown up, and we are certain that they will make it to their home) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.36/59
  37. IP — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.37/59

  38. (centralized) (decentralized) (distributed) Paul Baran, “On Distributed Communications Networks”, 1964

    — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.38/59
  39. ( ) RFC 1149 (A Standard for the Transmission of

    IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers) IP over Everything — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.39/59
  40. IP — Wikipedia — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.40/59

  41. (1) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.41/59

  42. (2) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.42/59

  43. IP IP router IPv4 (version 4) 32-bit IP IPv6 (version

    6) 128-bit IP — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.43/59
  44. 3. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.44/59

  45. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.45/59

  46. (roundabout; ) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.46/59

  47. ISOC (Internet Society) IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) ICANN (Internet

    Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) ASO (The Address Supporting Organization) GNSO (Generic Names Supporting Organization) ccNSO (Country Code Names Supporting Organization) IGF (Internet Governance Forum) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.47/59
  48. IETF IETF — IETF — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 –

    p.48/59
  49. IETF ( ) — David Clark — Jon Postel —

    2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.49/59
  50. . . . — 1999-07-07 From “DOCUMENT LIFE a ryuichi

    sakamoto opera 1999” — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.50/59
  51. . . . (alternatives) — Robert Elliot Kahn, 2004-11 (

    ) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.51/59
  52. 10 (1) (2) ( ) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

    (8) (9) End-to-End (10) ( ) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.52/59
  53. — (1) (2) (3) (4) / . . . —

    2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.53/59
  54. — — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.54/59

  55. (e-mail) (EV) ← (e-publishing) ← WWW (e-money) ← (e-government) —

    2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.55/59
  56. 4. : = — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.56/59

  57. 5. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.57/59

  58. 2. API Pay API (Application Programming Interface) 2021 6 10

    ( ) 23:59 JST Waseda Moodle (Discord ) — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.58/59
  59. — 2021 2-3 — 2021-06-07 – p.59/59