インフラエンジニアのための次世代プロトコル入門 - 
July TechFesta 2014

インフラエンジニアのための次世代プロトコル入門 - 
July TechFesta 2014

E6814d062e4214045659f01deb793859?s=128

Hirotaka Nakajima

June 22, 2014
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 )551࠷ޙʹߋ৽͞Εͨͷ͸೥લʜ
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    5$1 *1
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 ݻఆճઢˠϞόΠϧ w 8FCϖʔδͷϦιʔε਺
 গͳ͍Ϧιʔε਺ˠଟ͘ͷϦιʔεΛඞཁͱ͢Δ


    ϦΫΤετɺ,# w 8FCΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ
 ൒ೋॏˠશೋॏ ΠϯλϥΫςΟϒʹ
  11. 5IFTFTMJEFTBSFDPQZSJHIU˜)JSPUBLB/BLBKJNB3FEJTUSJCVUFBOEEJTDMPTVSFPGUIFTFTMJEFTBSFOPUQFSNJUUFEXJUIPVUQFSNJTTJPOT ,FJP6OJWFSTJUZJTMJDFOTFECZJUTDPQZSJHIUIPMEFS ஗ԆͱଳҬ෯ 11 w ஗Ԇૹ৴ݩ͔ΒѼઌʹύέοτ͕ಧͨ͘Ίͷ࣌ؒ w ଳҬ෯ΠϯλϑΣΠεͷ࠷େͷεϧʔϓοτ 'JHVSFTBSFGSPN)JHI1FSGPSNBODF#SPXTFS/FUXPSLJOH7FMPDJUZ*MZB(SJHPSJL

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    linear changes with increasing delay • Time to Click changed by roughly double the delay Distinct Queries/User Query Refinement Revenue/User Any Clicks Satisfaction Time to Click (increase in ms) 50ms - - - - - - 200ms - - - -0.3% -0.4% 500 500ms - -0.6% -1.2% -1.0% -0.9% 1200 1000ms -0.7% -0.9% -2.8% -1.9% -1.6% 1900 2000ms -1.8% -2.1% -4.3% -4.4% -3.8% 3100 - Means no statistically significant change IUUQBTTFUTFOPSFJMMZDPNFWFOU5IF6TFSBOE#VTJOFTT*NQBDUPG4FSWFS%FMBZT "EEJUJPOBM#ZUFT BOE)551$IVOLJOHJO8FC4FBSDI1SFTFOUBUJPOQQUY
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 ϢχʔΫϗετʹରͯ͠઀ଓ
 ϦΫΤετ !υϝΠϯ ઀ଓ355

    w ௚ྻॲཧ
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 ʙCZUFTฏۉతͳϔομʔαΠζ
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     CZUFT͕ॏෳ
  19. 5IFTFTMJEFTBSFDPQZSJHIU˜)JSPUBLB/BLBKJNB3FEJTUSJCVUFBOEEJTDMPTVSFPGUIFTFTMJEFTBSFOPUQFSNJUUFEXJUIPVUQFSNJTTJPOT ,FJP6OJWFSTJUZJTMJDFOTFECZJUTDPQZSJHIUIPMEFS 19 <>IUUQXXXXFCQBHFUFTUPSH 6 sessions 2 RTT

  20. 5IFTFTMJEFTBSFDPQZSJHIU˜)JSPUBLB/BLBKJNB3FEJTUSJCVUFBOEEJTDMPTVSFPGUIFTFTMJEFTBSFOPUQFSNJUUFEXJUIPVUQFSNJTTJPOT ,FJP6OJWFSTJUZJTMJDFOTFECZJUTDPQZSJHIUIPMEFS 8FCΛΊ͙Δࠇຐज़ 20 • Domain Sharding
 Hack max concurrent

    connection limit
 Cause congestion and unnecessary retransmissions • Concatenate files
 Reduce # of files and latency overhead
 Slower executions • Sprite Images
 Reduce # of files and latency overhead
 Painful for preparing concatenate images and css hack • Inline Resource
 Eliminate unnecessary request for small-size resource
 Base64 overhead (~30%)

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    ϧ w (PPHMF͕طʹ։ൃͨ͠41%:ͱݺ͹ΕΔϓϩτίϧ Λϕʔεʹٞ࿦Λߦ͏
  23. 5IFTFTMJEFTBSFDPQZSJHIU˜)JSPUBLB/BLBKJNB3FEJTUSJCVUFBOEEJTDMPTVSFPGUIFTFTMJEFTBSFOPUQFSNJUUFEXJUIPVUQFSNJTTJPOT ,FJP6OJWFSTJUZJTMJDFOTFECZJUTDPQZSJHIUIPMEFS )551ͷػೳ 23 w )551Ͱ͸)551͔ΒԼهͷػೳ͕௥Ճ w )551ϔομʔͷѹॖ w ༏ઌ౓෇͖શೋॏԽ௨৴

    w αʔό͔ΒͷϦιʔεϓογϡ w ͭͷ5$1઀ଓ
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 ϋϑϚϯූ߸ʹΑΓՄٯతͳจࣈྻͷѹॖΛߦ͏

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 ͦͷͨΊαʔό͔ΒΫϥΠΞϯτʹσʔλΛࣄલసૹ͢Δ͜ ͱ͕Մೳͱͳͬͨɻ


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 ͔͠͠αʔόͷաෛՙͷݪҼʹͳΔͨΊɺಉ࣌઀ଓ਺͕ʹ੍ݶ͞Ε͍ͯͨͨ Ί௨৴଎౓͕޲্͠ͳ͍໰୊͕ଘࡏͨ͠ɻ


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    All Middleboxes L3 Routers L2 Switches IP Firewalls App. Firewalls Wan Opt. Proxies App. Gateways VPNs Load Balancers IDS/IPS Very Large Large Medium Small Figure 1: Box plot of middlebox deployments for small (fewer than 1k hosts), medium (1k-10k hosts), large (10k-100k hosts), and very large (more than 100k hosts) enterprise networks. Y-axis is in log scale. 2.2 Complexity in Management Figure 1 also shows that middleboxes deployments are diverse. Of the eight middlebox categories we present in Figure 1, the me- dian very large network deployed seven categories of middleboxes, and the median small network deployed middleboxes from four. Our categories are coarse-grained (e.g. Application Gateways in- clude smartphone proxies and VoIP gateways), so these figures rep- resent a lower bound on the number of distinct device types in the network. Managing many heterogeneous devices requires broad expertise and consequently a large management team. Figure 3 correlates the number of middleboxes against the number of networking person- nel. Even small networks with only tens of middleboxes typically required a management team of 6-25 personnel. Thus, middlebox deployments incur substantial operational expenses in addition to hardware costs. Understanding the administrative tasks involved further illumi- nates why large administrative staffs are needed. We break down the management tasks related to middleboxes below. Upgrades and Vendor Interaction. Deploying new features in the network entails deploying new hardware infrastructure. From our Misconfig. Overload Physical/Electric Firewalls 67.3% 16.3% 16.3% Proxies 63.2% 15.7% 21.1% IDS 54.5% 11.4% 34% Table 1: Fraction of network administrators who estimated misconfiguration, overload, or physical/electrical failure as the most common cause of middlebox failure. icy goals (e.g. a HTTP application filter may block social network sites). Cloud-based deployments obviate the need for enterprise administrators to focus on the low-level mechanisms for appliance configuration and focus only on policy configuration. Training. New appliances require new training for administrators to manage them. One administrator even stated that existing train- ing and expertise was a key question in purchasing decisions: Do we have the expertise necessary to use the product, or would we have to invest significant resources to use it? Another administrator reports that a lack of training limits the ben- efits from use of middleboxes: The average very large network in our data set hosts 2850 L3 routers, and 1946 total middleboxes; the average small network in our data set hosts 7.3 L3 routers and 10.2 total middleboxes.
 • Almost same # of middle box as routers • # of MiddleBox > # of Router in Small Network 4IFSSZ +VTUJOF FUBM.BLJOHNJEEMFCPYFTTPNFPOFFMTFTQSPCMFNOFUXPSLQSPDFTTJOH BTBDMPVETFSWJDF1SPDFFEJOHTPGUIF"$.4*($0..DPOGFSFODF"$. 
  33. 5IFTFTMJEFTBSFDPQZSJHIU˜)JSPUBLB/BLBKJNB3FEJTUSJCVUFBOEEJTDMPTVSFPGUIFTFTMJEFTBSFOPUQFSNJUUFEXJUIPVUQFSNJTTJPOT ,FJP6OJWFSTJUZJTMJDFOTFECZJUTDPQZSJHIUIPMEFS 5IF*OUFSOFU 33 Switch Router Application Transport Network Datalink

    Physical Datalink Physical Network Datalink Physical Application Transport Network Datalink Physical TCP HTTP Middlebox Application Transport Network Datalink Physical • Sometimes “unknown” TCP option packet is dropped by middle box
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    “TCP alternative” • Designed to work with current internet ! • QUIC • WebRTC Data Channel • Other proposed protocols • Sprout • etc…
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    flesh out a design for a tunneling protocol, running atop UDP, which can multiplex a large number of streams between two endpoints… The eventual protocol may likely strongly resemble SCTP, using encryption strongly resembling DTLS, running atop UDP.” “Why can’t you just evolve and improve TCP under SPDY?
 - That is our goal. TCP support is built into the kernel of operating systems. Considering how slowly users around the world upgrade their OS, it is unlikely to see significant adoption of client-side TCP changes in less than 5-15 years. QUIC allows us to test and experiment with new ideas, and to get results sooner. We are hopeful that QUIC features will migrate into TCP and TLS if they prove effective.”
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  38. 5IFTFTMJEFTBSFDPQZSJHIU˜)JSPUBLB/BLBKJNB3FEJTUSJCVUFBOEEJTDMPTVSFPGUIFTFTMJEFTBSFOPUQFSNJUUFEXJUIPVUQFSNJTTJPOT ,FJP6OJWFSTJUZBOE8$MPHPBSFMJDFOTFECZJUTDPQZSJHIUIPMEFST8$-PHPJTBWBJMBCMFVOEFS8$5SBEFNBSLBOE4FSWJDFNBSL-JDFOTF Head of Line Blocking 38 • If Red

    packet is lost or delayed, • Both Green and Blue packets are also blocked • Bad performance issues
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    Connection. • Multiplexing lots of streams into 1 QUIC connection • QUIC is similar to SCTP over DTLS but not a same
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    congestion control by default • To avoid congestion, QUIC has packet pacing feature.
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    Destination R1 R2 Cellular Line WiFi Fixed Line Wireless Nodes rmnet0 192.0.2.23 wlan0 203.0.133.24 Home ISP • Every QUIC session has a Connection-ID. • Clients can resume connection using Connection-ID • No need to re-establish connection
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