Yuri Malheiros
September 24, 2013
98

# A Method to Develop Description Logic Ontologies Iteratively Based on Competency Questions: an Implementation

Paper presented on Ontobras - 2013

#### Yuri Malheiros

September 24, 2013

## Transcript

1. ### A Method to Develop Description Lo ic Ontolo ies Iteratively

Based on Competency Questions: an Implementation Yuri Malheiros and Fred Freitas (CIn - UFPE) (DCE - UFPB - Campus IV)

101

5. ### The methodolo ies are sli htly di erent, but share

common features. For example, iterative way of development and the use of competency questions

7. ### Includin axioms is a somewhat complex task, and most DL

ontolo ies don’t include them! But, they are the core of DL ontolo ies

9. ### We are creatin a method and a implementation that reasons

over Description Lo ic competency questions to build or evolve an ontolo y in an iterative way
10. ### ✓ Deﬁnition of requirements (CQs) ✓ Evaluation ✓ Automatic addition

of new axioms (with user’s a reement)
11. ### Suppose this ontolo y: Herbivorous ≡ Animal ⊓ ∀eats.¬meat Cow

≡ Animal ⊓ ∀eats. rass

13. ### Is it possible to answer the competency question correctly usin

the previous axioms?
14. ### Is it possible to answer the competency question correctly usin

the previous axioms? No.

16. ### The ontolo y needs more axioms to answer the competency

question correctly. Then, the system should ask the user.

19. ### The system adds the followin axiom to the ontolo y:

Grass ⊑ ¬Meat
20. ### Is it possible to answer the competency question correctly usin

the previous axioms?
21. ### Is it possible to answer the competency question correctly usin

the previous axioms? Yes.
22. ### The process 1. Load an ontolo y 2. Write a

CQ and deﬁne the expected answer 3. Does the current DL ontolo y answers the question? If so, the system shows that the CQ is satisﬁed and it returns to step 2. 4. However, if the system cannot answer the CQ, it enerates a question for the user and asks for the answer to it. 5. The user answer the system’s question. 6. Return to the step 3

24. ### The system has three components: - Natural lan ua e

query - Question enerator - Ontolo y builder
25. ### Natural lan ua e query It processes natural lan ua

e competency questions and make queries
26. ### Natural lan ua e query It uses OWL API and

HermiT OWL reasoner

29. ### is red wine a wine ? 2. apply a POS

ta er vbz jj nn dt nn

31. ### 3. check the rules Is-a question: is (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ (a|an) (Noun|Adjective|Number)+

is red wine a wine ? vbz jj nn dt nn
32. ### 4. identify entities Is-a question: is (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ (a|an) (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ is

red wine a wine ? vbz jj nn dt nn
33. ### 4. identify entities Is-a question: is (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ (a|an) (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ is

red wine a wine ? vbz jj nn dt nn
34. ### 4. identify entities Is-a question: is (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ (a|an) (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ is

red wine a wine ? vbz jj nn dt nn
35. ### 4. identify entities Is-a question: is (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ (a|an) (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ is

red wine a wine ? vbz jj nn dt nn RedWine
36. ### 4. identify entities Is-a question: is (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ (a|an) (Noun|Adjective|Number)+ is

red wine a wine ? vbz jj nn dt nn RedWine Wine

38. ### Question enerator This component is still bein studied, since it

represents a new description lo ics problem
39. ### Question enerator Currently, we are assumin that an oracle for

that problem exists. Then, the user provides the questions.
40. ### Ontolo y builder Add new axioms to an ontolo y

combinin a system’s question and an answer automatically
41. ### Is-a system’s question: Example: Is red wine a wine? Answers:

Yes, no, true or false Axiom: RedWine ⊑ Wine
42. ### Property value system’s question: Examples: Does bancroft chardonnay have only

color white? Do birds eat rass? Answers: Yes, no, true or false Axioms: BancrofChardonnay ⊑ ∀hasColor.White Bird ⊑ ∃eat.Grass
43. ### Existence system’s question: Examples: Which wines exist? Answers: A list

of classes separated by commas or “and”. For example, “red wine, white wine”. Axioms: RedWine ⊑ Wine WhiteWine ⊑ Wine

45. ### We tested the natural lan ua e query component usin

three ontolo ies: - wine.owl - pizza.owl - travel.owl
46. ### wine.owl is red wine a wine? true does bancroft chardonnay

have color white? true
47. ### wine.owl which red wines exist? Beaujolais, CabernetFranc, CabernetSauvi non, Chianti,

CotesDOr, DryRedWine, Mar aux, Medoc, Merita e, Merlot, Pauillac, PetiteSyrah, PinotNoir, Port, RedBordeaux, RedBur undy, RedTableWine, StEmilion, and Zinfandel which wines have su ar sweet? IceWine, LateHarvest, Port, Sauternes, and SweetRieslin
48. ### pizza.owl is napoletana a cheesey pizza? true which spicy pizzas

exist? AmericanHot, Cajun, CheeseyVe etableToppin , IceCream, PolloAdAstra, and SloppyGiuseppe which meaty pizza has toppin some ham toppin ? Capricciosa, CheeseyVe etableToppin , IceCream, LaReine, Parmense, and Siciliana
49. ### travel.owl is yo a an activity? true does four seasons

have ratin three star ratin ? true which adventures exist? BunjeeJumpin , and Safari which accommodations has ratin one star ratin ? Camp round, and Safari
50. ### To test the ontolo y builder component, we created a

TestWine class in wine.owl, and answered some system’s questions
51. ### Question: is test wine a wine? Answer: true Code: Class:

vin:TestWine SubClassOf: vin:Wine
52. ### Question: does test wine have only color white? Answer: true

Code: Class: vin:TestWine SubClassOf: vin:Wine vin:hasColor only vin:White
53. ### Question: which test wines exist? Answer: red wine Code: Class:

vin:RedWine EquivalentTo: vin:Wine and (vin:hasColor value vin:Red) SubClassOf: vin:TestWine

55. ### We developed a method and (partially) implemented a system to

support a novel process for terminolo ical DL ontolo y buildin (TBox)
56. ### We have two components runnin : natural lan ua e

query and ontolo y builder. Naturally, both need improvements: more complex CQs, more CQ types, etc.

58. ### We intend to: Build a complete tool to support this

type of development, and the tool may be inte rated with popular ontolo y environments like Proté é
59. ### We intend to: Study the decidability and complexity of the

new DL problem for the families of DL lan ua es Controlled tests with lar er ontolo ies for a fair evaluation