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Lecture 6 | Late Antiquity

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
October 19, 2013

Lecture 6 | Late Antiquity

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

October 19, 2013
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  1. Physical  and  Spiritual  Space     in  Late  An4quity  

    Reading:   Annabel  Wharton,  “Spectacularized   Jerusalem”  pp.  189-­‐233.       Range:   c.  200-­‐800  CE   Late  An-quity,  Byzan-ne,  Islam     Terms:   syncre4sm,  catacomb,  narra4ve  image,   iconic  image,  orant,  ketos,  torah  niche,   bap4stery,  chi-­‐rho,  basilica,  centrally   planned,    spolia,  Chris4anity,  Judaism,   prosely4zing,  spolia,     Monument  List:     Ark  of  the  Covenant  and  Two   Menorahs,  Jewish  Catacomb,  Villa   Torlonia,  Rome,  Late  An(quity,  3rd   century  CE.     Ceiling  with  the  Good  Shepherd,   Orants,  and  the  Story  of  Jonah,   Catacomb  of  SS.  Peter  and   Marcellinus,  Late  An(que,  e.  4th   century  CE.     Interior  of  Santa  Sabina,  (looking   northeast),  Rome,  Italy,  422-­‐432  CE.     The  Kaaba,  Mecca,  Saudi  Arabia,  c.   630  CE     Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,   691-­‐692  CE  
  2. Rome   100  CE            

                                                                  of  60  million  people   fewer  than  10,000   were  Chris4ans.   200  CE                                                                         of  60  million  people   about  200,000  were   Chris4ans.   312  CE                                                                     of  60  million  people  no   more  than  5.5  million   people  were  Chris4ans.  
  3. Menorah   Trumpets   Spoils  Relief,  Arch  of  Titus,  Rome,

     81  CE  
  4. Menorah   Menorah   Ark  of  the  Covenant   Jewish

     Catacomb,  Villa  Torlonia,  Rome,  3rd  century  CE  
  5. Jonah   Peter   Marcelinus   Good  Shepherd,  Orants,  and

     the  Story  of  Jonah,  Catacomb  of   SS.  Peter  and  Marcellinus,  Rome,  Late  3rd-­‐Early  4th  century   Narra4ve  Image  
  6. Figures  from  the  Story  of  Jonah,  Turkey  (?),  Late  Third

      Century  CE   Jonah  given  to  the  whale   Jonah  being  cast  up   Jonah  res4ng  under  the  arbor  
  7. Sarcophagus  with   Endymion,  early  3rd   Century  CE  

    Sarcophagus  with   Jonah,  c.  270  BCE   Syncre4sm  is  the  conscious  or  unconscious  adapta4on  of   images  from  one  tradi4on  to  another,  giving  the  image  a  new   meaning.  
  8. Good  Shepherd   Peter   Marcelinus   Good  Shepherd,  Orants,

     and  the  Story  of  Jonah,  Catacomb  of   SS.  Peter  and  Marcellinus,  Rome,  Late  3rd-­‐Early  4th  century   Iconic  Image   lThe  Lord  is  my  shepherd:   therefore  can  I  lack   nothing.    He  shall  feed  me   in  a  green  pasture:  and   lead  me  forth  beside  the   waters  of  comfort  […]    Yea,   though  I  walk  through  the   valley  of  the  shadow  of   death,  I  will  fear  no  evil:  for   thou  art  with  me  […]  thy   loving-­‐kindness  and  mercy   shall  follow  me  all  the  days   of  my  life:  and  I  will  dwell   in  the  house  of  the  Lord  for   ever.z  
  9. The  Good  Shepherd,  Turkey  (?),   Late  Third  Century  CE

      Hermes  Kriophoros,  Crete,  620   BCE   Syncre4sm  is  the  conscious  or  unconscious  adapta4on  of   images  from  one  tradi4on  to  another,  giving  the  image  a  new   meaning.  
  10. Peter   Marcelinus   Good  Shepherd,  Orants,  and  the  Story

     of  Jonah,  Catacomb  of   SS.  Peter  and  Marcellinus,  Rome,  Late  3rd-­‐Early  4th  century   Iconic  Image  
  11. Orant  Figure  (Jonah),   Turkey  (?),  Late  Third   Century

     CE.   Man  with  raised  arms,   Arlon,  Belgium,  c.  3rd   century  CE   Orant  Figures  
  12. Constan4ne  and  Chris4anity   “Under  this  sign,   conquer.”  

    *Constan4ne  legalizes  Chris4anity  by  signing   the  Edict  of  Milan  in  313  CE  
  13. Constan4ne  and  Chris4anity   *This  is  seen  as  a  land

     conflict  but  also  a   defense  of  the  Chris4ans  by  Constan4ne.   Licinius  also  stopped   honoring  the  Edict  of   Milan,  persecu4ng   Chris4ans  in  his  lands.  
  14. Constan4ne  and  Chris4anity   *Throughout  his  reign  Constan4ne  financially  

    supported  both  pagan  and  Chris4an  building   projects.   Constan4ne  converted   to  Chris4anity  on  his   deathbed  in  337.  
  15. Chris4anity  under  Theodosius   395  CE   Theodosius  divides  the

     Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *Theodosius  I  asserted  Chris4anity  as  the  official  religion  of   the  Roman  Empire  in  380  and  ordered  the  dismantlement   of  all  pagan  temples  and  monuments  in  391.     Theodosius  I  (379-­‐395)  
  16. Chris4anity  amer  Theodosius   395  CE   Theodosius  divides  the

     Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *The  successors  of  Theodosius  I    con4nued  to   strengthen  Chris4anity  as  a  powerful  force  in   both  the  East  and  the  West.   Honorius  I  (395-­‐423)   Byzan4ne  Empire  
  17. Church  of  Santa  Sabina,  Rome,  c.  422-­‐432.   Basilica  of

     Trajan,  Rome,  112     Church  of  Santa  Sabina,  Rome,   c.  422-­‐432.  
  18. Church  of  Santa  Sabina,  Rome,  c.  422-­‐432.   Basilica  Ulpia,

     Forum  of  Trajan,  Rome,   112-­‐117,  dedicated  117  CE.  
  19. Church  of  Santa  Sabina,  Rome,  c.  422-­‐432.   Spolia  

  20. 6-47, Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, 113-116 or after

    117 CE Originally,  a  statue  of  Trajan,  but  now  a  statue  of  St.  Peter,  the  first   Bishop  of  Rome  
  21. 6-­‐57,  Equestrian  Statue  of   Marcus  Aurelius,  Rome,  c.  

    176  CE.   ★This  statue  survives  because   Chris4ans  thought  it  depicted   Constan4ne.  
  22. Extensive  quarrying  of  the  façade.     6-­‐39,  Flavian  Amphitheater

     (Coliseum),  Rome,  72-­‐80  BCE.    
  23. ★Niches  once  held  the  statues  of  gods,  but  were  replaced

      by  saints    in  609  by  Pope  Boniface  IV.   6-­‐52,  The  Pantheon,  Rome,  c.  118-­‐125  CE.  
  24. Chris4anity  amer  Theodosius   395  CE   Theodosius  divides  the

     Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *The  successors  of  Theodosius  I  sought  to   strengthen  Chris4anity  as  a  powerful  force  in   both  the  East  and  the  West.   Honorius  I  (395-­‐423)   Byzan4ne  Empire  
  25. The  Fall  of  the  Western  Empire   395  CE  

    Theodosius  divides  the  Roman  Empire   into  Eastern  and  Western  regions.     *By  476,  all  of  Italy  was  under  the  control  of  the  Ostrogoths.   Byzan4ne  Empire   410   418   402   476  
  26. extraordinary elegance and beauty. THE CONTINUATION OF ANTIQUITY The first

    dynasty of Muslim rulers was the Umayyad line (r.661–750), who made Syria their capital province. They continued to replaced the stone and mosaics of the Mediterranean coast. To render the walls of their sprawling palaces – the Dar al Khilafa at Samarra, for example, covers 125 hectares (over 300 acres) – Abbasid artisans developed a carved and moulded style of abstract vegetal decoration with bevelled edges. This technique allowed the plaster to be released easily from the mould and was suitable for covering extensive wall surfaces. The bevelled style was also used in other architectural media, such as carved teakwood doors and shutters and stone capitals. It soon was applied to other arts, such as carved rock-crystal, and was exported throughout the empire, as far as Kairouan in North Africa and Balkh in Central Asia. 1 THE HEARTLAND OF THE UMAYYAD EMPIRE was Syria, for the founder of the dynasty, Mu`awiya, had been governor of Damascus before he seized power in 661. His successors, after consolidating their power over the next three decades, turned the region into an enormous public works project, with the construction of cities, mosques, urban palaces and enormous rural agricultural estates. The major Islamic shrines at Mecca (centre of the faith), Medina (burial place of the Prophet) and Jerusalem were transformed into major architectural ensembles. These projects were funded by the enormous booty gained from the continuing conquests of outlying areas – from North Africa to Central Asia. 30˚ 35˚ 40˚ 45˚ 50˚ 35˚ 30˚ 25˚ Medina Mecca Jabal Says Qusayr Amra Mshatta Khirbat al Minya Khirbat al Mafjar Qasr al Hayr East Qasr al Hayr West Jerusalem Amman Bosra Antioch Latakia Homs Palmyra Damascus Hama Rusafa Raqqa Hiraqla Harran (Carrhe) Ruha (Edessa) Balis Manbij (Hierapolis) Aleppo ‘Anjar (c.710) Kufa (638) Basra (638) Wasit (702) Ramla (715) Fustat (641) Alexandria Tyre Gaza Mosul Iconium Hamadan Rayy Susa Hafar Ctesiphon Qadisiya Riyadh Suez Küs Edfu Aydhab Suakin Kom Ombo Isfahan Ardabil Nile Euphrate s Tigris L.Van MEDITERRANEAN SEA R E D S E A P E R S I A N G U L F E G Y P T SYRIA A R A B I A H E J A Z P E R S I A M E S O P O T A M I A B A H R A I N N 0 0 300 miles 400 kms develop the artistic traditions of late Antiquity in such buildings as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (begun 692) and the Great Mosque of Damascus (705–15): classical structures of stone with marble columns and veneers, decorated with glittering glass mosaics. 1 Umayyad Syria and the Levant extent of Islam to 632 extent of Islam to 750 pilgrimage routes to Mecca old cities new cities, with date of foundation rural palaces/ agricultural estates centres of manuscript production site with mosaic site with stucco Umayyad mosque The  Rise  of  Islam   570:  Muhammad  is  born  in  Mecca   610:  Muhammad  becomes  the  prophet   622:  Muhammad  goes  to  Medina   630:  Muhammad  returns  to  Mecca  
  27. The  Growth  of  Islam  

  28. Five  Pillars  of  Islam   1.  There  is  only  one

     God  and  Muhammad  is  the   prophet.   2.  Prayer  must  be  performed  five  4mes  a  day   facing  Mecca.   3.  The  voluntary  payment  of  a  yearly  4the  of   1/40  (2.5%)  of  one’s  assets.   4.  Fas4ng  from  dawn  4ll  dusk  during  Ramadan.   5.  Pilgrimage  to  Mecca  at  least  once  in  one’s   life4me.  
  29. The  Growth  of  Islam  

  30. The  Hajj  

  31. The  Kaaba,  Mecca,  Saudi  Arabia,  c.  630  CE  

  32. The  Kaaba,  Mecca,  Saudi  Arabia,  c.  630  CE  

  33. The  Kaaba,  Mecca,  Saudi  Arabia,  c.  630  CE  

  34. The  Kaaba  (Kiswa  Detail),  Mecca,  Saudi   Arabia,  c.  630

     CE  
  35. The  Kaaba,  Mecca,  Saudi  Arabia,  c.  630  CE  

  36. None
  37. Tomb  of  the  Prophet  Muhammad,  Masjid  Nabawi  (The   Prophet’s

     Mosque),  Medina,  Saudi  Arabia,  c.  622  CE  
  38. Hypothe4cal  Plan  of  the  House  of  the   Prophet,  Medina,

     Saudi  Arabia,  c.  622  CE.  
  39. Masjid  Nabawi  (The  Prophet’s  Mosque),   Medina,  Saudi  Arabia.  

  40. Masjid  Nabawi  (The  Prophet’s  Mosque),   Medina,  Saudi  Arabia.  

  41. Hypostyle  Hall,  Masjid  Nabawi  (The   Prophet’s  Mosque),  Medina,  Saudi

     Arabia.  
  42. Hypostyle  Hall,  Masjid  Nabawi  (The  Prophet’s  Mosque),   Medina,  Saudi

     Arabia.  
  43. Hypostyle  Hall,  Great  Mosque  of  Cordoba,   Spain,  c.  8th-­‐10th

     Centuries.  
  44. Hypostyle  Hall,  Great  Mosque  of  Cordoba,   Spain,  c.  8th-­‐10th

     Centuries.   114 competing networks. 10˚ 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 40˚ Arezzo (1286) Castello dell’Imperatore (1215) (1224) (1283) (1292-97) (Cathedral San Lorenzo, 1245-) (1266) (1247) (1286) (1260) (1275-78) (1266-68) (13th c) (San Marco, 1280s) (1180) (1231) (1246) (1248) (1228) Tolentino Urbino San Gimignano 7 Assisi (1228-53) Todi (1296) Bologna (S Domenico, 1233; S Francesco, 1236-63) Brescia Verona (S Zeno, 1225) (1250, 1277) Trento (1200-) Castello del Buonconsiglio Bassano Venice (post-1293) Lodi Lucca Lerici Milan (1221) 8 Vercelli Parma Pisa 9 Volterra 6 Naples (S Lorenzo Maggiore, 1266-) Viterbo (1266) Anagni Castello Caetani Massa Marittima (pre-1250) Cremona (1250) Castel Nuovo Castello di Lombardia Castello Maniace Augusta Benevento Salerno Monte Cassino Castel del Monte Lucera Caserta Vecchia Barcelona (1298) (1267) Tortosa Gerona Aigues-Mortes Piacenza Valencia Granada Ávila (13th c) Évora (1186-1250) Toledo (1226) (1238) Burgos (1221) Pamplona Tudela Huesca Sigena (1204) (1250) Valladolid Montpellier (1180) (1229) Toulouse (1300) Lérida Vic (1290) Lisbon (1254) (c.1220) (c.1285) Seville (1250) Salamanca La Mota Coimbra (from 1281) Calatrava la Nueva (1212) Palencia Tarragona (from 1277) León (1255) (1203-78) Santiago de Compostela Santarém Alcobaça (from 1178) Orvieto (Cathedral, 1228-; S Domenico, 1233-64) Subiaco Perugia Siena 4 Syracuse Alhambra Genoa Córdoba Ebro Po Tagus ATLANTIC OCEAN A D R I A T I C S E A M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A P Y R E N E E S A L P S B A L E A R I C I S PORTUGAL A R A G O N C A S T I L E L E Ó N CORSICA SICILY SARDINIA (to Genoa) GASCONY (to England) K I N G D O M O F S I C I LY NAVARRE F R A N C E E M P I R E O F T H E A L M O H A D S 1 2 3 5 11 N 0 0 150 miles 200 kms 1 Rome (Sta Maria Sopra Minerva, 1280) (Sta Cecilia in Trastavere) (Curia Romana, 1244) (Sta Maria in Trastevere, 1290s; Sta Maria Maggiore, 1294; San Paolo Fuori le Mura, 1220; St John Lateran, 1291) 11 Padua (Baptistry, 13th c; Sant’Antonio, 1232-1307) 2 Florence (Santa Maria del Fiore, 1296-; Santissima Annunziata, 1250-; Sta Croce, 1252; Sta Maria Novella, 1278-) (1293) (Bapistry, 1225) 3 (S Francesco, 1255-65) 4 (Cathedral, 13th c; S Galgano, 1218-) 5 (Baptistry, 1196-1260) 6 (Cathedral, restored 13th c) 7 (San Agostino,1280) 8 (Sant’Andrea, 1219) 9 (Campo Santo, 1278) 10 (S Francesco, 1230; Cathedral San Lorenzo, 1245-) (1210) (1222) but also institutions to nurture them, as metalworking centre
  45. Qibla  Wall  and  Mihrab,  Masjid  Nabawi  (The   Prophet’s  Mosque),

     Medina,  Saudi  Arabia.  
  46. Qibla  Wall  and  Mihrab,  Great  Mosque  of  Cordoba,   Spain,

     c.  8th-­‐10th  Centuries.  
  47. 10-­‐26,  Mihrab,  Madrasa   Imami,  Isfaham,  Iran,  c.  1354.  

  48. None
  49. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  50. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  51. 10-­‐2,  Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  52. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  53. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE   Byzan4ne  Crowns

      Flourishing  Vegeta4on  
  54. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  55. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  56. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  57. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  58. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  59. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  60. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE  

  61. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE   Monastery  of

     Ste.  Foy,  Conques,  France,  11th  and  12th   Century.  
  62. Dome  of  the  Rock,  Jerusalem,  691-­‐692  CE   “And  thus

     we  have  made  you  a  just  community   that  you  will  be  witnesses  over  the  people  and   the  Messenger  will  be  a  witness  over  you.  And   We  did  not  make  the  qiblah  which  you  used  to   face  except  that  We  might  make  evident  who   would  follow  the  Messenger  from  who  would   turn  back  on  his  heels.  And  indeed,  it  is  difficult   except  for  those  whom  Allah  has  guided.  And   never  would  Allah  have  caused  you  to  lose   your  faith.  Indeed  Allah  is,  to  the  people,  Kind   and  Merciful.”