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Building reliable and efficient services through gRPC

Building reliable and efficient services through gRPC

Slides for a presentation that describes gRPC as a tool for building reliable and efficient distributed system. The talk shares what exactly is gRPC, its background, which companies are using it and their cases. Also, shares how is the gRPC development workflow through a basic example of service implemented with it. After the example is shown the gRPC internal design, features and security. At the end, a demo and many references links are presented as well.

Gustavo Pantuza

September 21, 2019
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  1. Gustavo Pantuza
    Building reliable and efficient services through gRPC

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  2. Agenda
    ● What is gRPC?
    ● Background
    ● Who is using
    ● gRPC Workflow
    ● gRPC Design
    ● Security
    ● Demo
    ● References

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  3. What is gRPC?
    "A high performance, open-source
    universal RPC framework"
    Project site: https://grpc.io
    Github: https://github.com/grpc

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  4. What is gRPC?
    ● Remote Procedure Call
    ● Type Safe
    ● Polyglot
    ● Binary message format
    ● Multiplexed connections

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  5. What is gRPC?
    A bunch of best practices gathered together
    to build a simple distributed systems tool
    My personal opinion

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  6. What is gRPC?

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  7. Background
    ● General-purpose RPC infrastructure called Stubby
    Open Source

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  8. Background
    Connect the large
    number of
    microservices running
    within and across our
    data centers

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  9. Background
    Cloud Native
    Computing
    Foundation To Host
    gRPC from Google

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  10. Who is using?
    "We’ve also seen a
    squishing and a
    narrowing of our
    latency windows"
    https://www.cncf.io/netflix-case-study/

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  11. Who is using?
    "Implementing
    GRPC/Telemetry on
    XR devices"
    https://community.cisco.com/t5/service-providers-documents/implementing-grpc-telemetry-on-xr-devices/ta-p/3393966

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  12. Who is using?
    "distribution layer is
    the first layer to
    communicate with
    other nodes"
    https://www.cockroachlabs.com/docs/stable/architecture/distribution-layer.html

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  13. Who is using?
    "more compact and
    efficiently serializable
    RPC payload"
    https://cilium.io/blog/grpc/

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  14. Who is using?
    "layers the best
    features of
    IDL-specified RPC
    onto a standard"
    https://linkerd.io/2017/01/11/http2-grpc-and-linkerd/#_ga=2.36853351.619173598.1561427300-69268088.1561427300

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  15. Who is using?
    https://stackshare.io/grpc

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  16. gRPC Workflow
    ● The Message Protocol

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  17. gRPC Workflow
    ● The Message Protocol
    Message
    definition
    protoc
    Compiler
    Python
    Go
    C++

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  18. syntax = "proto3";
    package cheesefarm;
    Define the
    version and the
    package
    gRPC Workflow

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  19. syntax = "proto3";
    package cheesefarm;
    message Cheese {
    int32 age = 1;
    CheeseType type = 2;
    }
    enum CheeseType {
    EMMENTAL = 0;
    BRIE = 1;
    PECORINO = 2;
    ROQUEFORT = 3;
    CANASTRA = 4;
    }
    message CheeseRequest {
    CheeseType type = 1;
    }
    Create your
    messages
    gRPC Workflow

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  20. syntax = "proto3";
    package cheesefarm;
    message Cheese {
    int32 age = 1;
    CheeseType type = 2;
    }
    enum CheeseType {
    EMMENTAL = 0;
    BRIE = 1;
    PECORINO = 2;
    ROQUEFORT = 3;
    CANASTRA = 4;
    }
    message CheeseRequest {
    CheeseType type = 1;
    }
    service CheeseService {
    rpc Order(CheeseRequest) returns (Cheese);
    }
    Describe your
    Service interface
    gRPC Workflow

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  21. $> # Install gRPC libraries
    $> zypper install protobuf-devel
    $> apt install protobuf-compiler
    $> brew install protobuf
    Install gRPC
    dependencies
    gRPC Workflow

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  22. gRPC Design
    $> # Compile only messages with Golang
    $> # as target in the current directory
    $> protoc --go_out=. cheese.proto
    $> # Compile messages and services with Golang
    $> # as target in the current directory
    $> protoc --go_out=plugins=grpc:. cheese.proto
    Compilation
    time

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  23. $> # One new file generated:
    $> # . cheese.pb.go
    $> # Protocol Buffer message
    $> # and gRPC code
    $> ls
    cheese.proto cheese.pb.go
    Compilation
    Results
    gRPC Workflow

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  24. Resulted code
    example
    gRPC Workflow
    // protoc resulted file: cheese.pb.go
    // Code generated by protoc-gen-go. DO NOT EDIT.
    // source: cheese.proto
    package cheesefarm
    import (
    context "context"
    fmt "fmt"
    proto "github.com/golang/protobuf/proto"
    grpc "google.golang.org/grpc"
    math "math"
    )
    // Reference imports to suppress errors if they are not
    otherwise used.
    var _ = proto.Marshal
    var _ = fmt.Errorf
    var _ = math.Inf
    // This is a compile-time assertion to ensure that this
    generated file
    // is compatible with the proto package it is being
    compiled against.
    // A compilation error at this line likely means your
    copy of the
    // proto package needs to be updated.
    const _ = proto.ProtoPackageIsVersion3 // please upgrade
    the proto package
    type CheeseType int32

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  25. package main
    import (
    "fmt"
    "log"
    "net"
    "os"
    "path/filepath"
    "google.golang.org/grpc"
    "google.golang.org/grpc/credentials"
    pb "github.com/pantuza/grpc/cheese"
    )
    func main() {
    wd, _ := os.Getwd()
    certFile := filepath.Join(wd, "ssl", "cert.pem")
    keyFile := filepath.Join(wd, "ssl", "private.key")
    creds, _ := credentials.NewServerTLSFromFile(certFile, keyFile)
    serverAddr := fmt.Sprintf("%s:%d", pb.ADDR, pb.PORT)
    listen, err := net.Listen("tcp", serverAddr)
    if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("Failed to listen: %v", err)
    }
    grpcServer := grpc.NewServer(grpc.Creds(creds))
    pb.RegisterCheeseServiceServer(grpcServer, pb.NewServer())
    fmt.Printf("Listening gRPC on %s\n", serverAddr)
    grpcServer.Serve(listen)
    }
    Server
    Implementation
    gRPC Workflow

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  26. package cheesefarm
    import (
    "context"
    "fmt"
    "time"
    "math/rand"
    )
    const (
    ADDR string = "localhost"
    PORT int = 4000
    )
    type CheeseServer struct {
    }
    func NewServer() *CheeseServer {
    rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
    server := &CheeseServer{}
    return server
    }
    func (s *CheeseServer) Order(ctx context.Context, r *CheeseRequest) (*Cheese, error) {
    time.Sleep(time.Duration(rand.Intn(3))*time.Second)
    fmt.Printf("[gRPC] Order=%s\n", r.GetType())
    cheese := &Cheese{}
    cheese.Age = 10
    cheese.Type = r.GetType()
    return cheese, nil
    }
    Service
    Implementation
    gRPC Workflow

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  27. Client
    Implementation
    gRPC Workflow
    package main
    import (
    ...
    "google.golang.org/grpc"
    "google.golang.org/grpc/credentials"
    pb "github.com/pantuza/grpc/cheese"
    )
    func main() {
    rand.Seed(time.Now().UnixNano())
    wd, _ := os.Getwd()
    certFile := filepath.Join(wd, "ssl", "cert.pem")
    creds, err := credentials.NewClientTLSFromFile(certFile, "")
    if err != nil {
    log.Fatal("Error: %v", err)
    }
    serverAddr := fmt.Sprintf("%s:%d", pb.ADDR, pb.PORT)
    conn, err := grpc.Dial(serverAddr, grpc.WithTransportCredentials(creds))
    if err != nil {
    log.Fatal("Fail to dial: %v", err)
    }
    defer conn.Close()
    client := pb.NewCheeseServiceClient(conn)
    ctx := context.Background()
    for {
    order := &pb.CheeseRequest{Type: pb.CheeseType(rand.Intn(100) % 5)}
    cheese, err := client.Order(ctx, order)
    if err != nil {
    log.Fatal("Error: %v", err)
    }
    fmt.Printf("[gRPC] Received=%s\n", cheese.GetType())
    }
    }

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  28. gRPC Design
    Http/2 by design
    ● Binary payload
    ● Multiplexed connections
    ● Extensible

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  29. gRPC Design
    Streaming
    // From Server to Client
    rpc ListFeatures(Rectangle) returns (stream Feature) {}
    // From Client to Server
    rpc RecordRoute(stream Point) returns (RouteSummary) {}
    // Bidirectional
    rpc RouteChat(stream RouteNote) returns (stream RouteNote) {}
    The classic pair Send() and Recv() from socket library

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  30. gRPC Design
    Server streaming
    // From Server to Client
    rpc Watch(Match) returns (stream Video) {}

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  31. gRPC Design
    Client streaming
    // From client to Client
    rpc Upload(stream chunks) returns (Done) {}

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  32. syntax = "proto3";
    package stream;
    message Match {
    string id = 1;
    }
    message Video {
    bytes data = 1;
    string data_type = 2;
    string data_shape = 3;
    }
    service Soccer {
    rpc Watch (Match) returns (stream Video) {}
    }
    Protocol
    Buffer
    Example

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  33. gRPC Design
    Bidirectional streaming
    // Bidirectional
    rpc Chat(stream video) returns (stream video) {}

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  34. gRPC Design
    Blocking & Non-Blocking

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  35. gRPC Design
    Cancellation & Timeout

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  36. gRPC Design
    Pluggable
    Large distributed systems need:
    ● Security
    ● Health-checking
    ● Load-balancing
    ● Failover
    ● Monitoring
    ● Tracing
    ● logging
    Golang Interceptor example

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  37. gRPC Design
    Standardized Status Codes
    CODE NUMBER
    OK 0
    CANCELLED 1
    UNKNOWN 2
    INVALID_ARGUMENT 3
    ... ...
    https://github.com/grpc/grpc/blob/master/doc/statuscodes.md

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  38. gRPC security
    Supported and
    Authentication
    methods
    https://grpc.io/docs/guides/auth/

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  39. gRPC security
    TLS
    On the Server
    // Loads Certificate and private key
    certFile := filepath.Join(wd, "ssl", "cert.pem")
    keyFile := filepath.Join(wd, "ssl", "private.key")
    // Creates the credentials object
    creds, _ := credentials.NewServerTLSFromFile(certFile, keyFile)
    // Adds credentials to the gRPC server
    grpcServer := grpc.NewServer(grpc.Creds(creds))

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  40. gRPC security
    TLS
    On the Client
    // Loads client certficate
    certFile := filepath.Join(wd, "ssl", "cert.pem")
    creds, err := credentials.NewClientTLSFromFile(certFile, "")
    // Adds certficate on the connection
    conn, err := grpc.Dial(
    serverAddr,
    grpc.WithTransportCredentials(creds)
    )

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  41. Demo
    The Cheese
    SECURE Service

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  42. gRPC References
    ● Official project site
    ● Official project Repositories
    ● Awesome gRPC project
    ● Official examples for other languages
    ● Protocol Buffer official site

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  43. gRPC Golang Examples
    ● A simplified guide to gRPC in Golang
    ● gRPC Basics - Golang
    ● Python Quick Start
    ● Python gRPC official example
    ● A brief introduction to gRPC in Go

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  44. Cheese Farm example
    https://github.com/pantuza/grpc-golang-examples

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  45. Hey developers,
    please,
    play with me <3

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  46. Questions?
    Comments?
    https://blog.pantuza.com
    https://github.com/pantuza
    https://twitter.com/gpantuza
    gifts

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