Reality's Dark Side: Quantum and Monkeys

12defde716586eb2d726d081a161756d?s=47 Fernando Cejas
November 07, 2018

Reality's Dark Side: Quantum and Monkeys

Quantum Mechanics focus on the study of the structure and behavior of subatomic particles, and our world is actually ruled by atomic and subatomic elements which have wave and particle nature...What does this mean?
Well, this might sound interesting (or weird)...

So in this talk we will try to learn and clear up these concepts. Join me in this journey and let's dive together into what is Quantum Mechanics and what has done for us so far. We will also explore Quantum Computing and its current state.

12defde716586eb2d726d081a161756d?s=128

Fernando Cejas

November 07, 2018
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Transcript

  1. Quantum and Monkeys Reality’s DARK SIDE: @fernando_cejas

  2. I am here because I’m nerdy and I love to

    learn an share experiences and knowledge. Hello! I Am Fernando Cejas • Twitter: @fernando_cejas • Github: @android10 • Blog: fernandocejas.com
  3. Agenda:

  4. Agenda:

  5. Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles

    to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies. If the present state of an object is known it is possible to predict by the laws of classical mechanics how it will move in the future (determinism) and how it has moved in the past (reversibility). Classical Mechanics
  6. Classical Mechanics

  7. Orbital motion of a satellite around the earth, showing perpendicular

    velocity and acceleration (force) vectors. Some ideas on classical physics: Newton's cradle five-ball system demonstrates conservation of momentum and energy using a series of swinging spheres. Trajectory of a ball bouncing at an angle of 70° after impact without drag, with Stokes drag, and with Newton drag.
  8. Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory,

    the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles. Quantum Mechanics
  9. Quantum Mechanics

  10. “Things on a very small scale behave like nothing you

    have any direct experience about... or like anything that you have ever seen…” “ Richard Feynman
  11. The “quantum” in quantum physics refers to the fact that

    everything in quantum physics comes in discrete amounts. A beam of light can only contain integer numbers of photons– 1, 2, 3, 137, but never 1.5 or 22.7 for example. No matter what you do, you will only ever detect a quantum system in one of these special allowed states. Quantum states are discrete Quantum physics tells us that every object in the universe has both particle-like and wave-like properties. It’s not that everything is really waves and particles or vice versa, it is a new kind of object called “quantum particle” that has some characteristics of both particles and waves, but isn’t really either. Particles are waves, and vice versa Elements of Quantum Mechanics http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/
  12. Until the moment that the exact state of a quantum

    particle is measured, that state is indeterminate, and in fact can be thought of as spread out over all the possible outcomes. After a measurement is made, the state of the particle is absolutely determined, and all subsequent measurements on that particle will return produce exactly the same outcome. Measurement determines reality To predict the results of an experiment, the only thing we can predict is the probability of detecting each of the possible outcomes. Given an experiment in which an electron will end up in one of two places, we can say that there is a 17% probability of finding it at point A and an 83% probability of finding it at point B. Probability is all we ever know Elements of Quantum Mechanics http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/
  13. Quantum physics has a reputation of being weird because its

    predictions are dramatically unlike our everyday experience. This happens because the effects involved get smaller as objects get larger. Quantum Physics Is (Mostly) Very Small One of the strangest and most important consequences of quantum mechanics is the idea of “entanglement.” When two quantum particles interact in the right way, their states will depend on one another, no matter how far apart they are. Quantum correlations are non-local Elements of Quantum Mechanics http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/
  14. The previous point leads very naturally into this one: as

    weird as it may seem, quantum physics is most emphatically not magic. The things it predicts are strange by the standards of everyday physics, but they are rigorously constrained by well-understood mathematical rules and principles. Quantum physics is not magic Elements of Quantum Mechanics http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/
  15. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain

    how the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics corresponds to reality. Quantum Mechanics Interpretations https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretations_of_quantum_mechanics
  16. Consistent histories Copenhagen interpretation Many worlds interpretation Many interpretations of

    Quantum Mechanics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretations_of_quantum_mechanics Relational quantum mechanics Ensemble interpretation De Broglie–Bohm theory Stochastic mechanics ...
  17. COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION 1 In the Copenhagen Interpretation, a measurement collapses

    the wave function to a spike at some position and the particle is said to exist at that point and nowhere else, to a precision limited by the famous Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.
  18. MANY WORLDS INTERPRETATION 2 In the Many Worlds Interpretation, measurement

    does not collapse the wave function, it merely samples one possible position from the probability distribution. All other possible measurements are also physically actualized somewhere, i.e. in other universes in the Multiverse.
  19. Quantum Fundamental Principles and Phenomena

  20. PARTICLE AND WAVE NATURE 1 One of the most amazing

    facts in physics is that everything in the universe, from light to electrons to atoms, behaves like both a particle and a wave at the same time. But how did physicists arrive at this mind-boggling conclusion?
  21. QUANTUM SUPERPOSITION 2 It is a fundamental principle of quantum

    mechanics. It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states.
  22. QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT 3 It is a physical phenomenon which occurs

    when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.
  23. QUANTUM DECOHERENCE 4 As long as there exists a definite

    phase relation between different quantum states, the system is said to be coherent. This coherence is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics and is necessary for the functioning of quantum computers. However, when a quantum system is not perfectly isolated, but is in contact with its surroundings, coherence decays with time,the relevant quantum behavior is lost.
  24. QUANTUM TUNNELING 5 It is a quantum mechanical phenomenon where

    a particle passes through a potential barrier that it classically cannot surmount. This plays an essential role in several physical phenomena, such as the nuclear fusion that occurs in main sequence stars like the Sun. The effect was predicted in the early 20th century, and its acceptance as a general physical phenomenon came mid-century.
  25. What are some of the everyday things that depend on

    quantum physics for their operation. How Quantum Mechanics has changed our lives
  26. Proteins and Enzimas Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lasers and Telecommunications GPS

    and Atomic Clocks Aircraft Materials Computers and Smartphones What Quantum has done for us https://www.forbes.com/sites/chadorzel/2015/08/13/what-has-quantum-mechanics-ever-done-for-us /
  27. A classical computer is a completely general-purpose machine: you can

    make it do virtually anything you like. Inside it's little more than an extremely basic calculator, following a prearranged set of instructions called a program. Conventional Computers
  28. LOGICAL GATES Classical computers building blocks: BITS TRANSISTORS

  29. A couple of questions arise: • Are we reaching a

    limit with conventional computers? • What about simulating quantum systems? Why do we need Quantum Computers?
  30. “Nature isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make

    a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical...” “ Richard Feynman
  31. “Nature is quantum, god damn it! So if we want

    to simulate it, we need a quantum computer…” “ Richard Feynman
  32. To solve problems which are unsolvable by classical computers. SIMULAT

    E THE NATURE CLASSICAL COMPUTER TRANSISTOR LIMITATIONS UNSOLVABLE EXPONENTIAL PROBLEMS Transistors cannot be smaller in order to avoid Quantum Behavior: Tunnelling. We can simulate Quantum Physical Systems accurately The need of quantum computers...
  33. Quantum computers promise to run calculations far beyond the reach

    of any conventional supercomputer. Quantum Computing
  34. “QUANTUM COMPUTING operates in the ALICE IN WONDERLAND world of

    quantum physics where the classical laws of physics do not apply...” “
  35. “A QUANTUM COMPUTER relies on ENTANGLED QUBITS (Quantum bits) in

    order to achieve SUPERPOSITION and perform CALCULATIONS”
  36. QUANTUM SUPERPOSITION 1 It is a fundamental principle of quantum

    mechanics. It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states. QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT 2 It is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.
  37. QUANTUM BITS - QUBITS 3 These are quantum systems with

    two states. However, unlike a usual bit, they can store much more information than just 1 or 0, because they can exist in any superposition of these values. The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers.
  38. QUANTUM BITS REPRESENTATION 3

  39. "The difference between classical bits and qubits is that we

    can also prepare qubits in a quantum superposition of 0 and 1 and create nontrivial correlated states of a number of qubits, so-called 'entangled states'," “
  40. QUANTUM GATES 4 In quantum computing and specifically the quantum

    circuit model of computation, a quantum logic gate (or simply quantum gate) is a basic quantum circuit operating on a small number of qubits. They are the building blocks of quantum circuits, like classical logic gates are for conventional digital circuits.
  41. QUANTUM DECOHERENCE 5 As long as there exists a definite

    phase relation between different quantum states, the system is said to be coherent. This coherence is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics and is necessary for the functioning of quantum computers. However, when a quantum system is not perfectly isolated, but is in contact with its surroundings, coherence decays with time,the relevant quantum behavior is lost.
  42. A normal computer that can only be in one of

    these 2^n states at any one time. A quantum computer with n QUBITS can be in 2^n states at the same time. A QUANTUM COMPUTER with 30 QUBITS can be in an arbitrary SUPERPOSITION of up to 1073741824 different states simultaneously. Some ideas and facts:
  43. The marketing mix is a business tool used in marketing

    and by marketers, originally can be used Quantum Computing Current State
  44. “Three decades after they were first proposed, quantum computers remain

    largely theoretical...” “ but wait...
  45. Quantum Computer...

  46. DEMO TIME

  47. Hello World Quantum!!! Quantum Program: The environment to run the

    simulation/experiment. https://hackernoon.com/exploring-quantum-programming-from-hello-world-to-hello-quantum-world-109add25305f Quantum Circuit: The virtual circuit to setup the experiment. Quantum Registers: The register which consist of qubits. Classical Registers: Register containing bits.
  48. Hello World Quantum!!! We use the Hadamard gate (H) with

    1 qubit for adding superposition state on it. In order to generate entanglement, we add Controlled-NOT gate (CX) which is a two-qubit gate that flips the target qubit. We add a Measurement gate for status check. https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor
  49. Hello World Quantum!!! Our logic in qiskit (https://qiskit.org/): https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor from

    qiskit import QuantumProgram. # QuantumProgram object instance creation. qp = QuantumProgram() # Create a Quantum Register called "qr" with 2 qubits. qr = qp.create_quantum_register('qr',2) # Create a Classical Register called "cr" with 2 bits. cr = qp.create_classical_register('cr',2) # Create a Quantum Circuit called "qc" involving qr and cr. qc = qp.create_circuit('HelloWorldCircuit', [qr],[cr])
  50. Hello World Quantum!!! Our logic in qiskit (https://qiskit.org/): https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor #

    Add the H gate in the Qubit 1 in order to create superposition. qc.h(qr[1]) # Add the CX gate on control qubit 1 and target qubit 0 # in order to create entanglement. qc.cx(qr[1], qr[0]) # Add a Measure gate to check the state. qc.measure(qr[0],cr[0]) qc.measure(qr[1],cr[1]) # Compile and execute the Quantum program. results = qp.execute(['HelloWorldCircuit'] ,backend ,timeout=2400) print(results.get_counts('HelloWorldCircuit'))
  51. Hello World Quantum!!! When we check results, we see 4

    quantum states 0000, 0001, 0010,0011 each having some probabilities associated with it. https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor
  52. IBM Q Experience https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/user-guide

  53. IBM Q Experience

  54. The Future of Quantum Computing? ...wait for it...

  55. Any questions? Thanks! • Twitter: @fernando_cejas • Github: @android10 •

    Blog: fernandocejas.com
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