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Psychology of Learning: Information Processing System & Attention

Psychology of Learning: Information Processing System & Attention

Information processing system
- assumptions
- two-store (dual) memory model
- 3 stores of memory
- alternatives to the two store model
- attention through senses
- theories of attention: dichotic listening, filter (bottleneck) theory, feature-integration theory, preattentive processes, attentive processes


Rachel Hong

July 01, 2021


  1. Information Processing System & Attention 01 Psychology of Learning

  2. 02 Information Processing System

  3. 03 Assumptions Information processing is in human resembles that in

    computer processing Learning involves forming associations between stimuli and responses Information processing is involved in all cognitive activities
  4. 04 Two-Store (Dual) Memory Model

  5. 05 Memory consisted of 3 stores Sensory Register transfers information

    to short-term memory (STM). STM is a working memory (WM) and corresponds roughly to awareness, or what one is conscious of at a given moment Related knowledge in LTM, or permanent memory, is activated and placed in WM to be integrated with the new information. Sensory Register Working Memory (WM) Long-term Memory (LTM)
  6. 06 Alternatives to the Two- Store Model Physical (surface) Acoustic

    (phonological, sound) Semantic (meaning) Conceptualizes memory according to the type of processing that information receives rather than its location Levels (Depth) of Processing Contends that memory structures vary in their activation Activation Level
  7. !!! Attention !!! 06

  8. Attention through Senses 07

  9. Theories of Attention 08

  10. Dichotic Listening Attended Message Unattended Message Selective attention depends on

    the physical location of the stimulus and its meaning. 09
  11. Filter (Bottleneck) Theory Incoming information from the environment is held

    briefly in a sensory system. Based on their physical characteristics, pieces of information are selected for further processing by the perceptual system. Information not acted on by the perceptual system is filtered out, and is not processed beyond the sensory system. Attention is selective because of the bottleneck, because only some messages receive further processing. In dichotic listening studies, filter theory proposes that listeners select a channel based on their instructions. They know some details about the other message because the physical examination of information occurs prior to filtering. 10
  12. Feature-Integration Theory Sometimes we distribute attention across many inputs, each

    of which receives low-level processing. At other times, a particular input is focused, which is more cognitively demanding. Rather than blocking out messages, attention simply makes them less salient than those being attended to. Information inputs initially are subjected to different tests for physical characteristics and content. Following this preliminary analysis, one input may be selected for attention. 11
  13. 12 Preattentive Processes Involved in head and eye movements (e.g.,

    refocusing attention) and in guided movements (e.g., walking, driving). Automatic that people implement them without conscious mediation.
  14. 13 Attentive Processes They are deliberate and require conscious activity.