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Improving Ray for Large-scale Applications (Hao Chen, Ant Group)

Improving Ray for Large-scale Applications (Hao Chen, Ant Group)

At Ant Group, we have built various kinds of distributed systems on top of Ray, and deployed them in production with large scales. In this talk, we'll be covering the problems we've met, and the improvements we've made that make Ray an industry-level system with high scalability and stability.


July 19, 2021

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  1. Improving Ray for Large-scale Applications Hao Chen, Ant Group

  2. About me •Joined Ant and started working on Ray since

    2018. •Leading Ant’s Ray core team, which • Improves Ray’s functionalities, performance, reliability, and scalability. • Supports Ant’s various distributed applications and frameworks on top of Ray. • Contributed a lot of improvements to open source.
  3. Overview of Ant’s Ray applications •Real-time graph computing • Bridges

    graph computing and stream computing together. • Real-time fraud detection, data lineage analysis, graph-based ML, etc. •Online machine learning • Runs stream data processing, model training, and model serving in a single system. • Recommendation and ads systems. •Online computing service • Allows doing distributed computations on online services. • Online financial decision systems.
  4. Overview of Ant’s Ray applications (cont’d) •Distributed operational research •

    Allows quickly developing high-perf and robust distributed OR algorithms. • Online resource allocation. •[WIP] Large-scale Python data processing (Mars github.com/mars-project/mars) • Scales Numpy, Pandas, and Sci-kit learn. •Etc Ray as a universal foundation for all distributed systems!
  5. Ray scale at Ant

  6. Ray architecture as of 2018 Worker Node Object Store (Shared

    Memory) Driver Worker Raylet Worker Node Object Store (Shared Memory) Worker Worker Raylet Head Node GCS (Redis + Redis module) Application layer System layer
  7. Challenge: actor call performance Node Actor 1 Raylet 1 Actor

    3 Node Actor 2 Raylet 2 Actor 4 Streaming workers as Ray actors Send messages (actor calls) Example: stream data processing in online ML. Requirement: high-performance actor calls. • All actor tasks needed to go through Raylets. • Raylets became the bottleneck!
  8. Direct actor calls • Actors directly talk to each other

    via gRPC. • Get callee locations via Redis Pub/Sub. • RPC layer is implemented in C++. • Normal tasks were switched to direct calls by the community as well. Node Actor 1 Raylet Actor 3 Node Actor 2 Raylet Actor 4 gRP C gRPC 6x throughput GCS/Redi s Actor locations
  9. Actor call performance •Other RPC improvements • Hot path code

    optimizations. • Reduced task spec copies. • Java JNI cache. • Dedicated IO threads. • Etc. 10x throughput
  10. Challenge: actor failure recovery Node 1 Raylet 1 Actor 1

    GCS/Redis Node 2 Raylet 2 Node 3 Raylet 3 Acquire leases Actor 1 Actor 1 Lease granted w/ a timeout Duplicated leased granted due to network partitions • ❌ Actors may restart multiple times. • Severe for large clusters or bad network. • Workaround: sacrifice actor restart speed by setting longer timeouts. • Graph computing system: restart all actors if any actor fails. • Requirement: fast and reliable actor failure recovery. Raylet-based actor management
  11. GCS-based actor management •Distributed actor management is error-prone. •The number

    of actors in a cluster is limited (compared with normal tasks). •GCS for centralized actor management. •But … • Old GCS = Redis server + custom Redis module. • APIs constrained to Redis commands. • Hard to implement complex logics. • Hard to ensure fault tolerance.
  12. Head Node GCS service New GCS = RPC service +

    pluggable backend storage. • Fast and reliable actor failure recovery: • 100% successful. • Speed: 1 actor: ~1.5s; 10k actors: ~70s. • GCS fault tolerance: • GCS service can recover states from the storage. • Companies can use a reliable storge of their choices. • Other features based on GCS service: • Cluster membership management. • Job management. • Placement group. • More precise actor scheduling. GCS (Redis + Redis module) GCS service Pluggable storage Raylets, workers, etc gRP C Features not or not fully open-sourced yet
  13. Challenge: reliability and scalability •Environment errors and edge-case bugs occasionally

    failed Ray jobs. •Ray itself became flakier as cluster workloads increased. •Dev-ops difficulties raised as the number of clusters increased.
  14. Fault tolerance • Ray itself should be fault tolerant. •

    GCS: GCS service recovers states from storage. • Raylets: a daemon process monitors and restarts the raylet. • Nodes: K8s operator will replenish the cluster on node failures. • It should be easy to write fault tolerant applications with Ray. • Tasks/actors: convenient retry/restart API. • Placement groups: implemented with auto failure recovery. • Implemented libraries for common patterns. E.g., fate-sharing multiple actors. • Set up auto fault-injection tests to prevent regressions.
  15. Scaling a single Ray cluster •Scalability optimizations • Separated heartbeats

    and resource updates. • Reduced sizes of pub/sub and RPC messages. • Reduced number of connections. • Allow multiple Java actors to share one single JVM process. • Etc. •Now support 1k nodes and 10k actors in a Ray cluster.
  16. Deployment model •Prev: one Ray cluster per job. • Dev-ops

    overheads due to too many clusters. • Slow job start due to cluster initialization. • Low resource utilization. •Now: multi-tenancy. • Implemented process-level and node-level job isolation. • Introduced job-level config.
  17. Challenge: debuggability and accessibility •Distributed systems are notoriously difficult to

    debug. •Ray core team had to spend a lot of efforts helping users debug problems. •How to make Ray a self-service system?
  18. New dashboard •System and application states. • Resource usages, node/actor

    states, cluster/job configurations, etc. •System and application logs, errors, and key events. • WIP: auto root cause analysis based on logs and events. •Integrated common debugging tools. • C++/Python/Java stack viewing tools, profilers, memory tools, etc. Try new dashboard in OSS
  19. Job submission •Simplify job submission: • Users can submit jobs

    from a web portal or a RESTful API. • Users simply specify dependencies. Ray will download them into the cluster. • Dependencies are cached. A job usually only takes a few seconds to start if cache hit. •Open sourcing and integration with runtime env in progress.
  20. Future work • Scalability • Support 5k nodes & 50k

    actors in a Ray cluster. • Scheduling • Improve resource utilization and scheduler performance, esp. for large-scale clusters with mixed workloads. • Improve auto-scaling. • Ray for data-intensive applications • Improve object store and support running Mars on Ray. • Advanced features and common libraries. • Monitor actor states; Allow running different actor methods in different threads; etc. • Enhance C++ Worker.
  21. Thanks We are hiring! [email protected]