Benedict is written, including need for work to be self- sufficient, and to give hospitality to travellers • 750: Charlemagne promotes monastery brewing • 1098: The Cistercian Order is founded - they go on to establish themselves at Orval, Rochefort, and La Trapp (hence Trappists) • 1790: The French revolutionary government suspends monastic brewing and confiscates their property. Monks flee France to go to America, but stop to brew beer in (what is now) Belgium and more or less decide to stay • 1919: The Belgian government bans the sale of spirits in bars, thus creating a demand for strong beers. The monks oblige • Over the next 71 years, the Belgians create the best beers in the world • 1990: Unibroue in Canada, followed by New Belgium and Celis in the USA, start selling Belgian-style beer in North America. This introduces these styles to home brewers, who do what Americans always do: reinvent the beer using completely different, often outrageous, frequently ridiculous, but sometimes inspired ingredients and methods
most Belgian ales. They are not masked with heavy hopping YOU CAN”T HIDE BEHIND THE HOPS • Factors that produce “good” yeast aromas & flavours also produce “bad” aromas & flavours. This is why brewing good Belgian beer places more of an emphasis on great fermentation than for beers with more neutral yeast • Temperature during primary fermentation can range from 15C-27C, though typically tops out around 23C. – Belgian yeasts can crash if the temperature is too high and is suddenly cooled. Brewing in summer this can be a problem, especially with very vigorous fermentations at higher temps, which will raise the temp even more • Trick is achieving the best fermentation temperature profile for the yeast and beer style/characteristics you're aiming for.
The Good – High alcohol tolerance – High attenuation – Esters: Fruity aromas, Citrus, Pinnapple, Banana* – Phenols: Pepper, Spiciness, Cloves* • The Bad – Esters: ethyl acetate (solventy), isolamyl acetate (banana) – Fusel alchohols • The “Ugly” – Cloudiness due to low flocculation, protein haze
introduces funk/barnyard aromas to beer – Can dominate if not careful – Extremely high attenuation: caution – Different strains of Brett with different characteristics • Lacto: Some degree of sourness is sometimes present in Wit beers, due to....
• Mainly pilsner malt, with a little Vienna or Munich and sometimes wheat • Pale, golden and sometimes cloudy • Often more hopped than other Belgians • Also use of “local” herbs and spices • Sourness and acidity in some examples • Fruity, citrusy aroma, fruity taste, moderate spiciness • Moderate hop bitterness – more so than other Belgians
Calais region • “Beer that's been kept” • Strong ale (avg. %6.5) • Can be pale, amber, brown or dark • Aged in barrels prior to bottling • Original version made by Brasserie Duyck now called Jenlain, an amber beer • Unlike many Belgian beers, yeast is fairly neutal/discrete • Medium hoppiness, little hop flavour: Malt dominates