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Blue turns green! Approaches and technologies for sustainable K8s clusters. #KCDMunich

Blue turns green! Approaches and technologies for sustainable K8s clusters. #KCDMunich

The cloud already has a larger CO2 footprint than the worldwide aviation industry. With increasing digitalization and cloudification this trend will continue if we don't do anything about it. Many Kubernetes installations are greatly oversized in terms of the resources actually required and thus contribute unnecessarily to global warming. What is the energy balance of your cluster and its workloads?

In this session we will discuss approaches and technologies that help to make K8s clusters green(er). First of all, transparency is needed: what is the energy balance of the cluster and its workloads? Only then we can start to optimize for better energy efficiency. And it's not that difficult, so let's get started!

M.-Leander Reimer

July 18, 2023

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  1. SPONSORS Speaker: Mario-Leander Reimer Company: QAware GmbH Blue turns green!

    Approaches and technologies for sustainable K8s clusters.
  2. Energy Sources and CO2 Emissions Worldwide QAware | 6 Coal

    Oil Gas Nuclear Water Wind, Solar https://app.electricitymaps.com/map
  3. 8 QAware Sustainable Software Design, Implementation and Operation of software

    limited energy consumption and minimal impact on the environment https://www.greenmanifesto.de/ https://www.meetup.com/de-DE/green-software-development-manifesto/
  4. Sustainability Engineering to optimize the CO2 footprint of your K8s

    clusters and workloads 15 QAware Monitoring What is the CO2 footprint of my cluster and workloads? Measure, Measure, Measure, Act. Elasticity Oversized or underutilized resources? Infrastructure and workloads should be proportionate to actual demand. Architecture Where is the cluster running? On which hardware? Take sustainability into account when building the infrastructure. Waste Shutdown or deplete the wasted resources. Not required, redundant or forgotten environments or workloads?
  5. Business requirements and sustainability goals need to be aligned and

    reconciled. The choice of region for the cluster and workloads has a significant impact on their KPIs, including performance, cost, and carbon footprint. ▪ Ensure that the region meets the required legal regulations (e.g. GDPR) ▪ Ensure that the region supports the required services and features. – Which hardware classes are supported? – Databases? Storage? … ▪ Calculate costs for the cluster and workloads for the selected region. ▪ Test network latency between your end user locations and region! 18 QAware https://docs.aws.amazon.com/wellarchitected/latest/sustainability-pillar/sus_sus_region_a2.html AWS Graviton 2 can save up to 65% on energy consumption AWS Graviton 2 can save up to 15% on costs
  6. Workload Rightsizing with VPA and Goldilocks 20 QAware https://github.com/FairwindsOps/goldilocks apiVersion:

    "autoscaling.k8s.io/v1" kind: VerticalPodAutoscaler metadata: name: hamster-vpa spec: targetRef: apiVersion: "apps/v1" kind: Deployment name: hamster updatePolicy: # updateMode: "Auto" updateMode: "Off" resourcePolicy : containerPolicies : - containerName: '*' minAllowed: cpu: 100m memory: 50Mi maxAllowed: cpu: 1 memory: 500Mi controlledResources : ["cpu", "memory"] defined and tune requests and limits for CPU and RAM perform realistic performance tests analyse measurements of resource consumption https://github.com/kubernetes/autoscaler/tree/master/vertical-pod-autoscaler
  7. kube-green An operator to reduce CO2 footprint of your clusters

    21 QAware apiVersion: kube-green.com/v1alpha1 kind: SleepInfo metadata: name: non-working-hours spec: weekdays: "1-5" sleepAt: "18:00" wakeUpAt: "08:00" timeZone: "Europe/Rome" suspendCronJobs : true excludeRef: - apiVersion: "apps/v1" kind: Deployment name: no-sleep-deployment - matchLabels : kube-green.dev/exclude : "true" https://kube-green.dev/docs/FAQ/#how-many-co2-is-produced-by-pod
  8. Carbon-aware Scheduling with KEDA ▪ https://keda.sh ▪ KEDA is a

    Kubernetes-based event-driven and purpose oriented workload autoscaler ▪ Support for 50+ different scaler out-of-the-box, e.g. Cron, RabbitMQ, … ▪ Carbon Aware Scheduling - Kubernetes Carbon Intensity Exporter - Carbon Aware KEDA Operator 22 QAware
  9. Sustainable Computing Projects ▪ Kepler (Kubernetes-based Efficient Power Level Exporter)

    uses eBPF to probe energy related system stats and exports as Prometheus metrics. ▪ PEAKS (Power Efficiency Aware Kubernetes Scheduler) uses metrics exported by Kepler to help Kubernetes schedule to improve energy efficiency by placing Pods on optimal nodes. ▪ CLEVER (Container Level Energy-efficient VPA Recommender) uses metrics exported by Kepler to recommend Vertical Pod Autoscaler the resource profiles to improve energy efficiency by running workloads. 23 QAware https://www.sustainable-computing.io
  10. qaware.de QAware GmbH Aschauer Straße 32 81549 München Tel. +49

    89 232315-0 [email protected] twitter.com/qaware linkedin.com/company/qaware-gmbh xing.com/companies/qawaregmbh slideshare.net/qaware github.com/qaware