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インフラエンジニアのための次世代プロトコル入門 - 
July TechFesta 2014

インフラエンジニアのための次世代プロトコル入門 - 
July TechFesta 2014

Hirotaka Nakajima

June 22, 2014
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    w ΠϯϑϥΛ࢖͏ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯ͕࠷దʹಈ͘Α͏
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    w )551

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    w ஗Ԇૹ৴ݩ͔ΒѼઌʹύέοτ͕ಧͨ͘Ίͷ࣌ؒ
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    • Strong negative impacts
    • Roughly linear changes with increasing delay
    • Time to Click changed by roughly double the delay
    Distinct
    Queries/User
    Query
    Refinement
    Revenue/User
    Any Clicks
    Satisfaction
    Time to Click
    (increase in ms)
    50ms - - - - - -
    200ms - - - -0.3% -0.4% 500
    500ms - -0.6% -1.2% -1.0% -0.9% 1200
    1000ms -0.7% -0.9% -2.8% -1.9% -1.6% 1900
    2000ms -1.8% -2.1% -4.3% -4.4% -3.8% 3100
    - Means no statistically significant change
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    w ࠷େಉ࣌઀ଓ਺

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    w ϦΫΤετ
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    <>IUUQXXXXFCQBHFUFTUPSH
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    2 RTT

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    • Domain Sharding

    Hack max concurrent connection limit

    Cause congestion and unnecessary retransmissions
    • Concatenate files

    Reduce # of files and latency overhead

    Slower executions
    • Sprite Images

    Reduce # of files and latency overhead

    Painful for preparing concatenate images and css hack
    • Inline Resource

    Eliminate unnecessary request for small-size resource

    Base64 overhead (~30%)


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    w )551͸)551Ͱ໰୊ͱͳͬͨ355 3PVOE
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    23
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    w ͭͷ5$1઀ଓ

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    w 41%:ʹ͓͚Δѹॖ
    w [MJCʹΑΔϔομʔશମͷѹॖ

    41%:Ͱ͸[MJCΛ༻͍ͯϔομʔͦͷ΋ͷΛѹॖ͢Δ͜ͱͰσʔλྔΛ࡟ݮ
    w $3*.&߈ܸ

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    ͋Δ͜ͱ͕ূ໌͞Εͨɻ͜ͷ͜ͱʹΑΓɺϔομʔΛ୯७ѹॖ͢Δ͜ͱͰ͸σʔλྔͷ࡟ݮʹ
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    w TUBUJDUBCMFͱEZOBNJDUBCMFΛ༻͍ͨදݱ

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    w ࠩ෼ͷΈΛૹ৴͢Δ

    $3*.&߈ܸͰ͸ॏෳͨ͠σʔλΛૹ৴͢Δ͜ͱͰ҉߸ڧ౓͕Լ͕Γɺσʔλ͕ղੳ
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    26
    w )551

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    w શೋॏ௨৴

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    ͜ͱ͕ՄೳͱͳΓɺ5$1௨৴Ͱ͋ΔͨΊ355ͷӨڹ͸ड͚Δ΋ͷɺ)551ʹൺ΂
    গͳ͍ӨڹͰసૹΛߦ͏͜ͱ͕Մೳͱͳͬͨ

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    w αʔόϓογϡ

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    ͱ͕Մೳͱͳͬͨɻ

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    Switch Router
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    View full-size slide

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    1
    10
    100
    1000
    10000
    100000
    All Middleboxes
    L3 Routers
    L2 Switches
    IP Firewalls
    App. Firewalls
    Wan Opt.
    Proxies
    App. Gateways
    VPNs
    Load Balancers
    IDS/IPS
    Very Large
    Large
    Medium
    Small
    Figure 1: Box plot of middlebox deployments for small (fewer than 1k hosts), medium (1k-10k hosts), large (10k-100k hosts), and
    very large (more than 100k hosts) enterprise networks. Y-axis is in log scale.
    2.2 Complexity in Management
    Figure 1 also shows that middleboxes deployments are diverse.
    Of the eight middlebox categories we present in Figure 1, the me-
    dian very large network deployed seven categories of middleboxes,
    and the median small network deployed middleboxes from four.
    Our categories are coarse-grained (e.g. Application Gateways in-
    clude smartphone proxies and VoIP gateways), so these figures rep-
    resent a lower bound on the number of distinct device types in the
    network.
    Managing many heterogeneous devices requires broad expertise
    and consequently a large management team. Figure 3 correlates the
    number of middleboxes against the number of networking person-
    nel. Even small networks with only tens of middleboxes typically
    required a management team of 6-25 personnel. Thus, middlebox
    deployments incur substantial operational expenses in addition to
    hardware costs.
    Understanding the administrative tasks involved further illumi-
    nates why large administrative staffs are needed. We break down
    the management tasks related to middleboxes below.
    Upgrades and Vendor Interaction. Deploying new features in the
    network entails deploying new hardware infrastructure. From our
    Misconfig. Overload Physical/Electric
    Firewalls 67.3% 16.3% 16.3%
    Proxies 63.2% 15.7% 21.1%
    IDS 54.5% 11.4% 34%
    Table 1: Fraction of network administrators who estimated
    misconfiguration, overload, or physical/electrical failure as the
    most common cause of middlebox failure.
    icy goals (e.g. a HTTP application filter may block social network
    sites). Cloud-based deployments obviate the need for enterprise
    administrators to focus on the low-level mechanisms for appliance
    configuration and focus only on policy configuration.
    Training. New appliances require new training for administrators
    to manage them. One administrator even stated that existing train-
    ing and expertise was a key question in purchasing decisions:
    Do we have the expertise necessary to use the product, or
    would we have to invest significant resources to use it?
    Another administrator reports that a lack of training limits the ben-
    efits from use of middleboxes:
    The average very large network in our data set hosts 2850 L3
    routers, and 1946 total middleboxes; the average small network in
    our data set hosts 7.3 L3 routers and 10.2 total middleboxes.

    • Almost same # of middle box as routers

    • # of MiddleBox > # of Router in Small Network
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    Switch Router
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    • Sometimes “unknown” TCP option packet is dropped by
    middle box

    View full-size slide

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    34
    • Below protocol is proposed as “TCP alternative”
    • Designed to work with current internet
    !
    • QUIC
    • WebRTC Data Channel
    • Other proposed protocols
    • Sprout
    • etc…

    View full-size slide

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    “The expectation is that we will flesh out a design for a tunneling protocol,
    running atop UDP, which can multiplex a large number of streams
    between two endpoints… The eventual protocol may likely strongly
    resemble SCTP, using encryption strongly resembling DTLS, running
    atop UDP.”
    “Why can’t you just evolve and improve TCP under SPDY?

    - That is our goal. TCP support is built into the kernel of operating systems.
    Considering how slowly users around the world upgrade their OS, it is
    unlikely to see significant adoption of client-side TCP changes in less than
    5-15 years. QUIC allows us to test and experiment with new ideas, and to
    get results sooner. We are hopeful that QUIC features will migrate into TCP
    and TLS if they prove effective.”

    View full-size slide

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    Head of Line Blocking
    38
    • If Red packet is lost or delayed,
    • Both Green and Blue packets are also blocked
    • Bad performance issues

    View full-size slide

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    QUIC
    39
    • QUIC = Quick UDP Internet Connection.
    • Multiplexing lots of streams into 1 QUIC connection
    • QUIC is similar to SCTP over DTLS but not a same

    View full-size slide

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    40
    • TCP handshake = 1 RTT
    • TLS handshake
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    • Reusing the connection can reduce 1 RTT
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    41
    • First time = 1RTT
    • Repeat connection = 0RTT
    • Handshake is similar to TLS Snap Start

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    Forward Error Correction
    42
    • FEC packets are periodically transmitted
    • FEC packet contains parity data of streams
    • Lost packets could be recovered by FEC packets

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    Packet Pacing
    43
    • UDP underlays QUIC, no congestion control by default
    • To avoid congestion, QUIC has packet pacing feature.

    View full-size slide

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    Multipath
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    • Every QUIC session has a Connection-ID.
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    • No need to re-establish connection

    View full-size slide

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    WebRTC
    45
    • WebRTC is standardised for P2P connection between
    browsers
    • Main use-case is video/voice call.
    • Video/Voice resources are transmitted by SRTP

    View full-size slide

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    • Data channel is also defined for P2P data connection
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    • 4 RTT for handshake
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    47
    • Difficult to make modification to current TCP
    • Protocols/hacks are proposed to speed up without
    breaking current internet or trying to reflect feedback from
    “TCP alternative” protocols.
    • Multipath TCP
    • TCP Fast Open
    • TLS Snap Start
    • FEC in TCP
    • TCP Crypto


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