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Language use shapes cultural norms: Large scale evidence from gender

4a8d62be623e1a3e3cde003a6a810c0b?s=47 mllewis
July 25, 2018

Language use shapes cultural norms: Large scale evidence from gender



July 25, 2018


  1. 0.9 1.0 1.1 Implicit psychological gender bias effect size Language

    use shapes cultural norms: Large scale evidence from gender Molly Lewis1,2 and Gary Lupyan1 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2University of Chicago No Gender Gender 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 Behavioral IAT Gender Bias (effect size) Grammar Type Behavioral IAT and Grammar Type Study 1: Gender bias across cultures What role do word co-occurrences and grammatical structure play in shaping cultural norms? Gender bias as a case study: an abstract domain,1 that is culturally transmitted and often grammatically encoded.2 Hypotheses: (1) Language as a mere reflection of speakers’ gender biases, or (2) language as one of the causes? Implicit Association Task (IAT) – behavioral measure of the strength of respondents’ implicit associations between two pairs of concepts.3 Male Female Career Family Data collected by Project Implicit4 – 663,709 participants from 48 countries (d = 1.08; M = 1.05; SD = .07). Implicit and explicit bias measures correlated (r = .15; p < .0001). Study 2: Gender bias and word meanings Study 3: Gender bias and grammar Conclusions Grammatically gendered languages show somewhat higher language gender biases, compared to languages without grammatical gender (d = .99 [-.02, 2.01]). Participants who completed IAT in countries where the dominant language has grammatical gender showed a somewhat larger gender bias on the IAT (d = 0.68 [-0.08, 1.45]). People exposed to languages that encode stronger gender biases (Study 2) and those with grammatical gender (Study 3) tend to show larger implicit gender biases on the (English) IAT. A relationship between grammatical gender and IAT hints at a causal influence: input from language structure affects IAT performance. 0.9 1.0 1.1 Implicit psychological gender bias effect size female-family Imp r = .59 −0.2 −0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 2 4 6 Explicit gender norm rating (maleness) Word embedding gender score (maleness) Explicit vs. Language−Embedding word gender bias Imp Impl r = .59 References: [1] Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought?: Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43(1), 1-22.; [2] Master, A., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Thinking in categories or along a continuum: Consequences for children’s social judgments. Child Development, 83(4), 1145-1163.; [3] Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. JPSP, 74(6), 1464.; [4] Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Harvesting implicit group attitudes and beliefs from a demonstration web site. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6(1), 101.; [5] Bojanowski, P., Grave, E., Joulin, A., & Mikolov, T. (2016). Enriching word vectors with subword information.; [6] Scott, G. G., Keitel, A., Becirspahic, M., O’Donnell, P. J., & Sereno, S. C. (2017). The Glasgow Norms: Ratings of 5,500 words on 9 scales. [7] Caliskan, A., Bryson, J. J., & Narayanan, A. (2017). Semantics derived automatically from language corpora contain human-like biases. Science, 356(6334), 183-186. 0.9 1.0 1.1 Implicit psychological gender bias effect size Implicit Psychological Gender Bias Effect Size Hindi Hungarian In English, gender bias of a word in embedding model correlated strongly with explicit gender ratings6 (r = .59; p <. 001). We then computed the linguistic analog to behavioral IAT using English word embedding models (replicating Caliskan, et al., 20177) when trained on corpora from each of the languages. Target words were translated into 20 languages by native speakers. Behavioral and language IAT measures positively correlated at the level of languages (r = .48; p = .03). We quantified gender bias in language using distributional semantic models (word- embeddings trained on Wikipedia.5) Arabic Danish German English Spanish Persian Finnish French Hebrew Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Dutch Polish Portuguese Russian Swedish Turkish Chinese 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 0.25 0.50 0.75 Language−Embedding IAT Gender Bias (effect size) Behavioral IAT Gender Bias (effect size) Behavioral and Language−Embedding IAT r = .48 Male Female Automatic gender scores from word embeddings Male Female Human produced gender ratings Word embeddings capture word genderness Predicting by-language IAT from word-embeddings Predicting by-language IAT from grammatical gender nurse butcher clean