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Reality's Dark Side: Quantum and Monkeys

Fernando Cejas
November 07, 2018

Reality's Dark Side: Quantum and Monkeys

Quantum Mechanics focus on the study of the structure and behavior of subatomic particles, and our world is actually ruled by atomic and subatomic elements which have wave and particle nature...What does this mean?
Well, this might sound interesting (or weird)...

So in this talk we will try to learn and clear up these concepts. Join me in this journey and let's dive together into what is Quantum Mechanics and what has done for us so far. We will also explore Quantum Computing and its current state.

Fernando Cejas

November 07, 2018
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  1. Quantum and Monkeys
    Reality’s DARK SIDE:
    @fernando_cejas

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  2. I am here because I’m nerdy and I love to
    learn an share experiences and knowledge.
    Hello!
    I Am Fernando Cejas
    ● Twitter: @fernando_cejas
    ● Github: @android10
    ● Blog: fernandocejas.com

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  3. Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects,
    from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects,
    such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
    If the present state of an object is known it is possible to predict by
    the laws of classical mechanics how it will move in the future
    (determinism) and how it has moved in the past (reversibility).
    Classical
    Mechanics

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  4. Classical Mechanics

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  5. Orbital motion of a
    satellite around the earth,
    showing perpendicular
    velocity and acceleration
    (force) vectors.
    Some ideas on classical physics:
    Newton's cradle five-ball
    system demonstrates
    conservation of
    momentum and energy
    using a series of
    swinging spheres.
    Trajectory of a ball bouncing at an
    angle of 70° after impact without
    drag, with Stokes drag, and with
    Newton drag.

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  6. Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics,
    quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix
    mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental
    theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales
    of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
    Quantum
    Mechanics

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  7. Quantum Mechanics

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  8. “Things on a very small scale
    behave like nothing you have any
    direct experience about... or like
    anything that you have ever seen…”

    Richard Feynman

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  9. The “quantum” in quantum physics refers to the fact that everything in quantum
    physics comes in discrete amounts. A beam of light can only contain integer
    numbers of photons– 1, 2, 3, 137, but never 1.5 or 22.7 for example.
    No matter what you do, you will only ever detect a quantum system in one of these
    special allowed states.
    Quantum states are discrete
    Quantum physics tells us that every object in the universe has both particle-like
    and wave-like properties. It’s not that everything is really waves and particles or
    vice versa, it is a new kind of object called “quantum particle” that has some
    characteristics of both particles and waves, but isn’t really either.
    Particles are waves, and vice versa
    Elements of Quantum Mechanics
    http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/

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  10. Until the moment that the exact state of a quantum particle is measured, that state
    is indeterminate, and in fact can be thought of as spread out over all the possible
    outcomes. After a measurement is made, the state of the particle is absolutely
    determined, and all subsequent measurements on that particle will return produce
    exactly the same outcome.
    Measurement determines reality
    To predict the results of an experiment, the only thing we can predict is the
    probability of detecting each of the possible outcomes. Given an experiment in
    which an electron will end up in one of two places, we can say that there is a 17%
    probability of finding it at point A and an 83% probability of finding it at point B.
    Probability is all we ever know
    Elements of Quantum Mechanics
    http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/

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  11. Quantum physics has a reputation of being weird because its predictions are
    dramatically unlike our everyday experience.
    This happens because the effects involved get smaller as objects get larger.
    Quantum Physics Is (Mostly) Very Small
    One of the strangest and most important consequences of quantum mechanics is
    the idea of “entanglement.” When two quantum particles interact in the right way,
    their states will depend on one another, no matter how far apart they are.
    Quantum correlations are non-local
    Elements of Quantum Mechanics
    http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/

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  12. The previous point leads very naturally into this one: as weird as it may seem,
    quantum physics is most emphatically not magic. The things it predicts are strange
    by the standards of everyday physics, but they are rigorously constrained by
    well-understood mathematical rules and principles.
    Quantum physics is not magic
    Elements of Quantum Mechanics
    http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2010/01/20/seven-essential-elements-of-qu/

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  13. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain
    how the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics
    corresponds to reality.
    Quantum
    Mechanics
    Interpretations
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretations_of_quantum_mechanics

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  14. Consistent histories
    Copenhagen interpretation
    Many worlds interpretation
    Many interpretations of
    Quantum Mechanics:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretations_of_quantum_mechanics
    Relational quantum mechanics
    Ensemble interpretation
    De Broglie–Bohm theory
    Stochastic mechanics
    ...

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  15. COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION
    1
    In the Copenhagen Interpretation, a measurement collapses the wave function to
    a spike at some position and the particle is said to exist at that point and nowhere
    else, to a precision limited by the famous Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.

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  16. MANY WORLDS INTERPRETATION
    2
    In the Many Worlds Interpretation, measurement does not collapse the wave
    function, it merely samples one possible position from the probability
    distribution. All other possible measurements are also physically actualized
    somewhere, i.e. in other universes in the Multiverse.

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  17. Quantum
    Fundamental
    Principles and
    Phenomena

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  18. PARTICLE AND WAVE NATURE
    1
    One of the most amazing facts in physics is that everything in the universe, from light
    to electrons to atoms, behaves like both a particle and a wave at the same time. But how
    did physicists arrive at this mind-boggling conclusion?

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  19. QUANTUM SUPERPOSITION
    2
    It is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that, much like waves in
    classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together
    ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that
    every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states.

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  20. QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT
    3
    It is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are
    generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of
    each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when
    the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be
    described for the system as a whole.

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  21. QUANTUM DECOHERENCE
    4
    As long as there exists a definite phase relation between different quantum states, the
    system is said to be coherent. This coherence is a fundamental property of quantum
    mechanics and is necessary for the functioning of quantum computers. However, when
    a quantum system is not perfectly isolated, but is in contact with its surroundings,
    coherence decays with time,the relevant quantum behavior is lost.

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  22. QUANTUM TUNNELING
    5
    It is a quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle passes through a potential
    barrier that it classically cannot surmount. This plays an essential role in several
    physical phenomena, such as the nuclear fusion that occurs in main sequence stars like
    the Sun. The effect was predicted in the early 20th century, and its acceptance as a
    general physical phenomenon came mid-century.

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  23. What are some of the everyday things that depend
    on quantum physics for their operation.
    How Quantum
    Mechanics has
    changed our lives

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  24. Proteins and
    Enzimas
    Magnetic
    Resonance
    Imaging
    Lasers and
    Telecommunications
    GPS and
    Atomic Clocks
    Aircraft
    Materials
    Computers and
    Smartphones
    What Quantum has done for us
    https://www.forbes.com/sites/chadorzel/2015/08/13/what-has-quantum-mechanics-ever-done-for-us
    /

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  25. A classical computer is a completely general-purpose machine:
    you can make it do virtually anything you like.
    Inside it's little more than an extremely basic calculator,
    following a prearranged set of instructions called a program.
    Conventional
    Computers

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  26. LOGICAL
    GATES
    Classical computers building blocks:
    BITS TRANSISTORS

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  27. A couple of questions arise:
    ● Are we reaching a limit with conventional computers?
    ● What about simulating quantum systems?
    Why do we
    need Quantum
    Computers?

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  28. “Nature isn't classical, dammit, and
    if you want to make a simulation of
    nature, you'd better make it
    quantum mechanical...”

    Richard Feynman

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  29. “Nature is quantum, god damn it! So
    if we want to simulate it, we need a
    quantum computer…”

    Richard Feynman

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  30. To solve problems
    which are unsolvable
    by classical
    computers.
    SIMULAT
    E THE
    NATURE
    CLASSICAL
    COMPUTER
    TRANSISTOR
    LIMITATIONS
    UNSOLVABLE
    EXPONENTIAL
    PROBLEMS
    Transistors cannot be
    smaller in order to
    avoid Quantum
    Behavior: Tunnelling.
    We can simulate
    Quantum Physical
    Systems accurately
    The need of quantum computers...

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  31. Quantum computers promise to run calculations far
    beyond the reach of any conventional
    supercomputer.
    Quantum
    Computing

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  32. “QUANTUM COMPUTING operates in
    the ALICE IN WONDERLAND world of
    quantum physics where the classical
    laws of physics do not apply...”

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  33. “A QUANTUM COMPUTER relies
    on ENTANGLED QUBITS
    (Quantum bits) in order to
    achieve SUPERPOSITION and
    perform CALCULATIONS”

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  34. QUANTUM SUPERPOSITION
    1
    It is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that, much like waves in
    classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together
    ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that
    every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states.
    QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT
    2
    It is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are
    generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of
    each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when
    the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be
    described for the system as a whole.

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  35. QUANTUM BITS - QUBITS
    3
    These are quantum systems with two states. However, unlike a usual bit, they can store
    much more information than just 1 or 0, because they can exist in any superposition of
    these values.
    The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of
    quantum computers.

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  36. QUANTUM BITS REPRESENTATION
    3

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  37. "The difference between classical bits
    and qubits is that we can also prepare
    qubits in a quantum superposition of
    0 and 1 and create nontrivial
    correlated states of a number of
    qubits, so-called 'entangled states',"

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  38. QUANTUM GATES
    4
    In quantum computing and specifically the quantum circuit model of computation, a
    quantum logic gate (or simply quantum gate) is a basic quantum circuit operating on a
    small number of qubits. They are the building blocks of quantum circuits, like classical
    logic gates are for conventional digital circuits.

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  39. QUANTUM DECOHERENCE
    5
    As long as there exists a definite phase relation between different quantum states, the
    system is said to be coherent. This coherence is a fundamental property of quantum
    mechanics and is necessary for the functioning of quantum computers. However, when
    a quantum system is not perfectly isolated, but is in contact with its surroundings,
    coherence decays with time,the relevant quantum behavior is lost.

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  40. A normal computer that can only be in one of these 2^n states at
    any one time.
    A quantum computer with n QUBITS can be in 2^n states at the
    same time.
    A QUANTUM COMPUTER with 30 QUBITS can
    be in an arbitrary SUPERPOSITION of up to
    1073741824 different states simultaneously.
    Some ideas and facts:

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  41. The marketing mix is a business tool used in
    marketing and by marketers, originally can be used
    Quantum
    Computing
    Current State

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  42. “Three decades after they were first
    proposed, quantum computers
    remain largely theoretical...”

    but wait...

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  43. Quantum
    Computer...

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  44. Hello World Quantum!!!
    Quantum Program: The environment to run the simulation/experiment.
    https://hackernoon.com/exploring-quantum-programming-from-hello-world-to-hello-quantum-world-109add25305f
    Quantum Circuit: The virtual circuit to setup the experiment.
    Quantum Registers: The register which consist of qubits.
    Classical Registers: Register containing bits.

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  45. Hello World Quantum!!!
    We use the Hadamard gate (H) with 1 qubit for adding superposition
    state on it.
    In order to generate entanglement, we add Controlled-NOT gate
    (CX) which is a two-qubit gate that flips the target qubit.
    We add a Measurement gate for status check.
    https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor

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  46. Hello World Quantum!!!
    Our logic in qiskit (https://qiskit.org/):
    https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor
    from qiskit import QuantumProgram.
    # QuantumProgram object instance creation.
    qp = QuantumProgram()
    # Create a Quantum Register called "qr" with 2 qubits.
    qr = qp.create_quantum_register('qr',2)
    # Create a Classical Register called "cr" with 2 bits.
    cr = qp.create_classical_register('cr',2)
    # Create a Quantum Circuit called "qc" involving qr and cr.
    qc = qp.create_circuit('HelloWorldCircuit', [qr],[cr])

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  47. Hello World Quantum!!!
    Our logic in qiskit (https://qiskit.org/):
    https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor
    # Add the H gate in the Qubit 1 in order to create superposition.
    qc.h(qr[1])
    # Add the CX gate on control qubit 1 and target qubit 0
    # in order to create entanglement.
    qc.cx(qr[1], qr[0])
    # Add a Measure gate to check the state.
    qc.measure(qr[0],cr[0])
    qc.measure(qr[1],cr[1])
    # Compile and execute the Quantum program.
    results = qp.execute(['HelloWorldCircuit'] ,backend ,timeout=2400)
    print(results.get_counts('HelloWorldCircuit'))

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  48. Hello World Quantum!!!
    When we check results, we see 4 quantum states 0000, 0001, 0010,0011 each having some
    probabilities associated with it.
    https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/editor

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  49. IBM Q Experience
    https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/user-guide

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  50. IBM Q Experience

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  51. The Future
    of Quantum
    Computing?
    ...wait for it...

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  52. Any questions?
    Thanks!
    ● Twitter: @fernando_cejas
    ● Github: @android10
    ● Blog: fernandocejas.com

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