explain what is important when learning a new programming language • I expect to show you that characterizations such as “it is a functional language” or “it is object oriented” is insufficient and most of the times innapropriate • I *Do Not* intend to teach you any of the languages
simple and consistent syntax • Heavy emphasis on message passing, not method call. (method is a message that returns an object that can receive the message call) • Easy to create DSLs • Excellent concurrency primitives (futures, corroutines, actors) • CRAZY amount of reflective power
a powerful type system (not as much as Haskell's) • Offers advanced FP concepts such as monads and type classes • Easy(-ish) to create DSLs • You can emulate non-strict evaluation with “call by name” vs “call by value” parameter passing strategies • Suffers from the Java legacy to a certain extent (nulls)
strongly typed and dynamically • Strong focus on good concurrency primitives and immutable & persistent data structures • Being a LISP, has macros • Being a LISP, code is data and data is code • Not so Lispy. No custom reader macros and no automatic tail call optimizations (schemers be mad)
simulate non-strictness using macros • Its possible to define the language on-the-fly, i.e., the language is internally reprogramable (heavy influce in both Ruby and Smalltalk) • Offers the CLOS-like long forgotten multiple-dispatch !
and no mutable state (!) • Unparalleled type system (at least in production-ready languages) with parametric types, type classes, algebraic data types and type inference • Offers the full pack of FP crazyness: Monads, Monoids, Functors, applicatives, Foldables and Semigroups are common ground among Haskell programmers • Much more close to Math, simplyfing the way we represent abstract, symbolic and self-recursive constructs