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Automated Testing in Android

Automated Testing in Android

Presentation I gave at Internal forum at work, looking at how to best struture your code for unit testing and Espresso testing.


Rebecca Franks

November 25, 2015


  1. Automated Testing 
 in Android

  2. Rebecca Franks @riggaroo www.riggaroo.co.za Android Developer @DStv for DVT

  3. Agenda • A solution to messy android codebases • Types

    of Testing • Setting up for Tests • Unit Tests • Instrumentation Tests • Code Coverage Reports • Google Cloud Test Lab
  4. Let me tell you a story…

  5. Meet Bleep He wants to make a quick POC for

    business. Activity Content Provider API Manager API Requests
  6. Meet Bleep He wants to make a quick POC for

    business. Meet Ms. Pink She Hears about a cool library Activity Content Provider API Requests API Manager Retrofit New Fragments + Features
  7. Meet Ms. Pink She Hears about a cool library Meet

    Bleep He wants to make a quick POC for business. Meet Mr Test Heard about tests – Wants to add unit test but tricky with android and too much that is not tested Activity Content Provider API Requests API Manager Retrofit New Fragments + Features Adds some Flaky UI Tests Story inspired by Romain Piel. Link at end
  8. ???? Crash reports keep coming in One year later…

  9. Observations • Android has no clear way to structure apps

    • Activities get messy. Everything ends up sitting in the activity class. • Difficult to test this kind of structure. • Hard to make changes • Almost always require a context for android tests.
  10. A Better Solution

  11. App Structure User Actions Presenter Updates View Model Updates Model

    State-change events View (Activities, Fragments) API (DB, file, REST API) Repositories
  12. Example App Loads a list of books that a user

    can click on and download. Can change language preference.
  13. Example: Folder Structure Data Folder: - Contains Repositories & APIs

    - Fetching stuff from server and/or device storage - Grouped by functionality Domain Folder: - POJOs - Possibly some business logic classes if wishing to separate it out Presentation Folder: - Grouped by functionality not class type - Contains MVP related classes per functionality folder
  14. Example:View Contract & Actions Contract Actions that can be executed

    from the View Methods that the presenter will call on the View
  15. Example: Activity Activity will then implement the View Contract and

    have a reference to a UserActionsListener
  16. Example: Presenter

  17. Example: Repository Could hit a cache here

  18. Example: API

  19. Types of Testing

  20. • Unit Testing • A unit test generally exercises the

    functionality of the smallest possible unit of code (which could be a method, class, or component) in a repeatable way. • JUnit • Mockito • PowerMockito • Two types of Unit testing: • Local Testing - Doesn’t run on physical device • Instrumentation Tests - Runs on an android device or emulator. • UI Testing • Mocking of typical user actions with your application. Clicking on buttons, typing in text etc. • Espresso • Robotium • Appium • Calabash • UIAutomator • Robolectric Types of Testing
  21. Where? • Unit Tests - typically live in the test/

    folder.* • Instrumentation Tests (UI Tests) - live in the androidTest/ folder. Unit Tests - Don’t need an android device or android APIs Android Instrumentation Tests - UI Tests - Unit tests that need an android device
  22. What? • Unit Tests • Repositories • BookDetailRepositoryImpl • Presenters

    • ListBooksPresenter • Any logic - calculations etc • UI Tests • Activities & Fragments • ListBooksActivity
  23. Setting up Project for tests

  24. • Set up folders in the following way • Using

    gradle build flavors – we can now have different APKs to use to test with • prodDebug • prodRelease • mockDebug • This can extend to point to have different folders per build environment.
  25. Gradle Flavors org.bookdash.android: app-prod-release.apk app-prod-debug.apk org.bookdash.android.mock: app-mock-debug.apk

  26. Dependencies

  27. Unit Tests

  28. Structure • GWT • Given • When • Then •

    Example: • Given I am logged in • When I click logout • Then I should see a login button
  29. • Within the test/ directory

  30. List Books Presenter Test

  31. List Books Presenter Test • Given: I have my language

    preference saved as English • When: I try load my english books • Then: The View should show the list of English Books
  32. • Given: I have a language preference saved as English

    • When: I load books and there is an error loading • Then: The loading indicator should stop and I should see the error screen with a retry button.
  33. Tips • Try to avoid passing a context around further

    than your View • Try keep android specific things in isolation • Possible to emulate some android.jar functions using PowerMockito
  34. PowerMockito

  35. Instrumentation Tests

  36. What is Espresso?

  37. • Android Testing Framework • Provided by Google in support

    libraries • Instrumentation Based • Simulates User interactions – Clicks , Swipes etc • Automatic synchronisation of test actions • Waits for App to be “idle” before continuing with operations: • No UI events in the message queue • No Async Tasks running in default Async Task thread pool.
  38. Formula ViewMatcher ViewAction ViewAssertation Basic Espresso Forumla

  39. Espresso Cheat Sheet

  40. Hamcrest Cheat Sheet

  41. Setup • Build Variants Dialog > Android Instrumentation Tests •

    Switch environment here too - mockDebug • Need to disable animations on device
  42. Setup • androidTest • Tests that should pass regardless of

    environment • androidTestMock • Tests that will run using the classes from the mock folder • Run the tests: ./gradlew connectedMockDebugAndroidTest Can setup a build server to run these instrumentation tests that will deploy to a device and test.
  43. Fake Book Data

  44. Basic View Assertions

  45. Intent Testing

  46. WebView Testing

  47. Idling Resource

  48. Code Coverage Reports

  49. Unit Test Coverage

  50. None
  51. Instrumentation Test Coverage • ./gradlew createMockDebugCoverageReport

  52. None
  53. Google Cloud Test Lab • Upload Test APK and Real

    APK • Select Devices to run it on • Get reports for the tests
  54. None
  55. Questions?

  56. Links • MVP Code Lab - http://www.code-labs.io/codelabs/android- testing/index.html • Ingredients

    for a healthy codebase - http:// www.slideshare.net/mobile/pileromain/ingredients-for-a- healthy-codebase • Espresso Testing Documentation - http://developer.android.com/ training/testing/ui-testing/espresso-testing.html • Espresso Cheat Sheet - https://github.com/googlesamples/ android-testing/blob/master/downloads/Espresso%20Cheat%20Sheet %20Master.pdf • Hamcrest Cheat Sheet -http://www.marcphilipp.de/downloads/ posts/2013-01-02-hamcrest-quick-reference/Hamcrest-1.3.pdf • Espresso Examples https://github.com/chiuki/espresso-samples • Johannesburg Android Developers Community - https:// plus.google.com/communities/107730573804920392616