South Africa (van der Merwe & van der Merwe 2008), Canada (De Vries 1990), United States (Veselinova & Booza, 2009) – Many countries do not have censuses – Many have censuses but do not ask language ques=ons – Australian census gives rela=vely good data
language x in favour of language y; intergenera=onally when descendants of a speaker of language x, lose or do not acquire it • At the community level = % of speakers of language x on arrival (or their Australian born descendants) who do not report language x as a LOTE – PoB is proxy for language on arrival – PPoB/Anc is proxy for parents’/ancestors’ language on arrival
Gen can only be based on Anc (PPoB does not predict language) • 1996 / 2016 – 2nd Gen can also be based on PPoB (which predicts language) • 1996-2016 – 3rd+ Gen can only be based on Anc (no data on grandparents’ PoB)
in 1st Gen and especially 2nd & 3rd Gen • But variability according to Ancestry with rates of reten=on from 1% to 30%-70% for some groups • Also interac=on among factors, e.g., religion; mother or father born in Australia for 2.5 Gen
census to census since 1996-2006; poten=al to inves=gate change from 2011-2016 • Factors that may lead to change in rates of language shi[ – Transna=onalism – Online and social media – Community language maintenance (Oriyama 2016)
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