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Bias is Ubiquitous

Spiro Bolos
November 19, 2021

Bias is Ubiquitous

3 strategies to introduce students to the discipline of history, including bonus content featuring Alexandra Bell's "Counternarratives" project.

Spiro Bolos

November 19, 2021
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  1. BIAS IS UBIQUITOUS 3 strategies to introduce students to the

    discipline of history Spiro Bolos, New Trier High School Jeannie Logan, Glenbrook South High School
  2. BEGINNER “Trivial Pursuits”

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  11. “bias of inclusion” “bias of exclusion” “bias of coverage (length)”

  12. INTERMEDIATE [prep]

  13. SOURCE

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  18. ART ANALYSIS Counternarratives by Alexandra Bell

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  21. “Charlottesville”, 2017

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  23. 5:15

  24. INTERMEDIATE “Secret Messages”

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  28. “bias of diction”

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  33. “bias of inclusion/exclusion” “bias of diction” “bias of voice: active

    vs. passive”
  34. Indians Fight Back. The Indians fought on and off from

    1862 to 1890. Leaders in the struggle against the encroaching Americans were the Sioux and the Cheyenne. The struggle began in 1862 when a small band of young Sioux, while searching for food, killed five whites near a reservation in Minnesota. The white farmers in the area promptly fled for their lives. Equally frightened, the Sioux split into two groups. One fled the vicinity, but the other, afraid of retaliation, decided to attack first. Hundreds of settlers were killed and their farmhouses burned before the state militia succeeded in defeating the Sioux.
  35. Indians Fight Back. The Indians fought on and off from

    1862 to 1890. Leaders in the struggle against the encroaching Americans were the Sioux and the Cheyenne. The struggle began in 1862 when a small band of young Sioux, while searching for food, killed five whites near a reservation in Minnesota. The white farmers in the area promptly fled for their lives. Equally frightened, the Sioux split into two groups. One fled the vicinity, but the other, afraid of retaliation, decided to attack first. Hundreds of settlers were killed and their farmhouses burned before the state militia succeeded in defeating the Sioux.
  36. Most of the Indians who were taken prisoner were later

    pardoned by President Lincoln, but thirty-eight were hanged “at a great hanging-bee” the day after Christmas, 1862. In 1863 the remaining Minnesota Sioux, defeated, were forced to yield their land and leave the state.
  37. Most of the Indians who were taken prisoner were later

    pardoned by President Lincoln, but thirty-eight were hanged “at a great hanging-bee” the day after Christmas, 1862. In 1863 the remaining Minnesota Sioux, defeated, were forced to yield their land and leave the state.
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  40. Chivington Massacres the Cheyenne. Farther south, in the Colorado Territory,

    the situation was quite different. There, miners had forced the Cheyenne into a barren area known as the Sand Creek Reserve. Short of food, bands of Indians began raiding nearby trails and settlements. Colorado Governor John Evans immediately called out the militia. At the same time, he urged those Indians who did not want to fight to report to Fort Lyon where they would be safe from harm.
  41. Chivington Massacres the Cheyenne. Farther south, in the Colorado Territory,

    the situation was quite different. There, miners had forced the Cheyenne into a barren area known as the Sand Creek Reserve. Short of food, bands of Indians began raiding nearby trails and settlements. Colorado Governor John Evans immediately called out the militia. At the same time, he urged those Indians who did not want to fight to report to Fort Lyon where they would be safe from harm.
  42. In the fall of 1864, some five hundred Cheyenne were

    encamped on Sand Creek. Two flags fluttered above the camp: the Stars and Stripes, and a white flag — both symbols of the Indians’ desire for peace. In the meantime, General S. R. Curtis, United States army commander in the West, had sent a telegram to the head of the Colorado militia, Colonel J. M. Chivington: “I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.” So at daybreak of November 29, Chivington and his troops fell upon the sleeping Indians and killed about four hundred fifty of them.
  43. In the fall of 1864, some five hundred Cheyenne were

    encamped on Sand Creek. Two flags fluttered above the camp: the Stars and Stripes, and a white flag — both symbols of the Indians’ desire for peace. In the meantime, General S. R. Curtis, United States army commander in the West, had sent a telegram to the head of the Colorado militia, Colonel J. M. Chivington: “I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.” So at daybreak of November 29, Chivington and his troops fell upon the sleeping Indians and killed about four hundred fifty of them.
  44. Summative Assessment: Focusing on the six paragraphs under the subheadings,

    “Indians Fight Back” and “Chivington Massacres the Cheyenne” (pp. 415-16), rewrite the history textbook selection without changing the factual aspects of it. Meaning, after identifying the bias of the current text, think about how you might use diction, voice, and inclusion/exclusion to create a different bias in your own version.
  45. You may confine your writing to any three contiguous paragraphs

    for this assessment. In a fourth and separate paragraph, you will need to explain which method(s) you employed (inclusion/exclusion, diction, voice, or other) to substantively change the bias, citing specific examples (i.e., quotes) from the text.
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  49. FINAL EXAM “Which Stories Will Become History?”

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  53. Summative Assessment: The narrative paragraph (short) is to be written

    in the stylistic voice (past tense) of your textbook. Pretend as if you are writing one hundred years in the future. The strongest essays will incorporate multiple sources and perspectives and communicate the kinds of nuances that characterize the complexities of the event, as well as its consequences.
  54. The rationale paragraph (longer) should reference specific ideas, values, approaches

    and lessons from our course applied to the literal writing of a history, such as (but not limited to) “Trivial Pursuits”, “Secret Messages”, “The Death of Mr > Bolos”, as well as principles of media literacy, etc.
  55. CRITERIA STRONG OK NEEDS WORK Clarity, coherence, and tone: How

    easy is it for the lay reader to understand the historical narrative — is there empathy employed? How well does the writing transition from sentence to sentence? Past tense? Dispassionate tone? 100-year perspective? Rationale: How effective and convincing were the choices made to include various details and use class content/skills to frame the event? How specific were the references? Did you quote your own writing for examples? Breadth: How many different sources were utilized accurately, significantly, and cited correctly? How effectively did the selections inform the viewpoint expressed by the writer?
  56. ADVANCED “The Death of Mr. Bolos”

  57. The Death of Mr Bolos: An Exercise in Analyzing Artifacts

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  60. Task: In a group of no more than 3-4 students,

    you will be writing a biography (or personal history) about the late Mr. Bolos. Somewhere in this essay, you should also speculate as to the cause of his death. Your essay should be well-structured, cohesive, and coherent. It will be based on the following sources:
  61. • Personal artifacts (from the provided box) • Interviews with

    his colleagues/friends/enemies/ former students • Other types of information (including the Internet)
  62. What is an artifact?

  63. What is an artifact? How old?

  64. Primary vs. Secondary <SOURCES>

  65. 1) Artifacts

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  67. 2) Interviews

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  69. 3) Other

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  71. Collaboration and Corroboration <SKILLS>

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  78. Debriefing

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  87. Why Day 1?

  88. Know me

  89. Know them

  90. A reason to work together

  91. Class Climate

  92. A “disciplined mind”

  93. A bookend of inquiry

  94. BIAS IS UBIQUITOUS All materials available at www.spirobolos.com Spiro Bolos,

    New Trier High School Jeannie Logan, Glenbrook South High School