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Review of basic concepts about AGNs

Review of basic concepts about AGNs

This lecture is part of the course "physics of active galactic nuclei" offered to graduate students in astrophysics by Rodrigo Nemmen and Joao Steiner at IAG USP.

https://rodrigonemmen.com/teaching/active-galactic-nuclei/

C5ca9433e528fd5739fa9555f7193dac?s=128

Rodrigo Nemmen

May 20, 2016
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  1. None
  2. Rodrigo Nemmen Radiative Processes: Review of Basic Concepts AGA5727 -

    Active Galactic Nuclei Credit: ESO
  3. cosmic rays Fermi High-energy Astrophysics Gemini Swift Chandra HST VLA

    ALMA* SOAR GMT E-ELT LLAMA CTA neutrinos gravitational waves?
  4. None
  5. Ghisellini Difference between intensity and flux

  6. Ghisellini Difference between intensity and flux Difference between intensity and

    flux Intensity: measure of irradiated energy along a light ray (directional)
  7. Ghisellini Difference between intensity and flux Difference between intensity and

    flux you see each element of the surface under a different angle θ
  8. t: Basics 5 ch e is gle al ⃗ n

    sees disk Ghisellini Difference between intensity and flux inside the shell. to F nsity I and the total flux F must account for the fact t of the surface is seen under a different angle θ. See sider the projected area, and introduce a cos θ term in F = I cosθdΩ (1.15)
  9. Example of optically thin source R/⌧⌫

  10. Example of optically thick source R/⌧⌫

  11. 8 1 Some Fundamental Definitions Fig. 1.4 A layer of

    total optical depth τν ≫ 1 is observed face-on (left) and from an angle θ from its normal (right). The two observers receive always the emission produced in the shell of unit optical depth. But an optical depth of unity corresponds to the length AB (left) or CD (right). The two lengths are equal (AB = CD), but one is inclined, therefore the two volumes are different (by the factor DH/AB = cosθ) Ghisellini At an inclined angle of observation, the emitting volume is less by a cosθ factor
  12. Mean free path (for a photon) Average distance traveled by

    a photon without interacting Distance for which ⌧⌫ = 1 Path (for a photon) is the average distance ℓ traveled by a photon t corresponds to a distance for which τν = 1: τν = 1 → σνnℓν = 1 → ℓν = 1 nσν (1.44)
  13. Coulomb collisions a.k.a. as interaction between two charges mediated by

    the Coulomb force Frank et al. q1, m1 q2, m2
  14. Coulomb collisions a.k.a. as interaction between two charges mediated by

    the Coulomb force q1, m1 q2, m2 m2 m1
  15. Frank et al. b

  16. Electric field produced by an accelerated charge v

  17. Electric field produced by an accelerated charge

  18. 1.13 The Electric Field of a Moving Charge 19 Fig.

    1.10 The electric field produced by a charge initially in uniform rectilinear motion that is suddenly stopped. At large distances, the electric field points to where the charge would be if it had not been stopped. At closer distances, the electric field had time to “adjust” and points to where the charge is. There is then a region of space where the electric field has to change direction. This Electric field produced by an accelerated charge Ghisellini
  19. 1.13 The Electric Field of a Moving Charge 19 Fig.

    1.10 The electric field produced by a charge initially in uniform rectilinear motion that is suddenly stopped. At large distances, the electric field points to where the charge would be if it had not been stopped. At closer distances, the electric field had time to “adjust” and points to where the charge is. There is then a region of space where the electric field has to change direction. This Electric field produced by an accelerated charge Ghisellini electromagnetic wave (radiation) c t Run Mathematica demonstration
  20. http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~teviet/Waves/empulse.html

  21. Pattern of emitted radiation of accelerated charges Ghisellini f a

    Moving Charge 21 he ge el to
  22. Pattern of emitted radiation of accelerated charges Ghisellini he ge

    el to hat the pattern of the emitted radiation has a maximum per-
  23. Pattern of a dipole antenna http://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Felder_um_Dipol.jpg

  24. Pattern of a dipole antenna http://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Felder_um_Dipol.jpg

  25. Pattern of a dipole antenna http://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Felder_um_Dipol.jpg

  26. Radiation pattern of oscillating dipole https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lx7LNVtQvTs

  27. The world in the fast lane: Relativistic photographs and light

    curves
  28. None
  29. ! 1

  30. Penrose, R. The apparent shape of a relativistically moving sphere.

    Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 55, 137 (1959) 
 Terrel, J. Invisibility of the Lorentz contraction. Phys. Rev. 116, 1041 (1959) 
 We figured out apparent shapes of relativistic objects >50 years after special relativity was published
  31. The moving bar A B Non-relativistic projected length: ✓ l0

    sin ✓ l0
  32. The moving bar A B ✓

  33. The moving bar A B ✓ te actual observed length

  34. Observed timescales and frequencies from relativistic sources A Lamp remains

    on for B ✓ t0 e Non-relativistic case: te = t0 e
  35. Observed timescales and frequencies from relativistic sources A Lamp remains

    on for B ✓ t0 e Δt between arrival of first and last photon?
  36. The relativistically moving square C D A B l0

  37. The relativistically moving square 3 Beaming orresponding to Γ =

    √ 2 and to CB = ℓ′ √ 2, Note that we have considered the square (and Ghisellini cos ↵ =
  38. Relativistic aberration and beaming

  39. John Walker

  40. John Walker

  41. John Walker

  42. John Walker

  43. http://people.physics.anu.edu.au/~cms130/TEE/site/tee/learning/aberration/aberration.html Relativistic aberration in frame S'

  44. http://www.fourmilab.ch/cship/aberration.html Relativistic aberration in three dimensions

  45. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SR/Spaceship/spaceship.html Relativistic aberration in interstellar travel

  46. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SR/Spaceship/spaceship.html Relativistic Doppler effect

  47. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SR/Spaceship/spaceship.html Relativistic aberration and Doppler effect in interstellar travel

  48. Relativistic source radiating isotropically in its rest-frame: beaming based on

    http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SR/Spaceship/spaceship.html
  49. None
  50. Doppler factor δ4 as a function of viewing angle, for

    different values of Γ Ghisellini n I = 4I0 L = 4L0 for a single, relativistic blob
  51. Moving in a homogeneous radiation field (i.e. relativistic blob moving

    in the BLR of a radio loud AGN) Ghisellini 3 Beaming hi, nice to meet you. I am relativistic blob escaping from a black hole
  52. Moving in a homogeneous radiation field (i.e. relativistic blob moving

    in the BLR of a radio loud AGN) Ghisellini actor Γ . In the rest of the blob the oming from 90° in are seen to come at 1/Γ . The energy seen by the blob is by a factor ∼Γ 2 ll of broad line clouds. For simplicity, assume that the broad line photons uced by the surface of a sphere of radius R and that the jet is within it. As- so that the radiation is monochromatic at some frequency ν0 (in frame K). moving (in frame K′) observer will see photons coming from a cone of semi- 1/Γ (the other half may be hidden by the accretion disk): photons coming 3 Beaming S frame S’ frame U F U' F'
  53. The first superluminal source detected in Our Galaxy Mirabel et

    al. 1994, Nature
  54. None
  55. Event Horizon Telescope Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)

  56. Mirabel et al. 1994, Nature Source: GRS1915+105

  57. None
  58. None
  59. Observed timescales and frequencies from relativistic sources A B ✓

    C Blob shines for t0 e
  60. Apparent velocity as a function of viewing angle, for different

    values of Γ Ghisellini 3 Beaming rent on of ction r the nel
  61. Useful relativistic tranformations Ghisellini 3.4 A Question 45 Table 3.1

    Useful relativistic transformations ν = ν′δ frequency t = t′/δ time V = V ′δ volume sinθ = sinθ′/δ sine cosθ = (cosθ′ + β)/(1 + β cosθ′) cosine I(ν) = δ3I′(ν′) specific intensity I = δ4I′ total intensity j(ν) = j′(ν′)δ2 specific emissivity κ(ν) = κ′(ν′)/δ absorption coefficient TB = T ′ B δ brightn. temp. (size directly measured) TB = T ′ B δ3 brightn. temp. (size from variability) U′ = (1 + β + β2/3)Γ 2U radiation energy density within an emisphere Dividing by ta = te(1 − β cosθ) we have the measured apparent velocity as βc t sinθ β sinθ