Satellite-based X-Ray Astronomy

Satellite-based X-Ray Astronomy

held by Max Schuster for the Sternenfreunde Brombachsee e.V.

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Sternenfreunde Brombachsee

October 01, 2013
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Transcript

  1. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Satellite-based X-Ray Astronomy Vortrag 2 Max Schuster Sternenfreunde Brombachsee e.V. 1. Oktober 2013 Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 1 / 41
  2. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy 1 Introduction 2 Building an X-Ray Telescope 3 An Example: XMM-Newton 4 Summarizing Comparison 5 The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 2 / 41
  3. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions Major part of the high temperature and high energy events, respectivly, are revealed in X-Rays Schmitt et al. 1991, Nature, 349, 583 NASA/MPE/K.Dennerl et al. Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 3 / 41
  4. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions Better understanding of the nature and evolution of these events and consequently of the universe itself Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 4 / 41
  5. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions X-Ray Binaries and BHs are ideal laboratories for testing the SRT and the behavior of matter under extreme conditions X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical: NASA/STScI; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss; X-ray Spectrum: NASA/CXC/ Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 5 / 41
  6. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions Great potential with regard to the observations of the effects of dark energy/matter X-ray: NASA/IOTA/S. Allen et al. Optical: HST Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 6 / 41
  7. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions Earth’s atmosphere only transparent to optical and radio → Photoabsorption ∝ E−7 2 dominant for higher energies like x-rays (100eV-100keV) CXC Thus ... for X-Ray observations one has to go to space Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 7 / 41
  8. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions After WW 2: → V2-experiments (solar X-Rays) by H. Friedman et al. 60ties: Further rocket experiments by R. Giacconi et al. (attempt to detect lunar x-rays) in between: some balloon flights Joern Wilms, X-Ray Astronomy I 2012 Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 8 / 41
  9. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions Former Missions NASA/GSFC 1970-1973: UHURU (NASA) 1978-1981: EINSTEIN (NASA) 1983-1986: EXOSAT (ESA) 1987-1991: Ginga (JAXA) 1990-1999: ROSAT (GER) 1993-2000: ASCA (JAXA) 1995-2012: RXTE (NASA) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 9 / 41
  10. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Why x-ray astronomy? How ...? Early times Satellite missions Present Missions / at work NASA-CXC 1999: XMM-Newton (ESA) 1999: Chandra (NASA) 2000: HETE-2 (USA) 2004: SWIFT (USA) 2005: Suzaku (JAXA) 2007: AGILE (Italy) 2009: MAXI (JAXA) “Golden Age” of high-energy astrophysics Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 10 / 41
  11. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Theory Mirror Systems Detectors Joern Wilms, X-Ray Astronomy I 2012 Snell’s law sin α1 sin α2 = n2 n1 =: n Total reflection reasonable ⇒ α2 = 90◦: sin(α1,c) = cos(θ1,c) = n =: 1 − δ Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 11 / 41
  12. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Theory Mirror Systems Detectors Joern Wilms, X-Ray Astronomy I 2012 Snell’s law sin α1 sin α2 = n2 n1 =: n (1) Total reflection reasonable ⇒ α2 = 90◦: sin(α1,c) = cos(θ1,c) = n =: 1 − δ (2) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 12 / 41
  13. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Theory Mirror Systems Detectors Using classical electro dynamics (see e.g. Jackson) one can show that for free electrones δ = ρ A Z reNA 2π λ2 ∝ ρ (3) With δ 1, a Taylor-evolution of cos(θ1,c) up to the second order and subsequent inserting in equation (2) one can deduce θ1,c ∝ √ δ (4) Typical value for λ ∼ 1nm: θ1,c ∼ 1◦ ⇒ “grazing incidence” To increase θ1,c comparison of eq.(4) and eq.(3) gives, that mirrors should be made of high density material like gold or iridium Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 13 / 41
  14. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Theory Mirror Systems Detectors Joern Wilms, X-Ray Astronomy I 2012 Wolter(1952) Typ I Typ II Typ III Kirkpatrick- Baez Focusing Collimator (“lobster-eye”) telescopes Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 14 / 41
  15. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Theory Mirror Systems Detectors NASA-CXC (numbers represent Chandra’s mirror system) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 15 / 41
  16. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Theory Mirror Systems Detectors Geiger-Counter (V-2 experiments) Ionization chamber (Vanguard rockets, GOES) Proportional counters (RXTE,EXOSAT,BeppoSAX,ROSAT) Polarimeters (→ TPCs) Szintillation detectors (HEXE) Semiconductor detectors (→ CCDs) (Swift, Suzaku, XMM-Newton, Chandra) Some future technologies (DepFET, etc. ...) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 16 / 41
  17. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now ESA Organization: ESA 2nd of the 4 cornerstone missions of Horizon 2000 first designs in 1985 Date of launch: 10th of Dec. 1999 Launcher: ARIANE V Goal: highest spectroscopic resolving power at medium spectral resolution high effective collecting area from 0.1 to 10 keV Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 17 / 41
  18. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 18 / 41
  19. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Wolter TYP I Acoll = 1550cm2 at 1.5 keV mirror surface: 51.4m2 Weight = 500kg PSF (resolution): ∼ 5 /20 (FWHM/HEW ) f = 7.5 m mirror substrate/coating: Ni/Au Number of “nestings”: 58 Aschenbach, 2000 XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 19 / 41
  20. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now Gondoin et al., 1998 / XMM-SOC-CAL-TN-0002 Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 20 / 41
  21. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now Meidinger, N., Andritschke, R., Hartmann, R., 2006, NIM A, 565, 251 Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 21 / 41
  22. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now Str¨ uder L., 2000, NIM A, 454, 73 Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 22 / 41
  23. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now EPIC-PN XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 23 / 41
  24. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 24 / 41
  25. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now EPIC-MOS XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 25 / 41
  26. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now RGS XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 26 / 41
  27. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 27 / 41
  28. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now Non-dispersive spectroscopy: An example XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 28 / 41
  29. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now PN-/MOS-Auslesemodi MOS... XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 29 / 41
  30. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now PN-/MOS-Auslesemodi PN... XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 30 / 41
  31. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 31 / 41
  32. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now Micro Meteorite Incidence ESA On 3/9/2005 an event was only recorded by MOS1 Similiar to former less energetic ones attributed to micrometeorite impacts data buffer overflow for the CCD across the whole focal plane MOS1 CCD6 no longer recorded events → all pixel signals et saturation level → CCD6 sustained significant damage → switched off Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 32 / 41
  33. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Basics Mirrors Detectors Up to now Survived launch Striking agreement with almost all simulated and predicted features → hardly any surprises Only few failures/defects Expected slow ageing-rate Unprecendented imaging and spectroscopic quality and output Together with Chandra current State of the Art in space Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 33 / 41
  34. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy XMM-Newton - Chandra Overview XMM-Newton All instruments operate seperatly and simultaneously less photon pile-up Chandra Only alternating usage of the instruments possible medium pile-up-rate XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 34 / 41
  35. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy XMM-Newton - Chandra Overview XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 35 / 41
  36. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy XMM-Newton - Chandra Overview And finally... XMM-Newton Users Handbook, Issue 2.10, 2012 (ESA: XMM-Newton SOC) Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 36 / 41
  37. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Future plans/programmes Bridging medium missions Larger X-ray missions NASA “Beyond Einstein”: 1 What powered “Big Bang”? 2 Find out how BHs manipulate space time and matter 3 Identification of dark energy ESA “Cosmic Vision 2015-2025”: 1 Planet formation and emergence of life 2 How does the solar system work? 3 Fundamental physical laws of the universe 4 How did the univ. originate and what it is made of? Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 37 / 41
  38. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Future plans/programmes Bridging medium missions Larger X-ray missions eROSITA: Launch: 2015 Measuring the distribution of galaxy clusters in space (∼ 105), 3 · 106 AGNs, etc. ... Energy range up to 11 keV Anatoly Zak, RussianSpaceWeb.com ASTRO-H: Launch: 2015 Investigation of hard X-rays (up to 80 keV) Formation & development of galaxies and galaxy clusters Probing the environment of BHs, NSs, WDs Nature of dark matter/energy on lager scales Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 38 / 41
  39. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Future plans/programmes Bridging medium missions Larger X-ray missions NASA/GSFC/MSFC/Nagoya/ISAS Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 39 / 41
  40. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Future plans/programmes Bridging medium missions Larger X-ray missions Athena+ ESA, The hot and energetic universe Launch: ∼ 2028 Aeff = 2m2 at 1keV Energy range: 0.3keV-12keV Angular resolution: 5 Focal length = 12m Origin and evolvement of hot Baryons Evolution and influence of BHs on their environment Astrophysics of the hot and energetic universe Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 40 / 41
  41. Introduction Building an X-Ray Telescope An Example: XMM-Newton Summarizing Comparison

    The Future of X-Ray Astronomy Future plans/programmes Bridging medium missions Larger X-ray missions Further/Next Steps Small and medium x-ray missions planned, proposed and approached (SGR, etc. ...) to bridge the time between now and the launch of the future large X-ray missions Conclusion Despite some uncertaincies (Funding, etc...) the high-energy x-ray astronomy has great future potential and simply can’t be ignored in the search of answers to the fundamental questions of today’s physics Max Schuster Sternenfreunde V2 41 / 41