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Ethereum with little caffeine

Ethereum with little caffeine

Ronak Kogta

August 05, 2017
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  1. Ethereum with a little
 caffeine! *Slides referred from Loi Luu

    and Vitalik Buterin Ronak Kogta

  2. None
  3. None
  4. Speaker that was promised!

  5. Speaker that was promised! Aye! That is all
 what blockchain

    does
  6. Speaker that was promised! Aye! That is all
 what blockchain

    does ??
  7. Agenda • Blockchain as World Computer • What is Ethereum

    ? • Smart contracts and applications • Writing your first contract • Research Problems
  8. Blockchains and its crudest definition It's a platform that allows

    a software package that contains business logic and user data to sit in the cloud. A copy of this cloud is replicated by millions of computers around the world to keep code/ data integrity. The user interface is an open source project that communicates with the software package in the cloud. To incentivize people to replicate this software package to be maintained you pay them with a digital currency. Rick Tuinenburg
  9. Blockchains and its crudest definition The value of digital currency

    is determined by the popularity of the entire platform. Early adopters gain the most if the platform becomes a success. What makes this platform unique is that the business logic / data cannot be taken down or changed unless multiple anonymous developers around the world agree to do so. This makes it so authorities cannot take down software or data they don't like. Some use cases are: legal public records (deeds, court cases records, fictitious business names, etc) Rick Tuinenburg
  10. Proof of Work Coin Blockchain Dapp ASIC Transaction Contract Miner

    Ledger Pools Crypto Sign Hash Commitment Consensus Exchange Technically we should know…
  11. Blockchain as world computer Consensus Computer

  12. Blockchain as world computer f(x)=? Consensus Computer

  13. Blockchain as world computer f(x)=? f(x)=y Consensus Computer

  14. Blockchain as world computer f(x)=? f(x)=y f(x) = y ?

    f(x) = y ? Consensus Computer
  15. Blockchain as world computer f(x)=? f(x)=y f(x) = y ?

    f(x) = y ? f(x)=y Consensus Computer
  16. Lot of blockchains out there…

  17. Decentralised Computer Ethereum

  18. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Slow
 (5-1000x)

  19. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x)

  20. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Not always
 decisive Expansive to use Slow


    (5-1000x)
  21. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x)
  22. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton
  23. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored
  24. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous
  25. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable
  26. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable Guarantees
  27. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable Atomicity Guarantees
  28. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable Atomicity Immortality Guarantees
  29. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable Atomicity Immortality Immutable Code Guarantees
  30. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable Atomicity Immortality Immutable Code Synchrony Guarantees
  31. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable Atomicity Immortality Immutable Code Synchrony Provenance Guarantees
  32. Decentralised Computer Ethereum Truly a 1950s computer Not always
 decisive

    Expansive to use Slow
 (5-1000x) Truly a global singleton Cannot fail, be stopped or censored Ubiquitous Verifiable and Auditable Atomicity Immortality Immutable Code Synchrony Provenance Permanence Guarantees
  33. Ethereum (Just another blockchain)

  34. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust.
  35. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust. – Rather than currency, you can use the ledger for kind of applications which require trust
  36. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust. – Rather than currency, you can use the ledger for kind of applications which require trust – For e.g. Notary, writing a will, or decentralised
  37. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust. – Rather than currency, you can use the ledger for kind of applications which require trust – For e.g. Notary, writing a will, or decentralised I. Craiglist , Uber, Zomato …
  38. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust. – Rather than currency, you can use the ledger for kind of applications which require trust – For e.g. Notary, writing a will, or decentralised I. Craiglist , Uber, Zomato … II. Ebay, Amazon, Uber …
  39. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust. – Rather than currency, you can use the ledger for kind of applications which require trust – For e.g. Notary, writing a will, or decentralised I. Craiglist , Uber, Zomato … II. Ebay, Amazon, Uber … • The way to do it is to write programs which are called “Smart Contracts”
  40. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust. – Rather than currency, you can use the ledger for kind of applications which require trust – For e.g. Notary, writing a will, or decentralised I. Craiglist , Uber, Zomato … II. Ebay, Amazon, Uber … • The way to do it is to write programs which are called “Smart Contracts” • Ethereum can also be used to do normal ether transactions.
  41. Ethereum (Just another blockchain) • Blockchain is a decentralised ledger

    of trust. – Rather than currency, you can use the ledger for kind of applications which require trust – For e.g. Notary, writing a will, or decentralised I. Craiglist , Uber, Zomato … II. Ebay, Amazon, Uber … • The way to do it is to write programs which are called “Smart Contracts” • Ethereum can also be used to do normal ether transactions. Matchmakers
  42. None
  43. None
  44. Ethereum Programming Model

  45. Ethereum Programming Model Bob does not believe in Spiderman, but

    Alice does
  46. Ethereum Programming Model Bob does not believe in Spiderman, but

    Alice does Alice bets that if she is in danger, Spiderman will protect her.
  47. Ethereum Programming Model Bob does not believe in Spiderman, but

    Alice does Alice bets that if she is in danger, Spiderman will protect her. Spiderman morally wants to help everybody, if he can.
 Because with great power comes great responsibility.
  48. Ethereum Programming Model Bob does not believe in Spiderman, but

    Alice does Alice bets that if she is in danger, Spiderman will protect her. Spiderman morally wants to help everybody, if he can.
 Because with great power comes great responsibility. Alice does not trust Bob, and needs to ensure that they both hold 
 their end of bargains after the bet is done.
  49. Ethereum Programming Model Bob does not believe in Spiderman, but

    Alice does Alice bets that if she is in danger, Spiderman will protect her. Spiderman morally wants to help everybody, if he can.
 Because with great power comes great responsibility. Alice does not trust Bob, and needs to ensure that they both hold 
 their end of bargains after the bet is done. Spiderman is unaware of this bet, and just webbing his way around.
  50. Ethereum Programming Model

  51. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

  52. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg
  53. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State
  54. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete
  55. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete • Self-Executing and enforcing
  56. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete • Self-Executing and enforcing
  57. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete • Self-Executing and enforcing are submitted as transactions in 
 blockchain.
  58. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete • Self-Executing and enforcing are submitted as transactions in 
 blockchain. - Can send eth to other accounts
  59. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete • Self-Executing and enforcing are submitted as transactions in 
 blockchain. - Can send eth to other accounts - Read/write from storage
  60. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete • Self-Executing and enforcing are submitted as transactions in 
 blockchain. - Can send eth to other accounts - Read/write from storage - Invoke function calls to other contracts
  61. Ethereum Programming Model Contract Persistent Msg Store $$$ Program Logic

    ?? $$$ Msg • Contract = Code + State • Turing Complete • Self-Executing and enforcing are submitted as transactions in 
 blockchain. - Can send eth to other accounts - Read/write from storage - Invoke function calls to other contracts - Create other contracts
  62. DNS, a commitment, a contract, of sorts

  63. DNS, a commitment, a contract, of sorts Invoked by other

    accounts
  64. Contract Workflow

  65. Contract Workflow Your Contract

  66. Contract Workflow Your Contract 60606040526040516102503 80380610250833981016040 528........ What others see


    in blockchain
  67. Contract Workflow Your Contract 60606040526040516102503 80380610250833981016040 528........ What others see


    in blockchain PUSH 60 PUSH 40 MSTORE PUSH 0 CALLDATALOAD ..... Disassembler output
  68. Transactions • nonce (anti-replay-attack or transaction counter) • to (destination

    address) • value (amount of ETH to send) • data (readable by contract code) • gasprice (amount of ether per unit gas) • startgas (maximum gas consumable) • v, r, s (ECDSA signature values)
  69. How to Create a Contract? • Submit a transaction to

    the blockchain – nonce: previous nonce + 1 – to: empty – value: value sent to the new contract – data: contains the code of the contract – gasprice (amount of ether per unit gas) – startgas (maximum gas consumable) – v, r, s (ECDSA signature values) • If tx is successful – Returns the address of the new contract
  70. How to Interact With a Contract? • Submit a transaction

    to the blockchain – nonce: previous nonce + 1 – to: contract address – value: value sent to the new contract – data: data supposed to be read by the contract – gasprice (amount of ether per unit gas) – startgas (maximum gas consumable) – v, r, s (ECDSA signature values) • If tx is successful – Returns outputs from the contract (if applicable)
  71. Ethereum Frameworks Serpent Solidity Lower Level Language Ethereum VM Bytecode

    Stack Language (Like python) (Like javascript) (Function and macros
 like scheme) (Defined in Ethereum
 yellow paper) *Slide from Andrew Miller
  72. Blockchain State

  73. Blockchain State Address Balance (BTC) 0x123456… 10 0x1a2b3f… 1 0xab123d…

    1.1 Bitcoin's state consists of key value mapping of addresses to account balance
  74. Blockchain State Address Balance (BTC) 0x123456… 10 0x1a2b3f… 1 0xab123d…

    1.1 Ethereum’s state consists of key value mapping addresses to account objects Address Object 0x123456… X 0x1a2b3f… Y 0xab123d… Z Bitcoin's state consists of key value mapping of addresses to account balance
  75. Blockchain State Address Balance (BTC) 0x123456… 10 0x1a2b3f… 1 0xab123d…

    1.1 Ethereum’s state consists of key value mapping addresses to account objects Address Object 0x123456… X 0x1a2b3f… Y 0xab123d… Z Bitcoin's state consists of key value mapping of addresses to account balance Blockchain != Blockchain State
  76. EVM Ethereum State Transition

  77. EVM Program Counter Ethereum State Transition

  78. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Ethereum State

    Transition
  79. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Rolls back

    the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition
  80. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Commits the


    transaction
 if success Rolls back the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition
  81. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Commits the


    transaction
 if success Rolls back the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition 1 Syntax checking transaction.
  82. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Commits the


    transaction
 if success Rolls back the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition 1 Syntax checking transaction. 2 Computing preamble transaction fee.
  83. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Commits the


    transaction
 if success Rolls back the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition 1 Syntax checking transaction. 2 Computing preamble transaction fee. 3 Initialise the gas payment.
  84. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Commits the


    transaction
 if success Rolls back the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition 1 Syntax checking transaction. 2 Computing preamble transaction fee. 3 Initialise the gas payment. 4 Transfer the amount from sender to receiver.
  85. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Commits the


    transaction
 if success Rolls back the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition 1 Syntax checking transaction. 2 Computing preamble transaction fee. 3 Initialise the gas payment. 4 Transfer the amount from sender to receiver. 5 Throw error, when sender account does not have sufficient ether, and roll back transaction.
  86. EVM Program Counter Computes preamble
 computation for transaction Commits the


    transaction
 if success Rolls back the
 transaction, if it fails Ethereum State Transition 1 Syntax checking transaction. 2 Computing preamble transaction fee. 3 Initialise the gas payment. 4 Transfer the amount from sender to receiver. 5 Throw error, when sender account does not have sufficient ether, and roll back transaction. 6 For any other error, send the gas fee to sender
  87. Account Object • Every account object contains 4 pieces of

    data: – Nonce – Balance – Code hash (code = empty string for normal accounts) – Storage trie root
  88. Account Object • Every account object contains 4 pieces of

    data: – Nonce – Balance – Code hash (code = empty string for normal accounts) – Storage trie root
  89. Tx-n Tx-1 Block Mining Tx-2

  90. Tx-n Tx-1 Block Mining Miners Tx-2

  91. Tx-n Tx-1 Block Mining Miners Tx-2 Block A set of

    TXs Previous block New State Root Receipt Root Nonce
  92. Tx-n Tx-1 Block Mining Miners Tx-2 Block A set of

    TXs Previous block New State Root Receipt Root Nonce
  93. Tx-n Tx-1 Block Mining Miners Tx-2 Block A set of

    TXs Previous block New State Root Receipt Root Nonce Verify transactions & execute all code to update the state
  94. Tx-n Tx-1 Block Mining Miners Tx-2 Block A set of

    TXs Previous block New State Root Receipt Root Nonce SHA3(Block) < D Verify transactions & execute all code to update the state
  95. Tx-n Tx-1 Block Mining Miners Tx-2 Block A set of

    TXs Previous block New State Root Receipt Root Nonce SHA3(Block) < D Broadcast Block Verify transactions & execute all code to update the state
  96. Code execution • Every (full) node on the blockchain processes

    every transaction and stores the entire state P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1
  97. Code execution • Every (full) node on the blockchain processes

    every transaction and stores the entire state P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 This is a new block! I’m a leader
  98. Code execution • Every (full) node on the blockchain processes

    every transaction and stores the entire state P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 This is a new block! I’m a leader This is a new block! This is a new block! This is a new block! This is a new block! This is a new block!
  99. Dos Attack Vector • Halting problem – Cannot tell whether

    or not a program will run infinitely – A malicious miner can DoS attack full nodes by including lots of computation in their txs • Full nodes attacked when verifying the block uint i = 1; while (i++ > 0) { donothing(); }
  100. Solution: Gas • Charge fee per computational step (“gas”) –

    Special gas fees for operations that take up storage
  101. Solution: Gas • Charge fee per computational step (“gas”) –

    Special gas fees for operations that take up storage
  102. Solution: Gas • Charge fee per computational step (“gas”) –

    Special gas fees for operations that take up storage
  103. Sender has to pay for the gas • gasprice: amount

    of ether per unit gas • startgas: maximum gas consumable – If startgas is less than needed • Out of gas exception, revert the state as if the TX has never happened • Sender still pays all the gas • TX fee = gasprice * consumedgas • Gas limit: similar to block size limit in Bitcoin – Total gas spent by all transactions in a block < Gas Limit
  104. What are Smart Contracts ?

  105. What are Smart Contracts ? A smart contract is a

    computer program executed in a secure environment that directly controls digital assets
  106. Properties of Smart Contracts

  107. Properties of Smart Contracts Security Property

  108. Properties of Smart Contracts • Correctness of execution – The

    execution is done correctly, is not tampered • Integrity of code and data • Optional properties – Confidentiality of code and data – Verifiability of execution – Availability for the programs running inside Security Property
  109. Properties of Smart Contracts • Correctness of execution – The

    execution is done correctly, is not tampered • Integrity of code and data • Optional properties – Confidentiality of code and data – Verifiability of execution – Availability for the programs running inside Security Property Servers secured
 by trusted 
 hardware.
 (Intel SGX)
  110. Properties of Smart Contracts Digital Assets

  111. Properties of Smart Contracts • A broad category – Domain

    name – Website – Money – Anything tokenisable (e.g. gold, silver, stock share etc) – Game items – Network bandwidth, computation cycles Digital Assets
  112. Properties of Smart Contracts

  113. Properties of Smart Contracts Technical aspects of smart contract

  114. Properties of Smart Contracts • Requires parties to pay collateral

    before participating. • Use oracles (external trusted third parties) • Use network (miners are ready to do your work for a good incentive) • Cryptography 1. Commitments 2. Digital signatures 3. Merkle trees and authenticated data structures Technical aspects of smart contract
  115. Example: escrow service for exchange

  116. Example: escrow service for exchange A B E X

  117. Example: escrow service for exchange A B E X

  118. Example: escrow service for exchange A B E X A

    B E A B E I won’t give you Y Y
  119. Example: escrow service for exchange A B E X A

    B E A B E I won’t give you Y Y
  120. Example: escrow service for exchange A B E X A

    B E A B E I won’t give you Y Y A B E A B E X X
  121. Example: multisig • Require M of N “owners” to agree

    in order for a particular digital asset to be transferred – Individual use cases • eg. two-factor authentication – Intra-organizational use cases
  122. Demo Time

  123. ICOs Whitepaper Dapp Smart Contract Life cycle of a Dapp

  124. Research Problems

  125. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente
  126. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper
  127. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts.
  128. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts. • Scaling Issues ?
  129. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts. • Scaling Issues ? • Sharding
  130. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts. • Scaling Issues ? • Sharding • State channels
  131. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts. • Scaling Issues ? • Sharding • State channels • Privacy Issues (Ring signatures, ZK-SNARKS and Hawk)
  132. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts. • Scaling Issues ? • Sharding • State channels • Privacy Issues (Ring signatures, ZK-SNARKS and Hawk) • Ethereum Virtual machine and improvement in language models
  133. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts. • Scaling Issues ? • Sharding • State channels • Privacy Issues (Ring signatures, ZK-SNARKS and Hawk) • Ethereum Virtual machine and improvement in language models • Proof of work/stake model for x86_64 which is gpu and asic resistant
  134. Research Problems • How to write secure and correct contracts

    ? Need tools like Oyente • Can define your secure ethereum client based on yellow paper • Can define programming languages like rust for smart contracts. • Scaling Issues ? • Sharding • State channels • Privacy Issues (Ring signatures, ZK-SNARKS and Hawk) • Ethereum Virtual machine and improvement in language models • Proof of work/stake model for x86_64 which is gpu and asic resistant • Defining decentralised pools and exchanges and relays (eg. Smart pool and BTC relay)
  135. Research Problems

  136. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

  137. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function
  138. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc.
  139. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc. • Can we define a model to calculate the costs for a particular contract or at least provide some guarantee.
  140. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc. • Can we define a model to calculate the costs for a particular contract or at least provide some guarantee. • Can do various studies of economics in crypto-regime
  141. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc. • Can we define a model to calculate the costs for a particular contract or at least provide some guarantee. • Can do various studies of economics in crypto-regime • Behavioural economic models
  142. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc. • Can we define a model to calculate the costs for a particular contract or at least provide some guarantee. • Can do various studies of economics in crypto-regime • Behavioural economic models • Selfish Agents
  143. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc. • Can we define a model to calculate the costs for a particular contract or at least provide some guarantee. • Can do various studies of economics in crypto-regime • Behavioural economic models • Selfish Agents • Coordinated choices
  144. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc. • Can we define a model to calculate the costs for a particular contract or at least provide some guarantee. • Can do various studies of economics in crypto-regime • Behavioural economic models • Selfish Agents • Coordinated choices • How a blackmail would happen, what would be protocols for heist, Can there be a morality check on contracts
  145. Research Problems • Role of algorithmic incentives(game theory) in cryptocurrency

    • Transaction in blockchain = mining reward + mining fee + private cost function • Multi-Agents are involved like miners, type of transactions etc. • Can we define a model to calculate the costs for a particular contract or at least provide some guarantee. • Can do various studies of economics in crypto-regime • Behavioural economic models • Selfish Agents • Coordinated choices • How a blackmail would happen, what would be protocols for heist, Can there be a morality check on contracts https://github.com/ethereum/research/wiki/Problems
  146. प्रश्न एवं उत्तर