Algorithms are typically encoded in code. Sometimes, however, letting non-developers modify algorithms can be beneficial — but for that, we'll have to move the implementation of the algorithm from code into data. Doing so yields a bunch of interesting advantages.
Imagine that you're implementing a complex algorithm that encapsulates some business process at your company. The business stakeholders are pleased, but sometimes come to you with questions, such as
Why is this calculation result so high?
Can you please tweak some factors in the algorithm?
One-off requests like these are probably fine, but occasionally they can be so numerous that you end up spending a significant amount of your time dealing with incoming requests. (You have more interesting stuff to do!) Ideally, business stakeholders themselves would be able to figure out why that calculation result is so high, and would be able to change the factors themselves.
The implementation of the algorithm is in code – and it is typically not feasible to let business stakeholders handle code. (They have more interesting stuff to do!) We can move the algorithm's implementation out of code and into data… and that yields us a bunch of interesting advantages.