Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

John Allspaw on Common Ground and Coordination in Joint Activity

John Allspaw on Common Ground and Coordination in Joint Activity

The paper I'm going to discuss is the result of what happens when people with backgrounds in mathematics, psychology, and artificial intelligence (Feltovich and Bradshaw) get together to ask questions about how teams operate alongside the originators of modern decision-making and cognitive systems engineering research (Klein and Woods).

The concepts outlined in the paper have provided frames and directions in designing tools and environments where successful work requires multiple actors (whether they are people or software agents!) to succeed. This seminal paper takes a deep dive into not just people and teamwork, but what comprises the sometimes invisible activity of coordination, collaboration, cooperation, and the contracts and expectations entities have with each other along the way.

The paper has had far-reaching influence in multiple domains: military intelligence, space transportation and aviation, and more recently: software engineering and operations on the web. Let me walk you through where this paper came from, what makes this paper critical to the future of software, and a hint about what I'm sure it means about the future.

Papers_We_Love

May 25, 2016
Tweet

More Decks by Papers_We_Love

Other Decks in Research

Transcript

  1. 1
    Common Ground And
    Coordination in Joint
    Activity
    A Walkthrough By John Allspaw (CTO, Etsy)
    5/25/16
    Papers We Love NYC
    f(x)=x

    View full-size slide

  2. The Paper
    2
    What Should
    I Read Next?
    3
    Context
    1
    Agenda

    View full-size slide

  3. 3
    SECTION #
    I See Connections!

    View full-size slide

  4. 4
    Priming The Pump of Connections

    View full-size slide

  5. 4
    Priming The Pump of Connections
    “When the cost of coordinating change increases,
    one of two things happen. Either people find ways to
    reduce the coordination/ communication costs, or
    they stop making changes. The latter is exactly how
    we end up with large, hard-to-maintain codebases.”
    Newman, Sam (2015-02-02). Building Microservices
    (Kindle Locations 3923-3925). O'Reilly Media. Kindle
    Edition.

    View full-size slide

  6. 5
    Priming The Pump of Connections

    View full-size slide

  7. 5
    “In large organizations where the delivery process is
    divided between different groups such as
    development, DBA, operations, testing, etc., the cost
    of coordination between these silos can be
    enormous, sometimes stalling the release process in
    ticketing hell.”
    Humble, Jez; Farley, David (2010-07-27). Continuous
    Delivery: Reliable Software Releases through Build, Test,
    and Deployment Automation
    Priming The Pump of Connections

    View full-size slide

  8. Connections You May See
    6
    CAP Theorem
    microservice/monolith
    justification
    validation of
    Conway’s “Law”
    reification of
    Dunbar’s Number
    distributed systems
    consensus concepts

    View full-size slide

  9. 7
    CAP Theorem
    microservice/monolith
    justification
    validation of
    Conway’s “Law”
    reification of
    Dunbar’s Number
    distributed systems
    consensus concepts
    RESIST THE URGE TO
    MAP THESE TO THIS
    PAPER

    View full-size slide

  10. 8
    CHAPTER 7
    GROUNDING IN
    COMMUNICATION
    HERBERT H. CLARK AND SUSAN E. BRENNAN
    GROUNDlNG
    It takes two people working together to play a duet, shake hands, play chess,
    waltz, teach, or make love. To succeed, the two of them have to coordinate
    both the content and process of what they are doing. Alan and Barbara, on the
    piano, must come to play the same Mozart duet. This is coordination of content.
    They must also synchronize their entrances and exits, coordinate how loudly
    to play forte and pianissimo, and otherwise adjust to each other’s tempo and
    dynamics. This is coordination of process. They cannot even begin to coordinate
    on content without assuming a vast amount of shared information or common
    ground-that is, mutual knowledge, mutual beliefs, and mutual assumptions
    (Clark & Carlson, 1982; Clark & Marshall, 1981; Lewis, 1969; Schelling,
    1960). And to coordinate on process, they need to update their common ground
    moment by moment. All collective actions are built on common ground and
    its accumulation.
    We thank many colleagues for discussion of the issues we take up here. The research was
    supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant BNS 83-20284 and a National Science
    Foundation Graduate Fellowship.
    Correspondence concerning this chapter should be addressed to Herbert H. Clark, Department
    of Psychology, Jordan Hall, Building 420, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2130, or Susan
    E. Brennan, Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook
    NY 11794-2500.
    127

    View full-size slide

  11. 9
    Dr. Paul Feltovich
    B.S., Math
    PhD, Educational Psychology
    Post-doc, Cognitive Psychology
    Dr. Jeff Bradshaw
    B.S., Math
    PhD, Cognitive Science
    Post-doc, Cognitive Psychology
    Dr. David Woods
    PhD, Cognitive Psychology
    Dr. Gary Klein
    PhD, Experimental Psychology

    View full-size slide

  12. Background Studies
    Relay races
    Driving in traffic
    Coaching high school football teams
    10

    View full-size slide

  13. 11
    A Note On Models

    View full-size slide

  14. Herbert Clark
    12

    View full-size slide

  15. Noticed that people repair when they miscommunicate.
    Usually, these miscommunications aren’t “fatal”.
    Herbert Clark
    12

    View full-size slide

  16. Noticed that people repair when they miscommunicate.
    Usually, these miscommunications aren’t “fatal”.
    People have a repair process that is ongoing.
    Herbert Clark
    12

    View full-size slide

  17. Noticed that people repair when they miscommunicate.
    Usually, these miscommunications aren’t “fatal”.
    People have a repair process that is ongoing.
    People are sensitive to each other during the process of
    communicating.
    Herbert Clark
    12

    View full-size slide

  18. “pertinent mutual knowledge, mutual beliefs, and mutual
    assumptions that support interdependent actions in some
    joint activity.”
    Common Ground
    13

    View full-size slide

  19. 14
    Not a thing.
    Not a state.
    Instead: grounding

    View full-size slide

  20. Common ground does not mean knowing
    the same things!
    15

    View full-size slide

  21. Common ground does not mean knowing
    the same things!
    • A process during communication where I understand the other’s person’s
    perspective. I can understand the relationship between their knowledge,
    beliefs, and assumptions and my own.
    15

    View full-size slide

  22. Common ground does not mean knowing
    the same things!
    • A process during communication where I understand the other’s person’s
    perspective. I can understand the relationship between their knowledge,
    beliefs, and assumptions and my own.
    • We invest in the process of grounding to avoid miscommunication. In other
    words, we’re continually repairing.
    15

    View full-size slide

  23. Common ground does not mean knowing
    the same things!
    • A process during communication where I understand the other’s person’s
    perspective. I can understand the relationship between their knowledge,
    beliefs, and assumptions and my own.
    • We invest in the process of grounding to avoid miscommunication. In other
    words, we’re continually repairing.
    • We monitor it by asking explicitly about our knowledge, beliefs, and
    assumptions.
    15

    View full-size slide

  24. Common ground does not mean knowing
    the same things!
    • A process during communication where I understand the other’s person’s
    perspective. I can understand the relationship between their knowledge,
    beliefs, and assumptions and my own.
    • We invest in the process of grounding to avoid miscommunication. In other
    words, we’re continually repairing.
    • We monitor it by asking explicitly about our knowledge, beliefs, and
    assumptions.
    • Detecting a mismatch in common ground is one of the primary ingredients in
    comedy.
    15

    View full-size slide

  25. Airplane, Paramount Pictures, 1980

    View full-size slide

  26. Airplane, Paramount Pictures, 1980

    View full-size slide

  27. Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)

    View full-size slide

  28. You’d better tell the Captain
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)

    View full-size slide

  29. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)

    View full-size slide

  30. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)

    View full-size slide

  31. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Elaine Dickinson
    (Julie Hagerty)

    View full-size slide

  32. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Elaine Dickinson
    (Julie Hagerty)

    View full-size slide

  33. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Elaine Dickinson
    (Julie Hagerty)

    View full-size slide

  34. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Elaine Dickinson
    (Julie Hagerty)

    View full-size slide

  35. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    It’s a big building with patients
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Elaine Dickinson
    (Julie Hagerty)

    View full-size slide

  36. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    It’s a big building with patients
    But that’s not important right now
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Elaine Dickinson
    (Julie Hagerty)

    View full-size slide

  37. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    It’s a big building with patients
    But that’s not important right now
    Tell the Captain I must speak to him
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Dr. Rumack
    (Leslie Neilsen)
    Elaine Dickinson
    (Julie Hagerty)

    View full-size slide

  38. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    It’s a big building with patients
    But that’s not important right now
    Tell the Captain I must speak to him

    View full-size slide

  39. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    It’s a big building with patients
    But that’s not important right now
    Tell the Captain I must speak to him

    View full-size slide

  40. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    It’s a big building with patients
    But that’s not important right now
    Tell the Captain I must speak to him

    View full-size slide

  41. You’d better tell the Captain
    We’ve got to land as soon as we can
    This woman has to be gotten to a hospital
    A hospital
    What is it?
    It’s a big building with patients
    But that’s not important right now
    Tell the Captain I must speak to him

    View full-size slide

  42. The Pink Panther Strikes Again, MGM, 1976

    View full-size slide

  43. The Pink Panther Strikes Again, MGM, 1976

    View full-size slide

  44. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)

    View full-size slide

  45. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers) QUESTION

    View full-size slide

  46. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    No.
    Inkeeper
    QUESTION

    View full-size slide

  47. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    No.
    Inkeeper ANSWER
    QUESTION

    View full-size slide

  48. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    No.
    Inkeeper
    I thought you said your dog does not bite.
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    ANSWER
    QUESTION

    View full-size slide

  49. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    No.
    Inkeeper
    I thought you said your dog does not bite.
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    That is not my dog.
    Inkeeper
    ANSWER
    QUESTION

    View full-size slide

  50. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    No.
    Inkeeper
    I thought you said your dog does not bite.
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    That is not my dog.
    Inkeeper
    ANSWER
    QUESTION

    View full-size slide

  51. Does your dog bite?
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    No.
    Inkeeper
    I thought you said your dog does not bite.
    Insp. Clouseau
    (Peter Sellers)
    That is not my dog.
    Inkeeper
    ANSWER
    QUESTION
    Shared views of the world establish context

    View full-size slide

  52. The Bedford Incident, Columbia, 1965

    View full-size slide

  53. The Bedford Incident, Columbia, 1965

    View full-size slide

  54. Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke

    View full-size slide

  55. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke

    View full-size slide

  56. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke

    View full-size slide

  57. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready

    View full-size slide

  58. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy

    View full-size slide

  59. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy
    Ensign Ralston Fire control A.O.K. sir... all systems
    armed and ready... ready

    View full-size slide

  60. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy
    Ensign Ralston Fire control A.O.K. sir... all systems
    armed and ready... ready
    This is insane
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke

    View full-size slide

  61. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy
    Ensign Ralston Fire control A.O.K. sir... all systems
    armed and ready... ready
    This is insane
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Now don’t worry commodore
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.

    View full-size slide

  62. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy
    Ensign Ralston Fire control A.O.K. sir... all systems
    armed and ready... ready
    This is insane
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Now don’t worry commodore
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N. the Bedford will never fire first

    View full-size slide

  63. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy
    Ensign Ralston Fire control A.O.K. sir... all systems
    armed and ready... ready
    This is insane
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Now don’t worry commodore
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N. the Bedford will never fire first
    but if he fires one, I’ll fire one

    View full-size slide

  64. Finlander, leave it alone
    Ben Munceford
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy, Ralston
    Captain, you are a fool
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Ensign Ralston All systems in automatic control sir...
    weapons armed and ready
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N.
    Take it easy
    Ensign Ralston Fire control A.O.K. sir... all systems
    armed and ready... ready
    This is insane
    Cmdr Wolfgang
    Schrepke
    Now don’t worry commodore
    Captain Eric
    Finlander U.S.N. the Bedford will never fire first
    but if he fires one, I’ll fire one
    Fire one
    Ensign Ralston

    View full-size slide

  65. A Convoy As a Distributed Team

    View full-size slide

  66. INTENTION
    INTERDEPENDENCE
    24
    Criteria for “joint activity”

    View full-size slide

  67. 25
    Basic Compact
    Criteria for “joint activity”
    INTENTION

    View full-size slide

  68. 25
    Basic Compact
    “constitutes a level of commitment for all parties to
    support the process of coordination.”
    Criteria for “joint activity”
    INTENTION

    View full-size slide

  69. 25
    Basic Compact
    “constitutes a level of commitment for all parties to
    support the process of coordination.”
    Goal Alignment
    Criteria for “joint activity”
    INTENTION

    View full-size slide

  70. 26
    Criteria for “joint activity”
    INTERDEPENDENCE

    View full-size slide

  71. 26
    “what party “A” does must depend in some significant way
    on what party “B” does and vice versa.”
    Criteria for “joint activity”
    INTERDEPENDENCE

    View full-size slide

  72. 26
    “what party “A” does must depend in some significant way
    on what party “B” does and vice versa.”
    Mutual influence
    Criteria for “joint activity”
    INTERDEPENDENCE

    View full-size slide

  73. INTERPREDICTABILITY
    C O M M O N G R O U N D
    D I R E C TA B I L I T Y
    27
    Requirements for “joint activity”

    View full-size slide

  74. INTERPREDICTABILITY
    C O M M O N G R O U N D
    D I R E C TA B I L I T Y
    28
    Requirements for “joint activity”

    View full-size slide

  75. INTERPREDICTABILITY
    C O M M O N G R O U N D
    D I R E C TA B I L I T Y
    29
    Requirements for “joint activity”

    View full-size slide

  76. 30
    1.Initial common ground
    2.Public events so far
    3.Current state of the activity
    Requirements for “joint activity”
    C O M M O N G R O U N D

    View full-size slide

  77. 31
    Joint Activity

    View full-size slide

  78. 31
    Joint Activity
    depends on

    View full-size slide

  79. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    depends on

    View full-size slide

  80. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    depends on
    based on

    View full-size slide

  81. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    common ground
    depends on
    based on

    View full-size slide

  82. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    common ground
    depends on
    based on
    defined as

    View full-size slide

  83. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    common ground
    depends on
    based on
    defined as
    mutual knowledge
    mutual beliefs
    mutual assumptions

    View full-size slide

  84. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    common ground
    depends on
    based on
    defined as
    assumes a
    mutual knowledge
    mutual beliefs
    mutual assumptions

    View full-size slide

  85. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    common ground
    depends on
    based on
    defined as
    Basic Compact
    assumes a
    mutual knowledge
    mutual beliefs
    mutual assumptions

    View full-size slide

  86. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    common ground
    depends on
    based on
    defined as
    Basic Compact
    assumes a
    which is a
    mutual knowledge
    mutual beliefs
    mutual assumptions

    View full-size slide

  87. 31
    Joint Activity
    interpredictability
    common ground
    depends on
    based on
    defined as
    Basic Compact
    assumes a
    commitment to participate
    and align goals
    which is a
    mutual knowledge
    mutual beliefs
    mutual assumptions

    View full-size slide

  88. PHA SE S
    SI GNAL I NG
    C O O R D I N AT I O N D E V I C E S
    C O O R D I N AT I O N C O S T S
    32
    Choreography of “joint activity”

    View full-size slide

  89. 33
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Phases
    ENTRY
    B O D Y O F A C T I O N
    EXI T

    View full-size slide

  90. 34
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Signaling

    View full-size slide

  91. 35
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Devices

    View full-size slide

  92. 35
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Devices
    AGR EEMEN T

    View full-size slide

  93. 35
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Devices
    AGR EEMEN T
    CO NV EN TION

    View full-size slide

  94. 35
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Devices
    AGR EEMEN T
    CO NV EN TION
    PRECEDEN T

    View full-size slide

  95. 35
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Devices
    AGR EEMEN T
    CO NV EN TION
    PRECEDEN T
    SALIENCE

    View full-size slide

  96. 36
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Costs

    View full-size slide

  97. 36
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Costs
    SYNC HRONI ZATI ON OVERHEAD

    View full-size slide

  98. 36
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Costs
    SYNC HRONI ZATI ON OVERHEAD
    CO MMU NI CAT I ON OVERH EAD

    View full-size slide

  99. 36
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Costs
    SYNC HRONI ZATI ON OVERHEAD
    CO MMU NI CAT I ON OVERH EAD
    RE DIRECTION OVERHEAD

    View full-size slide

  100. 36
    Choreography of “joint activity”
    Coordination Costs
    SYNC HRONI ZATI ON OVERHEAD
    CO MMU NI CAT I ON OVERH EAD
    RE DIRECTION OVERHEAD
    DIAGN OSI S OVERHEAD

    View full-size slide

  101. 38
    http://bit.ly/AllspawThesis

    View full-size slide

  102. Ethnographic
    Coding

    View full-size slide

  103. IE2
    PE2
    IE5
    IE1
    IE1
    PE3
    IE3
    PE3
    PE3
    ProdEng1 re-enables
    the sidebar,
    with blog turned off
    13:06:44 13:15:00 13:30:00 13:45:00 14:00:00 14:15:00 14:30:00
    ProdEng2 turns off
    homepage
    sidebar module
    disable a
    CDN?
    Load
    balancer
    changes?
    Network
    changes?
    Wordpress
    issue?
    Frozen shop?
    Featured
    shop?
    PE1
    PE1
    Varnish
    queuing?
    Featured
    staff shop?
    Sidebar loading
    staff shop?
    IE1
    IE1
    IE1
    IE1
    IE1
    IE1
    IE1
    Varnish
    not caching?
    IE3
    Database
    schema change?
    IE2 IE2
    IE1
    Errors from
    Homepage
    sidebar
    IE2
    400 response
    code
    IE2
    PublicShops_GetShopCards
    API method
    PE3
    Featured
    shop loading
    OK
    IE2
    “Shop 1234567
    does not exist”
    Varnish queuing,
    not caching
    400 responses?
    Stated hypothesis
    Critical relayed
    observation

    View full-size slide

  104. 44
    BACK TO THE
    PAPER

    View full-size slide

  105. 45
    some ‘most important’ types

    View full-size slide

  106. 45
    some ‘most important’ types
    •the roles and functions of each participant;

    View full-size slide

  107. 45
    some ‘most important’ types
    •the roles and functions of each participant;
    •the routines that the team is capable of executing;

    View full-size slide

  108. 45
    some ‘most important’ types
    •the roles and functions of each participant;
    •the routines that the team is capable of executing;
    •the skills and competencies of each participant;

    View full-size slide

  109. 45
    some ‘most important’ types
    •the roles and functions of each participant;
    •the routines that the team is capable of executing;
    •the skills and competencies of each participant;
    •the goals of the participants, including their commitment to the success
    of the team activity; and

    View full-size slide

  110. 45
    some ‘most important’ types
    •the roles and functions of each participant;
    •the routines that the team is capable of executing;
    •the skills and competencies of each participant;
    •the goals of the participants, including their commitment to the success
    of the team activity; and
    •the “stance” of each participant (e.g., his or her perception of time
    pressure, level of fatigue, and competing priorities).

    View full-size slide

  111. Fundamental Common Ground
    Breakdown
    46

    View full-size slide

  112. Fundamental Common Ground
    Breakdown
    46
    • Party A believes that Party B possesses some knowledge.

    View full-size slide

  113. Fundamental Common Ground
    Breakdown
    46
    • Party A believes that Party B possesses some knowledge.
    • Party B doesn’t have this knowledge, and doesn’t know he or
    she is supposed to have it.

    View full-size slide

  114. Fundamental Common Ground
    Breakdown
    46
    • Party A believes that Party B possesses some knowledge.
    • Party B doesn’t have this knowledge, and doesn’t know he or
    she is supposed to have it.
    • Therefore, he or she doesn’t request it.

    View full-size slide

  115. Fundamental Common Ground
    Breakdown
    46
    • Party A believes that Party B possesses some knowledge.
    • Party B doesn’t have this knowledge, and doesn’t know he or
    she is supposed to have it.
    • Therefore, he or she doesn’t request it.
    • This lack of a request confirms to Party A that Party B has the
    knowledge.

    View full-size slide

  116. “We are asserting that
    people need to have a
    model of the machine as an
    agent participating in the
    joint activity.”
    p.169
    47

    View full-size slide

  117. 50
    “I WANT TO TREAT THE PATIENT-
    NOT THE ALARM”
    USER IMAGE MISMATCH IN
    ANESTHESIA ALARM DESIGN
    Thesis/Project work submitted in partial fulfillment of the
    requirements for the MSc in Human Factors and System Safety
    Karen Raymer, M.D., FRCP(C)
    LUND UNIVERSITY
    SWEDEN
    Date of submission: 2012-06-04

    View full-size slide

  118. 53
    Parting Thought

    View full-size slide

  119. 54
    “As alternative to CAP, we propose a "delay-sensitivity"
    framework, which analyzes the sensitivity of operation
    latency to network delay, and which may help
    practitioners reason about the trade-offs between
    consistency guarantees and tolerance of network faults.”

    View full-size slide

  120. 55
    “Alternative OSs like microkernels have long been
    considered more stable and easier to reason about by
    the systems community, but the performance overhead
    that comes with running them means typically our OSs
    still resemble the ones from the ‘60s."

    View full-size slide

  121. 56
    “For those who don't think they're interested in compilers,
    consider how insight into JIT optimizations can help you
    reason about the performance of all that JavaScript, JVM,
    and .NET code you interact with all the time!”

    View full-size slide

  122. 57
    What does it mean to reason about something?

    View full-size slide

  123. 57
    What does it mean to reason about something?
    Does reasoning come only from our minds?

    View full-size slide

  124. 57
    What does it mean to reason about something?
    Does reasoning come only from our minds?
    Do we reason when we’re participating in joint
    activity?

    View full-size slide

  125. QUESTIONS?
    58
    The End

    View full-size slide