見積りしないスクラム/No Estimates Scrum JP

見積りしないスクラム/No Estimates Scrum JP

Regional Scrum Gathering Tokyo 2020 の資料です。

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Ikuo Suyama

January 08, 2020
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  1. 19.

    5IF)JEEFO$PTUPG&TUJNBUFTCZ$ISJT-VDJBO $03 $0% %5 &$5 1-ɹ w $PTUPGUIF3VMFͷ๏ଇͷίετ  ػೳͷ̔̌ˋ͸ίΞϢʔβʔʹͱͬͯ༗༻Ͱ͸ͳ͍

    w $PTUPG%FMBZ஗Ԇίετ  ඞཁͳػೳ͕σϦόϦ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ظؒʹൃੜ͢Δଛࣦ w %FTJHO5SBEFP⒎TઃܭτϨʔυΦϑ  ඼࣭Λ٘ਜ਼ʹͯ͠ɺࢢ৔౤ೖͷ࣌ظΛૣΊͨ৔߹ͷ௕ظίετ w &TUJNBUJPO$SFBUJPO5JNFݟੵΓ࡞੒࣌ؒ  ݟੵΓͷͨΊʹඅ΍ͨ࣌ؒ͠ w 5IF$PTUPG1BSLJOTPOT-BXύʔΩϯιϯͷ๏ଇͷίετ  ظݶ͍ͬͺ͍·Ͱ࢓ࣄΛ๲ுͤͯ͞͠·͏ ༏ઌॱҐ෇͚ ʢՁ஋ݟੵΓʣͷ໰୊ ਺஋Խ ͕Ҿ͖ى͜͢໰୊
  2. 21.

    ਺஋ԽʹΑΔ໰୊ ݟੵ΋Γ/ 4UPSZ1PJOUPS%BZ  ΛܾΊͨͱ͖ʜ / ࣮ࡍ΍ͬͯΈΔͱ ඞͣ͜Μͳײ͡Ͱ͹Βͭ͘ ʮਖ਼֬͞ʯ͸࣌ؒΛ͔͚ͯ΋্͕Βͳ͍ ਫ਼౓ͷϜϥ

    ʮೲظʯͱͯ͠ଊ͑ΒΕ ͭΑ͍ίϛοτѹྗ͕͔͔Δ ݟੵΓBTBίϛοτϝϯτ ೲظͷϜϦ ظ೔·Ͱ ࢓ࣄΛ࠷େԽͯ͠͠·͏ ύʔΩϯιϯͷ๏ଇ ࢓ࣄͷϜμ ϜϦɾϜμɾϜϥ͕ੜ·ΕΔʂ
  3. 25.

    গ͠ղ૾౓Λ্͛Δͱ ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ

    Ձ஋ͷ ݟੵΓ Ձ஋ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y ίετ ৘ใ w ϦεΫ w ઐ໳Ոͷ৘ใʢσϧϑΝΠ๏ʣ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ w ࡞Δͷʹ͍͘Β͔͔Δʁ w ࡞ΔͱͲΕ͘Β͍Ṷ͔Δʁ w ࡞Δॱ൪
  4. 26.

    গ͠ղ૾౓Λ্͛Δͱ ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ

    Ձ஋ͷ ݟੵΓ Ձ஋ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y ίετ ৘ใ w ϦεΫ w ઐ໳Ոͷ৘ใʢσϧϑΝΠ๏ʣ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ ຊηογϣϯʹ͓͚Δ ʮݟੵΓʯ ਺஋Խʹ̏.ͷࠜݯ w ࡞Δͷʹ͍͘Β͔͔Δʁ w ࡞ΔͱͲΕ͘Β͍Ṷ͔Δʁ w ࡞Δॱ൪
  5. 27.

    গ͠ղ૾౓Λ্͛Δͱ ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ

    Ձ஋ͷ ݟੵΓ Ձ஋ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y ίετ ৘ใ w ϦεΫ w ઐ໳Ոͷ৘ใʢσϧϑΝΠ๏ʣ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ ຊηογϣϯʹ͓͚Δ ʮݟੵΓʯ ਺஋Խʹ̏.ͷࠜݯ w ࡞Δͷʹ͍͘Β͔͔Δʁ w ࡞ΔͱͲΕ͘Β͍Ṷ͔Δʁ w ࡞Δॱ൪ ຊηογϣϯʹ͓͚ΔʮݟੵΓʯͷఆٛ ϑΟʔνϟΛʮن໛ʯʹม׵͢Δ࡞ۀ ٴͼ࡞ۀͷ݁Ռͱͯ͠ಘΒΕͨ਺ࣈ
  6. 28.

    ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ Ձ஋ͷ

    ݟੵΓ Ձ஋ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y ίετ ৘ใ w ϦεΫ w ઐ໳Ոͷ৘ใʢσϧϑΝΠ๏ʣ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ w ࡞Δͷʹ͍͘Β͔͔Δʁ w ࡞ΔͱͲΕ͘Β͍Ṷ͔Δʁ w ࡞Δॱ൪ ͕ͬͪ͜ඞཁʂ ਺஋Խʹ̏.ͷࠜݯ ͜ΕͰ͸ͳ͘ ඞཁͳͷ͸ʜ
  7. 29.

    ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ Ձ஋ͷ

    ݟੵΓ Ձ஋ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y ίετ ৘ใ w ϦεΫ w ઐ໳Ոͷ৘ใʢσϧϑΝΠ๏ʣ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ w ࡞Δॱ൪ ͕ͬͪ͜ඞཁʂ ਺஋Խʹ̏.ͷࠜݯ ඞཁͳͷ͸ʜ ʴҙࢥܾఆʹ Ձ஋ɺίετɺ৘ใ ͕ඞཁʂ w ࡞Δͷʹ͍͘Β͔͔Δʁ w ࡞ΔͱͲΕ͘Β͍Ṷ͔Δʁ ͜ΕͰ͸ͳ͘
  8. 30.

    ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ Ձ஋ͷ

    ݟੵΓ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y w ϦεΫ w ઐ໳Ոͷ৘ใʢσϧϑΝΠ๏ʣ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ w ࡞Δͷʹ͍͘Β͔͔Δʁ w ࡞ΔͱͲΕ͘Β͍Ṷ͔Δʁ w ࡞Δॱ൪ ਺஋Խʹ̏.ͷࠜݯ Ձ஋ ίετ ৘ใ ͜ΕΛ΍Ίͯ ͜ΕΛऔΓग़͢ʂ ๻ͨͪͷ/P&TUJNBUFT
  9. 31.

    ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ Ձ஋ͷ

    ݟੵΓ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y w ϦεΫ w ઐ໳Ոͷ৘ใʢσϧϑΝΠ๏ʣ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ w ࡞Δͷʹ͍͘Β͔͔Δʁ w ࡞ΔͱͲΕ͘Β͍Ṷ͔Δʁ w ࡞Δॱ൪ ਺஋Խʹ̏.ͷࠜݯ Ձ஋ ίετ ৘ใ ͜ΕΛ΍Ίͯ ͜ΕΛऔΓग़͢ʂ ๻ͨͪͷ/P&TUJNBUFT ཁٻ͞ΕΔػೳΛ αΠζظؒͷ਺ࣈʹม׵ͤͣɺ ҙࢥܾఆʹඞཁͳ ίετɺ৘ใɺՁ஋ ΛऔΓग़͢͜ͱ
  10. 33.

    It is significant to me that much of why we

    do estimates is that we need to make decisions: To decide something. In other words, it looks to me that what we need are decisions , not estimates. ݟੵΓΛߦ͏ཧ༝ͷେ෦෼͸ɺ ͳʹ͔ܾఆΛԼ͢ඞཁ͕͋Δͱ͍͏͜ͱͩɻ ݴ͍׵͑Δͱɺ ඞཁͳ΋ͷ͸ݟੵΓͰ͸ͳ͘ɺҙࢥܾఆͰ͋Δ Α͏ʹࢥΘΕΔɻ Š8PPEZ;VJMM8IZEPXFOFFEFTUJNBUFT
  11. 36.
  12. 37.

    㾎 ϓϩμΫτόοΫϩάΞΠςϜʹ͸ɺৄࡉɾฒͼॱɾݟੵΓɾՁ஋ͷଐੑ͕͋Δɻ 㾎 ϓϩμΫτόοΫϩάʹؚ·ΕΔΞΠςϜʹରͯ͠ɺৄࡉͷ௥ՃɺݟੵΓɺฒͼସ͑Λ͢Δ͜ͱΛɺϓ ϩμΫτόοΫϩάͷϦϑΝΠϯϝϯτͱݺͿɻ εΫϥϜͷ࡞੒෺ϓϩμΫτόοΫϩά 1#*ͷଐੑʹʮݟੵΓʯ͕ଘࡏ͢Δ ݟੵΓ͔Β औΓग़͍ͨ͠΋ͷ 㾎ະ׬੒ͷϓϩμΫτόοΫϩάΞΠςϜ͸ɺ࠶ݟੵΓΛ͔ͯ͠ΒϓϩμΫτόοΫϩάʹ໭͢ɻͦ͜ʹ

    ͔͔ͬͨ࡞ۀͷՁ஋͸ٸ଎ʹ௿Լ͢ΔͨΊɺසൟʹ࠶ݟੵΓ͕ඞཁʹͳΔɻʢ༁஫ɿ࡞Γ͔͚ͷػೳ΍ ઃܭʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɺ͕࣌ؒܦͭͱঢ়گ͕มΘͬͯ͠·͏ͨΊɺͦͷՁ஋͕ࣦΘΕͯ͠·͏͜ͱ͕ଟ͍ɻͦ͏ ͢Δͱɺ࠷ॳ͔ΒݟੵΓΛ΍Γ௚͢ඞཁ͕ग़ͯ͘Δʣ εΫϥϜΠϕϯτεϓϦϯτͷதࢭ 1#*ͷݟੵΓ͸සൟʹߋ৽͠ɺৗʹ࠷৽ͷঢ়ଶʹ͢Δ ͳͥͳΒɺ༏ઌॱҐ෇͚ͷͨΊ
  13. 40.

    w ϦϦʔεܭըͮ͘ΓͷͨΊʜ༏ઌॱҐ͚ͮ 㾎 ʮϓϩμΫτόοΫϩάΞΠςϜʹ͸ɺৄࡉɾฒͼॱɾݟੵΓɾՁ஋ͷଐੑ͕͋Δɻʯ 㾎 ʮϓϩμΫτόοΫϩάʹؚ·ΕΔΞΠςϜʹରͯ͠ɺৄࡉͷ௥ՃɺݟੵΓɺฒͼସ͑Λ͢Δʯ w εϓϦϯτܭըͮ͘ΓͷͨΊʜΩϟύγςΟ ίϛοτϝϯτ 㾎

    ʮϓϩμΫτόοΫϩά͔Βબ୒͢ΔΞΠςϜ਺ʹ͍ͭͯ͸ɺ։ൃνʔϜ͕੹೚Λ࣋ͭɻʯ 㾎 ʮ։ൃνʔϜ͸ݟੵΓʹରͯ͠੹೚Λ࣋ͭɻʯ w ਐḿ؅ཧͷͨΊʜਐḿ؅ཧ 㾎ʮεϓϦϯτͷ͍ͣΕ͔ͷ࣌఺ͰɺεϓϦϯτόοΫϩάͷ࢒࡞ۀΛ߹ܭ͢Δɻʯ ·ͱΊɿεΫϥϜʹ͓͚ΔݟੵΓ ʮ਺஋ԽͤΑʯͱ͸ॻ͍ͯͳ͍ʂ
  14. 43.
  15. 46.

    #BDLMPH 3FBEZ 5PEP %PJOH %POF 'FBUVSF" 1#*ɹ̍XFFL 1#* 1#* ɿ

    1#*" 1#*# ̍1#*Λ෼ׂ͢Δ w αΠζΛ̍εϓϦϯτ X Ҏ಺ʹ w %FpOJUJPOPG3FBEZ 1#*ɹ̍XFFL 1#* 1#* 'FBUVSF# 1#* 1#*̐ όοΫϩάϦϑΝΠϯϝϯτ ɿ
  16. 47.

    #BDLMPH 3FBEZ 5PEP %PJOH %POF 'FBUVSF" 1#* 1#* ɿ 1#*ສX

    1#*#ສX ̎ɽ$%ͷ߱ॱͰιʔτ w $PTUPG%FMBZΛݟੵΔ  Ձ஋ݟੵΓ w ظؒ͸͢΂ͯ̍िؒͱͯ͠ѻ͏  ͜ΕҎԼͷޡࠩ͸ແࢹ͢Δ 1#* 1#* 'FBUVSF# 1#*"ສX 1#*̐ສX όοΫϩάϦϑΝΠϯϝϯτ ɿ
  17. 49.

    w 1#*ͷαΠζΛ̍εϓϦϯτʢ̍8FFLʣҎ಺ʹίϯτϩʔϧ͢Δ w %FpOJUJPOPG3FBEZɻ௚ۙ̎ʙ̏εϓϦϯτҎ಺ʹ౤ೖ͢ΔՄೳੑͷ͋Δ1#*શͯʹద༻ w ʮαΠζ͕̍εϓϦϯτҎԼͰ͋Δʯ͜ͱʹ։ൃνʔϜ10Ͱ߹ҙ͢Δ w ֶͼ͕ಘΒΕΔఔ౓ʹখ͗ͣ͢͞ɺؒҧ͍ͬͯͯ΋μϝʔδ͕ઙ͍Α͏େ͖͗͢ͳ͍αΠζ w εϓϦϯτʹ౤ೖ͢Δ1#*͸͢΂ͯظؒ8FFLʢ࠷খ୯Ґʣͱͯ͠ѻ͏

    w ̍εϓϦϯτ෼ɻ͜ΕҎԼͷޡࠩΛແࢹ͢Δ w 1#*ؒʹґଘ͕Ͱ͖Δ͜ͱΛڐ༰͠ɺαΠζΛԼ͛Δ͜ͱΛ༏ઌ͢Δ w ͨͩ͠୯ମͰֶͼ͕ಘΒΕΔΑ͏όʔςΟΧϧʢػೳ͝ͱʣεϥΠε͸ࢮक w FH৽ػೳΛ࣮૷͢Δલʹɺಛఆͷۀछ޲͚ͷσϞ w ͜Ε͕೉͍͠ αΠζΛίϯτϩʔϧ͢Δ͜ͱͰɺݟੵΓʹ਺ࣈ΁ͷม׵ΛߦΘͣظؒΛऔΓग़͢ %VSBUJPO1#*ͷαΠδϯάʢ෼ׂʣݟੵΓͷ୅ସ
  18. 51.

    w ͜ͷػೳ͸௚ۙͷ࢛൒ظͰ999ສചΔʢ༧ఆʣ  8FFL஗Ԇ͢Δͱ999 8FFL .POUI ສͷଛࣦ w ͜ͷػೳ͸Ӧۀͷ࣌ؒΛO)PVS%BZઅ໿͢Δ 

    ͦͷ࣌ؒΛӦۀ׆ಈʹ౰ͯΔͱ:::ສ8FFLͷചΓ্͕͛ݟࠐ·ΕΔ  8஗Ԇ͢Δͱ:::ສͷଛࣦ ʮ͜ͷػೳͷσϦόϦ͕஗ΕΔͱɺ ୯ҐظؒʹͲΕ͚ͩͷଛࣦ͕͋Δ͔ʁʯ σϦόϦ͔ͯ͠Β௚ۙͷՁ஋Λߟ͑Ε͹ྑ͍ $PTUPG%FMBZՁ஋ݟੵΓ
  19. 53.

    #BDLMPH 3FBEZ 5PEP %PJOH %POF 'FBUVSF" 1#* 1#* ɿ 1#*ສX

    1#*#ສX 1#* 1#* 'FBUVSF# 1#*"ສX 1#*̐ສX εϓϦϯτϓϥϯχϯάʢୈҰ෦ʣ ɿ 1#*̑ສX ɿ ̏ɽաڈ࣮੷ͷ਺Λ΋ͱʹ1#*બ୒ w աڈʹ͜ͳͤͨ਺ͷฏۉΛΩϟύγςΟ w εϓϦϯτΰʔϧʹίϛοτ  ʮࠓि͸"͕Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ͢Δʯ 1#*ສX 1#*#ສX 1#*"ສX 1#*̐ສX 4QSJOU(PBM
  20. 55.

    w 1#*Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɺεϓϦϯτΰʔϧʹίϛοτ͢Δ  ྫɿʮࠓि͸999ϑΥʔϚοτͰ഑৴͕Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ͢Δʯ w 1#*ͷ਺͸ฏۉνϟϨϯδϯάʹબ୒͢Δ w ໨ඪΛߴ࣋ͭ͘ w ͨͩ͠ɺશ࣮ͯߦ͢Δ͜ͱʹͩ͜ΘΒͳ͍

    w ʢεϧʔϓοτ͕ਖ਼ن෼෍ʹै͏ͱԾఆͰ͖Δ৔߹ʣεϧʔϓοτͷฏۉΛϕϩγςΟʹ ࢖͏ͱɺͷ֬཰ͰͦΕΛԼճΔ εϓϦϯτϓϥϯχϯάʢୈҰ෦ʣίϛοτϝϯτ εϓϦϯτΰʔϧ
  21. 56.

    #BDLMPH 3FBEZ 5PEP %PJOH %POF 'FBUVSF" 1#* 1#* ɿ 1#*

    1#* 'FBUVSF# εϓϦϯτϓϥϯχϯάʢୈೋ෦ʣ ɿ 1#*̑ສX ɿ 1#*ສX 1#*#ສX 1#*"ສX 1#*̐ສX 5BTL#PBSE 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* ̐ɽλεΫͷચ͍ग़͠ w 1#*ͱಉ༷ɺݟੵΓ͠ͳ͍ w Ұ೔ҎԼͷαΠζʹ෼ׂ͠ɺޡࠩ͸ແࢹ w ͓͓·͔ʹਐΊํʹಉҙ͠ɺ͋ͱ͸Ϟϒϓϩ 4#*
  22. 57.

    w ։ൃνʔϜ͕બ୒ͨ͠1#*ͷλεΫચ͍ग़͠Λߦ͏ w 1#*ͱಉ༷ɺ4#*ͷݟੵΓΛߦΘͣɺαΠδϯάͰίϯτϩʔϧ͢Δ w λεΫͷେ͖͞͸Ұ೔ΑΓখ͍͞ɺʹ։ൃνʔϜ͕߹ҙ͍ͯ͠Δ w Ұ೔ҎԼͷޡࠩ͸ແࢹ͢Δ w ڍ͛ΒΕͨλεΫͰɺਐΊํɺํ਑ͷେ·͔ͳ߹ҙΛऔΔ

    w ͋ͱ͸ϞϒϓϩͰ࣮ࡍʹ࡞Γͳ͕ΒҙݟΛूΊΔ w σϧϑΝΠ๏͕ৗʹߦΘΕ͓ͯΓɺϓϥϯχϯάϙʔΧʔʹΑΔ৘ใͷநग़͕ෆཁ εϓϦϯτϓϥϯχϯάʢୈೋ෦ʣΩϟύγςΟ ΩϟύγςΟͷܭࢉ4#*ͷεϧʔϓοτ αΠδϯάʜݟੵΓͷ୅ସ̎
  23. 59.

    #BDLMPH 3FBEZ 5PEP %PJOH %POF 'FBUVSF" 1#* 1#* ɿ 1#*

    1#* 'FBUVSF# σΠϦʔεΫϥϜ ɿ 1#*̑ສX ɿ 1#* 1#*# 1#*" 1#*̐ 5BTL#PBSE 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* 4#* ̑ɽਐḿ֬ೝ w λεΫͷ࢒਺ͱεϓϦϯτͷ࢒೔਺Ͱ֬ೝ w ʮ͋ͱ/೔Ͱ.ݸऴΘΒͤΒΕΔ֬཰͸Կˋʁʯ
  24. 66.

    ಉ͜͡ͱΛ ಉ࣌ʹ ಉ͡৔ॴͰ ಉ͡ίϯϐϡʔλʔͰʜ On the same thing... At the

    same time... In the same place... On the same computer... —Mob Programming A Whole Team Approach" / Agile 2014, Woody Zuill ϞϒϓϩάϥϛϯάϞϒϓϩ
  25. 67.

    6OEFSTUBOEJOH$ZDMF5JNF%JTUSJCVUJPO4IBQFT5SPZ.BHFOOJTʹΑΔͱɺ w ґଘʹΑͬͯαΠΫϧλΠϜͷ෼෍ܗ͕ҟͳΔͱ͍͏Ծઆ͕͋Δ w ґଘ͕খ͍͞ɺ͋Δ͍͸ͳ͍৔߹ɺ։ൃ͕࣌ؒࢧ഑తʹͳΔͨΊɺࠨଆʹϐʔΫ͕དྷΔ ϞϒϓϩͱϦʔυλΠϜ҆ఆੑ Teams with few (or

    no) external dependencies ґଘ͕গͳ͍ɺ͋Δ͍͸ແ͍νʔϜ Tams who limit WIP (eg. kanban teams) WIP੍ݶ͕͋ΔνʔϜʢeg. Kanbanʣ Teams who do batch iterations (eg. Scrum teams) όον݁߹νʔϜʢeg. εΫϥϜʣ Teams who do large batches (waterfall) ڊେͳόον݁߹νʔϜʢeg.΢ΥʔλʔϑΥʔϧʣ
  26. 72.

    w ʮ͜ͷλεΫʹඞཁͳ࠷௿ݶͷ࡞ۀͰਐΊΔʯ͜ͱʹνʔϜશһ͕߹ҙ w ʮίʔυͷ࣭ʯΛอͭͨΊʹඞཁͳཁૉʹ΋߹ҙ  65΍ϦϑΝΫλɺ໋໊ن໿ w ࣌ؒΛຒΊͯ͠·͏ʮͩ͜ΘΓϙΠϯτʯ͸ਓʹΑͬͯҧ͏  FHʮ΋ͬͱ͜Μͳॻ͖ํͷ΄͏͕ؔ਺ܕΆ͍ʜʯ

     FHʮ΍ͬͺ͜ͷϝιουͬͪ͜ͷΫϥεͷ΄͏͕ྑ͔͔ͬͨ΋ʜʯ w νʔϜશһͷ߹ҙͰਐΜͰ͍ΔͷͰɺ໎͍͕গͳ͍ ϞϒϓϩͱύʔΩϯιϯͷ๏ଇ ෳ਺ͷ໨ʹΑΔ:"(/* ৗʹλεΫͷαΠζΛ࠷খʹ཈͑Α͏ͱ͢Δྗ͕ಇ͘
  27. 76.

    ཁٻ͞ΕΔ ϑΟʔνϟ ن໛ͷ ݟੵΓ ظؒ΁ͷ ม׵ ܭը αΠζ ظؒ Ձ஋ͷ

    ݟੵΓ Ձ஋ ༏ઌॱҐ ͚ͮ H Y ༏ઌॱҐ G Y ίετ ৘ใ w ૬ରݟੵΓ 41  w ཧ૝೔ݟੵΓ w ࡞Δॱ൪ ਺஋Խʹ̏.ͷࠜݯ ඞཁͩͬͨ΋ͷ͸ $PTUPG%FMBZ Ͱݟੵ΋Δ ϞϒϓϩͰ ΍Γͳ͕ΒूΊΔ ෼ׂͯ͠ɺ ͢΂ͯըҰతʹѻ͏
  28. 83.

    w ϨτϩεϖΫςΟϒ  νʔϜશମΛר͖ࠐΉͨΊɺ·ͣ͜ΕΛ࣮ࢪͨ͠ w εϓϦϯτϓϥϯχϯά  ࠓिͳʹ͕Ͱ͖Δ͔ʢԿΛग़ͯ͠΄͍͔͠ʣʁͷಉظ͕ඞཁͩͬͨ w όοΫϩάϦϑΝΠϯϝϯτ

     ༏ઌॱҐͷܾΊํʹಁ໌ੑ͕ඞཁͩͬͨ w σΠϦʔεΫϥϜ  ϞϒϓϩΛ࢝Ί͔ͯΒɺͦͷ೔ͷ࡞ઓΛཱͯΔͨΊࣗવͱ࢝·ͬͨ w ϨϏϡʔ  ࣗવͱɺඞཁͳਓʹϑΟʔυόοΫΛ໯͍ʹߦ͘Α͏ʹ ϏδωεΛר͖ࠐΉʙͦͯ͠εΫϥϜ΁ ௚໘ͨ͠՝୊ʹରԠ͢ΔͨΊɺεΫϥϜΠϕϯτΛঃʑʹ࣮૷
  29. 85.
  30. 97.

    #1 Reason we miss deadlines We START too late ೲظʹؒʹ߹Θͳ͍Ұ൪ͷཧ༝͸ɺ

    ࢝ΊΔͷ͕஗͗͢Δ͔Βʂ ૣ࢝͘ΊΔ Š5SPZ.BHFOOJT
  31. 98.

    w جຊ͸$%  $%͸ຊ࣭తʹ͸ʮԿΛ࢝ΊΔ͔ʯͰ͸ͳ͘ɺʮԿΛ஗ΒͤΔ͔ʯ ΛܾΊ͍ͯΔ  $%߱ॱɺͰ൑அ͢Ε͹ྑ͍ঢ়ଶʹ͓ͯ͘͠ w ૣ࢝͘ΊΔ 

    ࠷௿Ͱ΋̍εϓϦϯτͷ༨༟Λ࣋ͬͯ࢝ΊΔ z͜ΕҎ্஗ΒͤΒΕͳ͍఺zΛ༨നࠐΈͰܭࢉ͢Δ ૣ࢝͘ΊΔʹ͸ʮ஗ΒͤΔ΋ͷΛܾΊΔʯ
  32. 100.

    ݟੵΓͷෛͷଆ໘ͱՁ஋ wෛͷଆ໘ʜ਺஋ԽʹΑΔϜϦ Ϝμ Ϝϥ wՁ஋ʜܭըͮ͘Γʹඞཁͳίετ ৘ใ Ձ஋ εΫϥϜͱݟੵΓ w༏ઌॱҐ ΩϟύγςΟ

    ίϛοτϝϯτ ਐḿ؅ཧ ๻ͨͪͷʮݟੵΓ͠ͳ͍εΫϥϜʯ wαΠδϯά εϧʔϓοτ௥੻ 4DSVN7BMVFTͱ৴པ wϞϒϓϩ͕ίΞϓϩηε ݱ࣮ͱʮݟੵΓ͠ͳ͍։ൃʯ/P&TUJNBUFT w௕͍νʔϜͷ΄͏͕࢝Ί΍͍͢ wݟੵΓ͕ͳͯ͘΋ࠔͬͯͳ͍ wೲظΛकΔʹ͸ɺૣ࢝͘ΊΔ ·ͱΊ
  33. 102.

    Thank You for Your Kind Attention! UXJUUFS!NBSUJO@MPWFS@TF Thank you for

    English proof reading! Arnab Gupta, Hideaki Oshima,ɹ Cherifa Mansoura Thank you for meaningful feedback! Koichi Yoshida, Nobuaki Miura, Hiroki Konishi, Minoru Yokomichi
  34. 103.

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