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Census Data

Census Data

Presentation by Prof Phil Benson (Linguistics, Macquarie University)

Multilingual Sydney

July 25, 2017
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  1. Census data in sociolinguistics research Multilingualism Research Group workshop 25

    July 2017 Phil Benson – Macquarie University, Department of Linguis=cs
  2. Census data in sociolinguis/cs • Geolinguis=cs • Language demography (Clyne 2003) • Demolinguis=cs

    (Extra 2010) • Study of sociolinguis=c issues in popula=on data (survey/census)
  3. Interna=onal studies •  Europe (Extra & Yagmur 2004; Ludi 2008),

    South Africa (van der Merwe & van der Merwe 2008), Canada (De Vries 1990), United States (Veselinova & Booza, 2009) – Many countries do not have censuses – Many have censuses but do not ask language ques=ons – Australian census gives rela=vely good data
  4. Australian census studies •  Language concentra=ons in Melbourne and Sydney

    – Clyne & Kipp 1998; Clyne, Hajek & Kipp 2008 •  Language shi[ – Clyne 1991, 2003; 2011 etc; Forrest & Dandy, 2017; Karidakis & Arunachalam, 2016; Rubino, 2010
  5. Studies by census year •  1986-2001 – Clyne 1991, 2003, 2011;

    Clyne & Kipp 1998; Kipp 2008, Rubino, 2010) •  2006 – Clyne, Hajek & Kipp 2008, •  2011 – Forrest & Dandy, 2017; Karidakis & Arunachalam, 2016
  6. Australian census ques=ons •  Language ques=ons (Current language use) – Language

    other than English (LOTE) – English proficiency (Eng) •  Proxy ques=ons (Earlier language use and heritage) – Place of birth (PoB) – Parents’ place of birth (PPoB) – Ancestry (Anc)
  7. Language other than English (LOTE)

  8. Problems with the LOTE ques=on •  Ignores proficiency •  Ignores

    use outside the home, use in wri=ng •  25% of people in single person households •  Only one language can be selected •  But considered best of several alterna=ves (Clyne 2003; Extra 2010)
  9. English proficiency (Eng) 23. Reasons include ‘Difficulty with English language’

  10. Place of birth (PoB)

  11. Parents’ place of birth (PPoB) (to 1996 and 2016 -

    not 2001- 2011)
  12. Parents’ place of birth (2001-2011)

  13. Ancestry (Anc)

  14. Non-linguis=c variables •  Gender, age, year of arrival, occupa=on • 

    Educa=on level •  SES variables •  Housing variables •  Sta=s=cal areas (Levels 1-4), State/Territority (STE), Australia (AUS) – SA1 = smallest unit: 54,000 in Australia – SA2 = suburb in urban areas
  15. Language shi[ •  Language shi[ occurs when a person loses

    language x in favour of language y; intergenera=onally when descendants of a speaker of language x, lose or do not acquire it •  At the community level = % of speakers of language x on arrival (or their Australian born descendants) who do not report language x as a LOTE –  PoB is proxy for language on arrival –  PPoB/Anc is proxy for parents’/ancestors’ language on arrival
  16. Calcula=ng rates of language shi[ •  1st gen – LOTE

    + PoB (-Aus) •  2nd gen – LOTE + PoB (+Aus) + PPoB (-Aus)/Anc •  3rd+ genera=on – LOTE + PPoB (+Aus) + Anc
  17. Calcula=ng rates of intergenera=onal lanaguage shi[ •  2001-2011 – 2nd

    Gen can only be based on Anc (PPoB does not predict language) •  1996 / 2016 – 2nd Gen can also be based on PPoB (which predicts language) •  1996-2016 – 3rd+ Gen can only be based on Anc (no data on grandparents’ PoB)
  18. Findings from 2011 studies •  High levels of language shi[

    in 1st Gen and especially 2nd & 3rd Gen •  But variability according to Ancestry with rates of reten=on from 1% to 30%-70% for some groups •  Also interac=on among factors, e.g., religion; mother or father born in Australia for 2.5 Gen
  19. Changes from 2011-2016 •  Few studies have inves=gated change from

    census to census since 1996-2006; poten=al to inves=gate change from 2011-2016 •  Factors that may lead to change in rates of language shi[ – Transna=onalism – Online and social media – Community language maintenance (Oriyama 2016)
  20. References Clyne, M. (1991). Community languages: The Australian experience. Cambridge:

    Cambridge University Press. Clyne, M. (2003). Dynamics of language contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clyne, M., and Kipp, S. (1998). Language concentra=ons in metropolitan areas. People & Place, 6 (2), 50-60. Clyne, M., Hajek, J., and Kipp, S. (2008). Tale of two mul=lingual ci=es in a mul=lingual con=nent. People & Place, 16 (3), 1-8. De Vries, J. (1990). On coming to our Census: A layman's guide to demolinguis=cs. Journal of Mul?lingual and Mul?cultural Development, 11 (1-2), 57-76. Extra, G. (2010). Mapping linguis=c diversity in mul=cultural contexts: Demolinguis=c perspec=ves. In J. A. Fishman and O. Garcia (Eds.), Handbook of language and ethnic iden?ty (Second edi=on) (pp. 107-122). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Extra, G., and Yaǧmur, K. (2004). Urban mul?lingualism in Europe: Immigrant minority languages at home and school. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Forrest, J., and Dandy, J. (2017). Proficiency in English, linguis=c shi[ and ethnic capital: An intergenera=onal analysis of non-English speaking background immigrant groups in Sydney, Australia. Journal of Mul?lingual and Mul?cultural Development.
  21. References Karidakis, M., and Arunachalam, D. (2016). Shi[ in the

    use of migrant community languages in Australia. Journal of Mul?lingual and Mul?cultural Development, 37 (1), 1-22. Kipp, S. (2008). Community languages in Australia. In M. Barni and G. Extra (Eds.) Mapping linguis?c diversity in mul?cultural contexts (pp. 293-310). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Lüdi, G. (2008). Mapping immigrant languages in Switzerland. In M. Barni and G. Extra (Eds.) Mapping linguis?c diversity in mul?cultural contexts (pp. 195-215). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Oriyama, K. (2016). Community of prac=ce and family language policy: Maintaining heritage Japanese in Sydney – 10 years later. Interna?onal Mul?lingual Research Journal, 10 (4), 289-307. Rubino, A. (2010). Mul=lingualism in Australia: Reflec=ons on current and future research trends. Australian Review of Applied Linguis?cs, 33 (2), 1-21. Van der Merwe, I. J., & van der Merwe, J. H. (2008). The Linguis?c atlas of South Africa: Mapping diversity in space and =me. In M. Barni and G. Extra (Eds.) Mapping linguis?c diversity in mul?cultural contexts (pp. 265-292). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Veselinova, L. N., and Booza, J. C. (2009). Studying the mul=lingual city: A GIS- based approach. Journal of Mul?lingual and Mul?cultural Development, 30 (2), 145-165.