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Scaling Wordpress (Takis Bouyouris)

Scaling Wordpress (Takis Bouyouris)

What to expect. How to prepare. How to react.

Transcript

  1. Scaling WordPress What to expect. How to prepare. How to

    react. Takis Bouyouris takis@nevma.gr
  2. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Contents • What to

    expect Scaling is a problem you WANT to face and it is going to happen sooner or later. • How to prepare General stuff you can do to make your WordPress installations lighter and less prone to heavy traffic. • How to react So, you are prepared now! So, your website's traffic increases. What do you do then?
  3. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 What to expect •

    Your website's lifetime • Child ~1.000 page views/day • Teenager ~10.000 page views/day • Adult ~150.000 page views/day • Maturity ~1.000.000 page views/day • Immortality ~scales out (millions of page views/day) (these numbers are rough estimates, of course)
  4. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 What to expect/Greatest issues

    • High traffic (traffic is traffic, obviously) • Poor server/hosting performance • Database clogging (do you actually know what queries your WordPress runs in the background when you do a query_posts?) • Spikes. Those dreaded spikes! Server killer
  5. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 What to expect/Greatest issues

    • Number of admins • Number of concurrent users • Frequency of content updates (is it a personal blog or a mighty portal?) • Customization complexity (what you do with all these filters and hooks!) • Services that cannot be cached • Comments • Competitions • Forms, ajax calls, etc
  6. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 What to expect/Greatest issues

    • Days to watch out for • Monday • Tuesday • Wednesday • Thursday • Hours to watch out for • Morning ~ 11:00 – 13:00 • Afternoon ~ 15:00 – 19:00 • Night ~ 22:00 – 24:00 • (That's nice! So, I have to be on the watch out 24/7?)
  7. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 How to prepare •

    WordPress is a simple CMS • Database architecture is very simple • For posts: wp_posts wp_postmeta • For taxonomies: wp_terms wp_term_relationships wp_term_taxonomy * but you do have a table for links • It is over-generalized • A fit-for-all solution • Therefore: not optimized!
  8. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 How to prepare •

    Minify and combine CSS files • Put CSS in the <head> • Minify and combine Javascript files • Put Javascript before </body> • Minimize HTML markup • Make as little http requests as possible • Allow Keep-Alive • Cache as much as possible • For as long as possible • Enable GZIP for texts • Compress images and sprite them • Avoid 404 requests • Avoid redirects • Use multiple domains • Reduce DNS lookups • Don't use cookies if not necessary or serve static content from cooki-less domains • Use GET for AJAX
  9. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 WordPress tweaks • Delete

    old post revisions from the database • Set revisions not too often • Set number of revisions retained low • Use as little as possible custom thumbnail sizes • Cleanup old sticky posts • Avoid customization of frequent hooks and filters like "pre_get_posts" • Avoid long post/taxonomy "not-ins"
  10. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Excluding sticky posts in

    "pre_get_posts" SELECT wp_posts.ID FROM wp_posts INNER JOIN wp_postmeta ON (wp_posts.ID = wp_postmeta.post_id) WHERE 1=1 AND wp_posts.ID NOT IN (1002,1063,566,1194,1276,1802,1932,1957,2139,2528,2366,2946,3024,3147,2976,3303,3360,3434,4057,4213,4469,4495,4703,47 61,4769,4866,4845,4905,4927,4956,4965,5019,5209,5327,5437,5321,5533,5405,5580,5606,298,5706,5625,5859,5977,6032,6049, 6155,6198,6257,6345,6228,6266,6291,6437,6504,6547,6656,6623,6816,6836,6864,6837,7003,7129,7363,7331,7556,7609,7778,7 818,7345,7713,7611,7926,7712,8016,8106,8090,8001,8065,8010,8233,8321,525,8334,8340,8519,8456,8606,8578,8635,7992,861 3,8715,8536,8358,8742,8790,8759,8754,8832,8847,8857,8885,8871,8952,9026,9052,8973,9099,9122,9167,9177,9245,9280,9295, 9381,9348,9307,9368,9475,9516,9545,9577,9573,9567,9560,9376,9620,9636,9688,9644,9773,9814,9835,9852,9695,9927,9909,1 0036,9975,9992,10116,10232,10241,10257,10183,10221,10133,10163,10335,10367,9656,10469,10416,10494,10502,10547,105 50,10609,10658,10635,10625,10618,10761,10789,10776,10814,10937,10990,11066,11093,11146,11235,11198,11133,11174,11 215,11219,11183,11322,11330,11464,11445,11478,11561,11579,11617,11547,11679,11713,11668,11760,11772,11793,11803,1 1797,11611,11898,11912,11971,11963,12083,12102,12157,10174,12121,12143,12221,12302,12309,12334,12426,12370,12453, 12499,12444,12491,12549,12563,12482,12596,12647,12662,12600,12693,12742,12752,12816,12787,12807,12776,12795,12811 ,261,12879,12927,12944,12965,12995,13014,13041,13046,13073,13104,13160,13136,13174,13131,13186,13294,13314,13348,1 3404,13426,13414,13500,13567,13576,13619,13655,13749,13769,13685,13770,13762,13795,13788,13791,13937,13954,14019, 14077,14131,14169,14238,14286,14361,14450,14432,14397,14512,14506,14596,14606,14613,14666,14727,14671,14680,14640 ,14755,14819,14855,14888,14914,14950,15018,15148,15181,15255,15268,15327,15405,15452,15439,15421,15447,15524,1542 7,15482,15560,15579,15644,15690,15731,15773,15715,15678,15830,15752,15872,15909,15926,15947,15975,15995,16071,160 33,16179,16249,16259,16274,16326,16337,16359,16400,16368,16443,16481,16498,16515,16473,16570,16522,16641,16724,16 675,16746,16826,16835,16858,16887,16918,16891,17007,17052,17014,17066,17149,17101,17171,17125,17225,17255,17246,1 7293,17360,17371,17380,17321,17430,17451,17442,17481,17421,17516,17522,17580,17590,17621,17721,17769,17786,17794, 17884,17873,17906,17914,17980,18067,18048,18124,18152,18134,18164,18269,18208,18223,18320,18388,18350,18363,18340 ,18392,18344,18335,18451,18465,18458,18518,18616,18629,18688,18728,18655,18821,18890,18841,19003,19076,19166,1919 3,19254,18871,19223,19230,18904,19260,18886,19278,19491,19586,19644,19562,19684,19880,20073,20069,20038,20100,202 33,20272,20267,20317,20325,20375,20465,20477,20494,20544,20595,20609,20629,20687,20808,20856,20987,
  11. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Oh, there was more

    of that 21066,21082,21008,21086,21117,21034,21074,21098,21172,21249,21307,21315,21347,21354,21366,21404,20874,21494,21542 ,21537,21572,21593,21652,21712,21760,21817,21843,21902,21871,22042,22072,22076,22147,22167,22198,22179,22232,2228 8,22317,22377,22570,22587,22632,22728,22766,22781,22793,22805,22817,22880,22933,22941,22856,22850,23277,23319,233 08,22673,23329,23388,23402,23423,23462,23531,23490,23582,23665,23650,23700,23732,23738,23772,23804,23920,23916,23 965,24004,24079,24056,24101,24153,24170,24072,24230,24276,24283,24295,24307,24330,24334,24360,24418,24479,24481,2 4505,24450,24542,24557,24577,24597,24608,24675,24688,24736,24673,24740,24770,24814,24848,24841,24804,24909,24918, 24923,24974,24959,24970,24992,25011,25020,25029,25052,25060,25086,25090,25095,25099,25109,25117,25132,25254,25192 ,25229,25307,25322,25333,25358,25383,25403,25411,25407,25391,25429,25488,25561,25586,25605,25650,25657,25691,2568 6,25682,25696,25748,25780,25837,25979,25990,25995,26007,26101,26165,26185,26193,26245,26280,26293,26347,26358,264 69,26503,26368,26491,26538,26548,26591,26663,26760,26678,26784,26789,26813,26880,26946,27011,27063,27036,27040,27 053,27087,27108,27151,27160,27170,27202,27290,27248,27228,27334,27384,27475,27440,27449,27519,27568,27608,27598,2 7632,27738,27784,27957,28003,28117,28131,28144,28173,28496,28455,28467,28591,28614,28719,28684,28663,28696,28768, 28838,28858,28919,28898,28930,28994,29050,29143,29287,29293,29380,29527,29505,29561,29537,29611,29696,29641,29814 ,29848,29860,29864,29888,29948,29987,30036,30007,30067,30094,30336,30360,30397,30513,30614,30618,30630,30694,3074 2,30829,30872,30881,31013,31040,31056,31288,31325,31347,31424,31454,31534,31573,31692,31749,31817,31879,31904,318 37,32059,32153,32161,32253,32372,32419,32418,32476,32484,32492,32750,32763,32857,32923,33122,33176,33248,33256,33 310,33394,33503,33562,33668,33626,33784,33778,33887,33985,34012,34017,34053,34083,34101,34139,34204,34254,34316,3 4377,34491,34489,34516,34568,34598,34676,34722,34805,34995,35023,35054,35060,35064,35085,35093,35107,35112,35143, 35182,35191,35389,35450,35527,35537,35553,35743,35735,35763,35898,35893,35914,36013,36151,36147,36310,36358,36391 ,36461,36456,36603,36618,36652,36665,36695,36747,36796,36893,36941,36958,37007,37107,37181,37268,37276,37316,3735 6,37427,37454,37487,37508,37514,37572,37615,37678,37815,37909,38156,38261,38417,38478,38626,38639,38672,38755,388 36,38864,39027,39045,39072,39130,39284,39351,39381,39493,39516,39558,39615,39645,39766,39911,39920,39931,39930,39 992,39982,40163,40223,40257,40278,40509,40535,40552,40611,40659,40772,40788,40856,40912,40935,40961,40993,41198,4 1280,41401,41448,41505,41596,41768,41792,41850,41982,42092,42053,42213,42266,42352,42423,42579,42612,42751,42794, 42846,42875,43028,43204,43277,43303,43370,43440,43650,43750,43786,43816,43841,43851,43929,43955,44036,44050,44064 ,44076,44113,44207,44293,44292,44351,44577,44615,44648,44755,44693,44881,44951,45047,45090,45095,45165,45188,4525 7,45420,45529,45625,45680,45734,45769,45771,45800,45813,45837,45881,45893,45908,45935,45917,45988,46015,46080,461 42,46168,46185,46317,46312,46371,46413,46518,46552,46693,46742,46766,46720,46861,46925,46941,47218,47268,47315,47 374,47378,47384,47391,47426,47398,47470,47479,47507,47513,47614,49209,49280,50050,50299,51072,52613,53004,53526,5 3676,54478,54583,55619,55891,56308,56890,57393,57424,57651,58504,58837,60845,61313,61596,61663)
  12. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 (Yeah, now we are

    just showing off) AND ( wp_posts.ID NOT IN ( SELECT object_id FROM wp_term_relationships WHERE term_taxonomy_id IN (1) ) ) AND wp_posts.post_type IN ('videos', 'galleries', 'competitions', 'post', 'nav_menu_item') AND (wp_posts.post_status = 'publish' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'future' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'draft' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'pending' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'trash' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'auto-draft' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'inherit' OR wp_posts.post_status = 'private') AND ( (wp_postmeta.meta_key = 'day_new' AND CAST(wp_postmeta.meta_value AS CHAR) = 'true') ) GROUP BY wp_posts.ID ORDER BY wp_posts.post_date DESC LIMIT 0, 1 Yeah, right!
  13. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Keep calm and cache

    on • Probably the single most important technique • Useful no matter how big your site is • All websites need to use caching • There are two areas where you can cache • The server • The browser (try to remain calm)
  14. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Server caching • Cache

    whole requests Use plugins like W3 Total Cace or Hyper Cache • Object and query cache Same plugins, but use it yourself, too (remember WordPress transients) • HTML fragment cache For instance cache the sidebar contents • Opcode cache Use APC in Apache for PHP Opcode caching (mostly useful in big monolithic websites)
  15. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Browser caching • Better:

    eliminate redundant requests • Add expires headers • Favicons -almost- never change • Font files -almost- never change • Styles and scripts rarely change • Images also rarely change (new ones appear, but old ones rarely change) • HTML might change often (it depends) • Be prepared to un-cache (invalidate) content In order to minimize requests
  16. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 What expires headers do

    They turn this: Into this: 200 (not OK!) 304 (that is OK!)
  17. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 How to react –

    Some tips • "Always be prepared" • Step by step • Child ~1.000 page views • Teenager ~10.000 page views • Adult ~150.000 page views • Maturity ~1.000.000 page views • Immortality ~scales out (millions of page views) A shared hostinng is fine Must cache (W3C Total Cache, Hyper-Cache etc) A dedicated server is appropriate An extra cache server (Varnish) will do the job CDN: it costs but it gets the job done (tweaking is still necassary)
  18. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Keep your options open

    • You can always use a CDN even from early on • Akamai • CloudFront • CloudFlare • AWS • Or a dedicated/managed WordPress hosting service • http://wpengine.com/ • http://zippykid.com/ • https://page.ly/ • http://websynthesis.com/ (just throwing some names, not recommending anything)
  19. WordPress Greek Community 1st meetup 19/06/2013 Further reading • http://www.webperformancetoday.com/

    • http://scalingwp.wordpress.com/ • http://www.slideshare.net/josephscott/scaling-wordpr ess-20731197/ • https://developers.google.com/speed/ • http://www.stevesouders.com/ • http://codex.wordpress.org/WordPress_Optimization /WordPress_Performance/
  20. Scaling WordPress What to expect. How to prepare. How to

    react. Takis Bouyouris takis@nevma.gr