Open Science Projects
I would like to do
– Michael Nielsen
Open science is the idea that scientiﬁc knowledge
of all kinds should be openly shared as early as is
practical in the discovery process.
Open Science Definitions
• Infrastructure School
Eﬀicient research depends on the available tools and applications.
• Public School
Science needs to be made accessible to the public.
• Democratic School
The access to knowledge is unequally distributed.
• Pragmatic School
Knowledge-creation could be more eﬀicient if scientists worked together.
• Measurement School
Scientific contributions today need alternative impact measurements.
Fecher & Friesike (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00026-8_2
• Our scholarly communication concepts and tools have not
properly adapted to today’s digital workflows.
• The concept of a scholarly citation is a good example:
• Thousands of citation styles that diﬀer little
• Limited standards and tools to cite data, software,
reagents, or other resources
• Confusion about formal vs. informal citations
• Restricted access to reference lists and informal citations
– Wf4Ever Research Object Model 1.0
A research object aggregates a number of resources that
are used and/or produced in a given scientiﬁc
investigation. This aggregation supports access to those
collected resources – or at least access to the
identiﬁcation of those resources.
• Can we use the concept of aggregation in research objects
to replace the traditional reference list?
• What is the equivalent of the research object manifest file
in JATS and TEI?
• Can we agree on a standard to describe the relationships
between research objects?
• Convert a large set of scholarly works to research objects
for analysis of associated resources.
Belhajjame et al. (2014) http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.4307
• The access to knowledge is unequally distributed.
• One important barrier is the cost for creating and
distributing scholarly documents.
• Tools that make document creation and distribution easier
and thus cheaper can help to increase access to
• JATS and TEI have become the de-facto XML-based
standards for scholarly documents.
• Scholarly documents are written in Microsoft Word and
• PDF remains the standard for reading scholarly documents,
although people increasingly expect HTML and ePub.
• Conversion of the author-submitted text is often manual,
slow, and expensive. Or, important document structure and
metadata are lost in the conversion.
• Can the conversion between formats be automated, or will
we always need manual intervention? And how do we
handle document versions?
• Can we develop linting tools to automate the quality
control of document conversion?
• What enhancements/standards are needed for HTML/ePub
to become an alternative to XML?
• What features are needed for Scholarly Markdown to
become an alternative writing format?
• Formal and informal collaborations are essential
components of the scholarly process.
• Despite an increasing number of digital collaboration
tools, conferences remain a mainstay of scholarly
• Presentation slides and posters are more diﬀicult to find
and access compared to journal articles and books.
• Slides and posters oﬀer a unique value compared to more
formal publications, e .g. immediacy and conciseness
• Do conceptual work for increasing the discoverability of
slides and posters, e.g. assigning persistent identifiers,
creating a discovery index, or oﬀering a repository
• Track relations between slides, posters and formal
• Investigate social media activity around conference
presentations, and correlate with later outcomes such as
• It has become more important where you publish than what you
publish. The journal article (in the right journal) is increasingly
becoming the currency for promotion and funding.
• Other research outputs are less visible, and metrics often not
• We increasingly use metrics instead of individual judgement to
evaluate researchers and research.
• One unintended consequence is that assessment is more and
more controlled by journal publishers instead of institutions or
• Discuss definitions and best practices for alternative
• Collect metrics for novel research outputs, e.g. scientific
• Investigate data quality: diﬀerences between providers
• Do conceptual model for the appropriate use of metrics to
assess individual researchers
Zahedi, Fenner & Costas (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1041821
• While the role of the journal as a filter might have become
less important, discovery of relevant scholarly content
remains a major challenge.
• While scholarly metrics are mainly used for assessment, they
can also help with the discovery of scholarly content.
• Altmetrics and usage stats are particularly relevant because
of their immediate availability.
• Little is known about the role of these metrics in the
discovery process, e.g. in distinguishing popularity from
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