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Physiological Psychology - PTSD Poster Review

Physiological Psychology - PTSD Poster Review

Poster Review for PTSD:
- Introduction (Definition, Prevalence for adults, children and veterans, the invisible PTSD)
- Types of diseases and symptoms
- Risk Factors
- Complications
- Treatment
- Conclusion

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Rachel Hong

August 23, 2021
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Transcript

  1. POSTER REVIEW for PTSD Physiological Psychology Group Assignment

  2. None
  3. Content Introduction Definition Prevalence The Invisible PTSD Types of Disease

    and Symptoms Risk Factors Complications Treatment
  4. 1 - Introduction

  5. A type of mental health problem under anxiety disorder. Some

    people develop it after going through or witnessing horrible life events in any stage of life. People may lose control, causing them to be afraid. Common to think back the sad memories or struggle to sleep. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Introduction
  6. Introduction The conditions maybe still persistent and cause troubles in

    their life. Most people begin to feel better after a while. Some people's symptoms may start later and disappear over time. Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3
  7. Based on the U.S. population, around 7-8% of the adults

    will have PTSD at some point in their lives; around 8.6 million of them have PTSD within a year. Prevalence for Adults Introduction
  8. Accidents Combat Physical assault Disaster To witness injury or death

    Sexual assault Child sexual abuse Female 60% - Trauma 10% - PTSD Male 50% - Trauma 4% - PTSD Prevalence for Adults
  9. Events Sexual or physical abuse or other violent crimes. Disasters

    Car crashes, fires, floods, or school shootings. Other events War, a friend's suicide, or seeing violence in the area they live. Prevalence for Children and Teenagers Neglect 65% Physical abuse 18% Sexual abuse 10% Mental abuse 7% Child Protection Services
  10. Serving in military - combat Between 11%-20% served in Operations

    Iraqi Freedom or Enduring Freedom 12% served in the Gulf War with desert storm About 15% served in Vietnam Prevalence for Veterans Introduction
  11. Military sexual trauma Sexual harassment (55% women and 38% men)

    Sexual assault (23% women) Can occur during Peacetime Training War Prevalence for Veterans Introduction
  12. There is a need to raise such awareness to the

    public. It is celebrated in June, specifically on the 27th together with the teal ribbon colour for PTSD awareness. Advanced brain imaging technology (MRI, PET, SPECT, MEG) can contribute with accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. The Invisible PTSD Introduction
  13. Smaller hippocampal volume in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images

    is found in PTSD sufferers. There is an impairment in regulating the emotional responses to fear and stress. The Invisible PTSD Smaller hippocampal volume in a patient with PTSD (right) relative to a non PTSD subject (left) as shown in MRI images.
  14. Positron emission tomography (PET) images showed higher mGluR5 receptors in

    PTSD subject than healthy control subject. The glutamate levels are changed by glutamate, a chemical messenger of brain signals. The Invisible PTSD
  15. PTSD sufferers have more cortisol inflammation, which may impair mental

    performance, lower pain sensitivity, and emotional regulation. A stress hormone, known as cortisol, is scattered constantly within the brain, causing the "fight or flight" panic reaction more often, because it is easily tricked into an alarmed state. The Invisible PTSD Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images showed the differences between healthy, PTSD, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and PTSD Comorbid with TBI Perfusion Patterns.
  16. The images of magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed that veterans with PTSD

    had significantly stronger neural activity in prefrontal, sensorimotor, temporal regions, bilateral amygdalae, parahippocampal and hippocampal areas. Conversely, healthy veterans had stronger neural activity in the bilateral occipital cortices. The Invisible PTSD 3D renditions showing brain regions with significant resting-state neuronal activity in combat veterans without PTSD (top row) and with PTSD (bottom row). Group differences in resting-state neuronal activity between combat veterans with and without PTSD were found in several brain regions.
  17. 2 - Types of disease & the symptoms

  18. Symptoms According To DSM-V Portraying physiological cues which are noticable

    and reoccurance of unpleasant memories, Intrusion Symptoms Having difficulties in to have any form of interactions in external environment due to idstressing perceptions or emotions concerning any related trauma. Avoidance
  19. Continued Constantly dwelling on negative thoughts and having bad perception

    on oneself. Negative Alteration In Mood and Cognition Inability to apprehend emotions which would result in uncontrollable anger or outburst Alterations In Arousal And Negativity
  20. Types of PTSD Interpersonal trauma such as physical abuse or

    secual trauma. In other words, being placed in a dysfunctional, abusive environment Victim-Related Trauma Survivor from scenarios where individuals narrowly escape from dangerous situations Natural-Disaster Trauma Getting overwhelmed with mistakes from the past which could affect individual's present or future well-being Perpertrator Guilt
  21. Types of PTSD Enduring any abusive treatments which would instill

    fear within individuals. People who have PTSD in this category are generaly children who are abused. Survivor Trauma Developing fear through enternal engagement in environment or even comprehending the trauma or experience from others through interactions. PTSD Not Otherwise Specified
  22. 3 - How it related?

  23. Risk Factors Women and older individuals are found to be

    more susceptible to PTSD symptoms Women & age Lack of social support leads to greater, more harmful PTSD symptoms and it affects adherence to treatment. Social support Past psychiatric problems and exposure to trauma increases a new mother's susceptibility to PTSD development. Psychiatric background
  24. Complications Mothers may experience a poor delivery while babies may

    not be of a healthy weight. Somatic pain such as headaches and arthritis is more prevalent amongst individuals with PTSD. Physical PTSD is highly associated with self-harm behaviour. PTSD symptoms + anticipatory rumination leads to more depressive symptoms. Psychological
  25. 4 - Treatment

  26. Treatment: Psychotherapies a. Focus on mind and feelings b. Help

    to regulate uncontrollable emotions, thoughts and behaviors patterns. c. Redefine negative beliefs. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) a. Evidence-based treatment & based on concept of Emotion Processing Therapy (EPT) b. Imagine the traumatic situation again to face their fearness c. Form new understanding &combine with their traumatic feelings Prolonged Exposure (PE) Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) a. Reconstruct perception to change negative views of traumatic events. b. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) as concept, focus on association between the traumatic events, emotions, thoughts and behaviors.
  27. Treatment - Medications - Decreasing most of the PTSD symptoms

    yet it could not help the patients to fully recover. Sertraline - A type of tranquilizer. - Help to calm down and be more able to realize the real thoughts and feelings. Quetiapine
  28. Treatment - Side effects - Diarrhea - Headache - Vomiting

    Sertraline - Global aphasia (Elderly) - Dizziness - Dry mouth Quetiapine
  29. Conclusion 01 PTSD may happen to anyone although it is

    invisible, yet it can be measured by the advanced brain imaging technology, and hence the awareness is celebrated in June with teal ribbon. 02 Types of diseases and symptoms are important to be recognized for PTSD. 03 Being aware of the risk factors and complications related to PTSD is important in preventing potential physical and psychological harm. 04 PTSD can be improved by using psychotherapy (e.g., CBT, CPT & PE) and medications (e.g., sertraline & quetiapine), even if side effects were existed. 05 Necessary social support should be implemented by providing appropriate and sincere form of affection would be effective to overcome PTSD without any medication
  30. THE END Thank you for listening!!!