Recipes in RxJava for Android, v.2

Recipes in RxJava for Android, v.2

Some real-life Rx recipes for Android - how to create Observables, when to use Subjects, how to control the observer lifecycle with Subscriptions, how to control multithreading etc. Presented at Droidcon Croatia, Zagreb, 2016.

There was no video, but here's a video of a presentation from a slightly different set of slides:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JrWTMqd_UUo

6f45238394f11243126f8719a5147fc1?s=128

Sasa Sekulic

April 28, 2016
Tweet

Transcript

  1. Recipes in RxJava for Android Sasa Sekulic co-author of the

    Manning book “Grokking Rx”(with Fabrizio Chignoli and Ivan Morgillo); developer of the UN-WFP ShareTheMeal app; cofounder of Alter Ego Solutions @sasa_sekulic | www.alterego.solutions
  2. UN World Food Programme - ShareTheMeal We provide food to

    schoolchildren in need – over 5.000.000 meals shared! It costs only €0.40 to feed one child for a day. www.sharethemeal.org Google Play Best of 2015, SXSW 2015 Innovation Award for New Economy Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  3. Basics of RxJava  Observer  Observable  Subscription 

    Subscriber (Observer & Subscription)  Subject (Observer & Observable) Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  4. Observable creation from any object  just(), from() – simple,

    executed immediately upon creation  create() – executed upon subscription but need to take care of contract calls  defer()/fromCallable() – simple, but executed upon subscription Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  5. Observable creation –example 1: too simple  just(), from() –

    simple, executed immediately upon creation public Observable<Boolean> exampleBlocking() { SharedPreferences prefs = context.getSharedPreferences("prefs", Context.MODE_PRIVATE); return Observable.just(prefs.getBoolean("boolean", false)); } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  6. Observable creation –example 2: too complicated  create() – executed

    upon subscription but need to take care of contract calls public Observable<Boolean> exampleTooComplicated() { SharedPreferences prefs = context.getSharedPreferences("prefs", Context.MODE_PRIVATE); return Observable.create(new Observable.OnSubscribe<Boolean>() { @Override public void call(Subscriber<? super Boolean> subscriber) { if (subscriber.isUnsubscribed()) { return; } subscriber.onNext(prefs.getBoolean("boolean", false)); if (!subscriber.isUnsubscribed()) { subscriber.onCompleted(); } } }); } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  7. Observable creation –create() isn't as easy as it looks 

    think about the unsubscription/backpressure chain Observable.create(s -> { int i = 0; while (true) { s.onNext(i++); } }).subscribe(System.out::println);  for list of many more other problems: http://akarnokd.blogspot.hu/2015/05/pitfalls-of-operator-implementations.html Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  8. Observable creation –example 3: just right  defer() – simple,

    but executed upon subscription  fromCallable() – the same, for methods that return values public Observable<Boolean> exampleJustRight() { SharedPreferences prefs = context.getSharedPreferences("prefs", Context.MODE_PRIVATE); return Observable.defer(new Func0<Observable<Boolean>>() { @Override public Observable<Boolean> call() { return Observable.just(prefs.getBoolean("boolean", false)); } }); } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  9. Observable creation –special case of from()  from(Future<? extends T>)

    – blocking, cannot unsubscribe (but you can specify timeout or Scheduler)  from(Iterable<? extends T>), from(T[]) – convert Iterable/array event into events from Iterable/array List<Boolean> list = new ArrayList<>(); Observable.just(list).subscribe(new Observer<List<Boolean>>(){ ... } //takes List<Boolean>, emits List<Boolean> Observable.from(list).subscribe(new Observer<Boolean>(){ ... } //takes List<Boolean>, emits Boolean items from the list Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  10. Observable creation –forEach() equivalent ops List<Boolean> list = new ArrayList<>();

    Observable.from(list) .map(aBoolean -> !aBoolean) //returns value .flatMap(aBoolean -> Observable.just(aBoolean.hashCode()) //returns observable<value> .toList() //or .toSortedList() .subscribe(new Observer<List<Integer>>() { ... Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  11. Subjects  they're Hot observables – the values are generated

    independently of existence of subscribers  use them to send values to Observers outside creation block  enable you to have communication between the Observer and Observable-value generator  access onNext(), onError() and onCompleted() whenever you want  single-threaded by default, don't mix threads when calling onXXX()!  for thread safety, wrap them in a SerializedSubject() or call Subject.toSerialized().onXXX() Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  12. Subjects - types  PublishSubject – doesn’t store any states,

    just sends what it receives while subscribed (you miss anything in between) – epitome of Hot observable  BehaviourSubject – remembers the last value – emptied after onCompleted()/onError() - can be initialized with a value Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  13. Subjects – types, cont'd  AsyncSubject – remembers the last

    value – after onCompleted() subscribers receive the last value and the onCompleted() event – after onError() subscribers receive just the onError() event  ReplaySubject – remembers everything but can be limited (create(int bufferCapacity), createWithSize(int size), createWithTime(long time, TimeUnit unit, final Scheduler scheduler), createWithTimeAndSize(long time, TimeUnit unit, int size, final Scheduler scheduler)) Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  14. Subjects – music player example UX Recipes in RxJava for

    Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  15. Subjects – music player example states Recipes in RxJava for

    Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  16. Subjects – music player example Observer public class MusicPlayer {

    public enum PLAYER_STATE {STOPPED, PLAYING} Observer<PLAYER_STATE> playerObserver = new Observer<PLAYER_STATE>() { @Override public void onNext(PLAYER_STATE state) { currentPlayerState = state; if (state == PLAYER_STATE.PLAYING) { startSong(); showPauseButton(); } else if (state == PLAYER_STATE.STOPPED) { stopSong(); showPlayButton(); } } ... }; } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  17. Subjects – music player example Subject public class MusicPlayer {

    PLAYER_STATE currentPlayerState = PLAYER_STATE.STOPPED; BehaviorSubject<PLAYER_STATE> playerStateSubject = BehaviorSubject.create(currentPlayerState); public MusicPlayer() { playerStateSubject.subscribe(playerObserver); } private void pressButton() { if (currentPlayerState == PLAYER_STATE.PLAYING) { playerStateSubject.onNext(PLAYER_STATE.STOPPED); } else if (currentPlayerState == PLAYER_STATE.STOPPED) { playerStateSubject.onNext(PLAYER_STATE.PLAYING); } } } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  18. Subjects – music player example optimization  We don't need

    currentPlayerState, just use playerStateSubject.getValue()  Don't expose Subject to others: when offering them for subscribing, use getObservable() public Observable<PLAYER_STATE> getPlayerStateObservable() { return playerStateSubject.asObservable(); }  Use Subscription to control Observer lifecycle! Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  19. Subscription  Subscription is a relationship between the Observer and

    the Observable public MusicPlayer() { Subscription stateSub = playerStateSubject.subscribe(playerObserver); }  Subscription is returned by the subscribe() public MusicPlayer() { Subscription stateSub = playerStateSubject //Observable .filter(state -> state == PLAYING) //Observable .map(state -> someMethod()) //Observable .subscribe(playerObserver); //Subscription }  Very simple: isUnsubscribed(), unsubscribe() Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  20. Subscription – usage  To control the lifecycle and/or release

    the resources, call it in onPause()/onStop()/onDestroy(): @Override protected void onDestroy() { super.onDestroy(); if (mPlayerSubscription != null && !mPlayerSubscription.isUnsubscribed()) { mPlayerSubscription.unsubscribe(); } } If you don't want to do null checks, initialize the subscription: Subscription mPlayerSubscription = Subscriptions.unsubscribed(); //or Subscriptions.empty(); Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  21. Subscription – usage, cont'd To prevent multiple executions/subscriptions: public MusicPlayer()

    { if (mPlayerSubscription == null || mPlayerSubscription.isUnsubscribed()) { mPlayerSubscription = playerStateSubject.subscribe(playerObserver); } }  Important: unsubscribing has no impact on the observable or other subscriptions! Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  22. CompositeSubscription – grouping Subscriptions When you need to control multiple

    subscriptions at the same time: CompositeSubscription activitySubscriptions = new CompositeSubscription(); @Override protected void onCreate() { mPlayerSub = playerStateSubject.subscribe(playerObserver); mPlayerSub2 = playerStateSubject.subscribe(playerObserver2); activitySubscriptions = new CompositeSubscriptions(mPlayerSub, mPlayerSub2); } @Override protected void onResume() { mPlayerSub3 = playerStateSubject.subscribe(playerObserver3); activitySubscriptions.add(mPlayerSub3); } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  23. CompositeSubscription – grouping Subscriptions (cont'd) When you need to control

    multiple subscriptions at the same time: removing with remove(), unsubscribing all with unsubscribe(), and clear() unsubscribes all and removes them from the CompositeSubscription: @Override protected void onPause() { mPlayerSub3 = playerStateSubject.subscribe(playerObserver3); activitySubscriptions.remove(mPlayerSub3); } @Override protected void onDestroy() { super.onDestroy(); if (activitySubscriptions.hasSubscriptions() && !activitySubscriptions.isUnsubscribed()) { activitySubscriptions.unsubscribe(); } } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  24. Subscription –control the lifecycle  Manually, on the Activity or

    Fragment level – create when you want, unsubscribe in onPause()/onStop()/onDestroy()  Automatically, on the Activity or Fragment level – use https://github.com/trello/RxLifecycle public class MainActivity extends RxAppCompatActivity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { Observable.interval(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS) .compose(this.<Long>bindUntilEvent(ActivityEvent.PAUSE)) //binds to onPause() .subscribe(onCreateObserver); } } .compose(this.<Long>bindUntilEvent(ActivityEvent.DESTROY)) //binds to onDestroy() .compose(this.<Long>bindToLifecycle()) //binds automatically to opposite method (if called from onResume() it will be bound to onPause() One very important note: RxLifecycle doesn't call unsubscribe() but calls onCompleted() instead! Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  25. Subscription – control the lifecycle (global)  Manually on the

    global, Application level – create when you want, and unsubscribe? Never, so do the transactions atomically, close the observables and unsubscribe from activities/fragments: public class SplashActivity extends AppCompatActivity { Subscription mUserSubscription = Subscriptions.empty(); @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { mUserManager.getUserObservable() .subscribe(user -> continue(), throwable -> showError(throwable)); } @Override protected void onDestroy() { if (!mUserSubscription.isUnsubscribed()) mUserSubscription.unsubscribe(); } } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  26. Subscription – control the lifecycle (global, cont'd) public UserManager ()

    { //from() will automatically call onCompleted() so no pending references Observable.from(loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .subscribe(user -> mUserSubject.onNext(user), throwable -> mUserSubject.onError(throwable)); } Observable<User> getUserObservable() { return mUserSubject.asObservable(); } }  There's no automated way to manage lifecycle on the global level! Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  27. Architecture example (bound to App context) Recipes in RxJava for

    Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  28. Manager example (bound to App context) loads a configuration, then

    loads a saved user, and propagates it: public UserManager () { public UserManager() { mConfigurationManager.getCurrentConfigObservable() .flatMap(config -> loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .subscribe(user -> mUserSubject.onNext(user), throwable -> mUserSubject.onError(throwable)); } Observable<User> getUserObservable() { return mUserSubject.asObservable(); } } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  29. Manager example - error handling  sending onError() closes the

    subscription and no more events are sent!  onError() handles ALL errors in the chain!  to prevent this, use error handling methods: – onErrorReturn() - use other value – onErrorResumeNext() - use other observable – onExceptionResumeNext() - handles Exceptions but not Throwables mConfigurationManager.getCurrentConfigObservable() .onErrorReturn(config -> Config.Empty) .flatMap(config -> loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .onErrorReturn(user -> User.Empty) .subscribe(user -> mUserSubject.onNext(user); Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  30. Manager example - splitting subscriptions  the whole of the

    chain is an Observable until the subscribe()  if you don’t use error management (onErrorReturn()/onErrorResumeNext()…), all subscriptions have to have onError()– but that is always a good idea!!! Observable<Config) configObservable = mConfigurationManager.getCurrentConfigObservable() .onErrorReturn(config -> Config.Empty); Subscription configValidSub = configObservable .filter(config -> config != null && config != Config.Empty) .flatMap(config -> loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .onErrorReturn(user -> User.Empty) .subscribe(user -> mUserSubject.onNext(user)); Subscription configInvalidSub = configObservable .filter(config -> config == null || config == Config.Empty) .subscribe(config -> Log.d("App", "config empty!"); Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  31. Manager example - reusing observable chains  if you have

    a part of the chain that repeats itself – extract it in a Transformer<T, R> () Subscription configValidUserValidSub = configObservable .filter(config -> config != null && config != Config.Empty) .flatMap(config -> loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .onErrorReturn(user -> User.Empty) .filter(user -> user != User.Empty) .subscribe(user -> mUserSubject.onNext(user)); Subscription configValidUserInalidSub = configObservable .filter(config -> config != null && config != Config.Empty) .flatMap(config -> loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .onErrorReturn(user -> User.Empty) .filter(user -> user == User.Empty) .subscribe(user -> Log.d("APP", "user empty!"); Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  32. Manager example - reusing observable chains (cont'd) Observable.Transformer<Config, User> convertConfigToUser()

    { return new Observable.Transformer<Config, User>() { @Override public Observable<User> call(Observable<Config> configObservable) { return configObservable .filter(config -> config != null && config != Config.Empty) .flatMap(config -> loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .onErrorReturn(user -> User.Empty); } }; } Subscription configValidUserValidSub = configObservable .compose(convertConfigToUser()) .filter(user -> user != User.Empty) .subscribe(user -> mUserSubject.onNext(user)); Subscription configValidUserInalidSub = configObservable .compose(convertConfigToUser()) .filter(user -> user == User.Empty) .subscribe(user -> Log.d("APP", "user empty!"); Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  33. Manager example - multithreading  RxJava is asynchronous by default,

    but not multithreaded by default!  use explicit methods to change the thread:  subscribeOn() – it changes the upstream thread (until that point)  observeOn() – it changes the downstream thread (after that point) Observable.Transformer<Config, User> convertConfigToUser() { return new Observable.Transformer<Config, User>() { @Override public Observable<User> call(Observable<Config> configObservable) { return configObservable .filter(config -> config != null && config != Config.Empty) .flatMap(config -> loadUserFromSavedPreferences()) .onErrorReturn(user -> User.Empty) .subscribeOn(Schedulers.io()) //everything up to this uses io() thread .observeOn(AndroidSchedulers.mainThread()); // everything after this // uses UI thread } }; } Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  34. Multithreading – subscribeOn vs observeOn  subscribeOn() – it changes

    the upstream thread (until that point)  observeOn() – it changes the downstream thread (after that point) Observable.fromCallable(()-> doSomething1(); //executed on IO thread //if there's no subscribeOn(), execs on calling thread ) .subscribeOn(Schedulers.io()) .filter(something -> doSomething2()) //subscribe call AND everything up to this uses io() thread .observeOn(Schedulers.computation()); //changes thread to computation! .flatMap(something -> doSomething3()) .onErrorReturn(user -> User.Empty) .subscribeOn(Schedulers.computation()) //doesn't matter!!! wasteful! .observeOn(AndroidSchedulers.mainThread()) //switches to UI thread .subscribe(result -> doSomething4()); Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  35. Manager example - multithreading (cont'd)  RxJava Scheduler:  computation()

    – bound (limited by CPU cores)  io() - unbound  immediate() – executes immediately on current thread  trampoline() – executes after finishing, on current thread  newThread() – creates new thread  from(Executor) – use custom executor  test() – uses TestScheduler with manual scheduling controls  rxandroid library: AndroidScheduler.mainThread()  Multithreading is hard, RxJava makes it easier – but it's still not easy!  do not specify the thread unless you really need to Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic
  36. Further reading/watching  https://github.com/ReactiveX/RxJava  RxJava Single discussion: https://github.com/ReactiveX/RxJava/issues/1594 

    RxJava Subscriber discussion: https://github.com/ReactiveX/RxJava/issues/792  New viewbinding library using RxJava: https://github.com/alter-ego/androidbound  ReactiveX homepage: http://reactivex.io/  Interactive marble diagrams for operators: http://www.rxmarbles.com/  Ben Christensen's talks: https://speakerdeck.com/benjchristensen/  David Karnok's Advanced RxJava blog: http://akarnokd.blogspot.hu/  Grokking Rx MEAP: http://bit.ly/grokking-rx  50% discount coupon until May 2: mlmorgillo Recipes in RxJava for Android | #GrokkingRx | @sasa_sekulic