NYU Observational astronomy 2013-2014

2a1046385e6cf8e4d07d590f9821ece5?s=47 federica
June 17, 2015

NYU Observational astronomy 2013-2014

class I

2a1046385e6cf8e4d07d590f9821ece5?s=128

federica

June 17, 2015
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  1. lecture 1 overview - coordinates observational astronomy

  2. lecture 1 overview - coordinates observational astronomy federica bianco office:

    Meyer 545 email: fbianco@nyu.edu TA: nitya doddamane email: nityamd@nyu.edu
  3. lecture 1 overview - coordinates observational astronomy federica bianco office:

    Meyer 545 email: fbianco@nyu.edu office hours: tuesday 930-1030 class: 2 M labs: 7-9 MW meet in Meyer 224, on time or you WILL be left behind!
  4. lecture 1 overview - coordinates observational astronomy federica bianco office:

    Meyer 545 email: fbianco@nyu.edu Grades are based on • 25% labs (20% on written material, 5% on pre-class questions) • 15% homeworks (5% on pre-class questions) • 25% the midterm • 35% the final
  5. lecture 1 overview - coordinates observational astronomy Useful links: •

    http://cosmo.nyu.edu/~fb55/obsast_fall2013/ • http://apod.nasa.gov • http://www.wikipedia.org/ • http://www.wikisky.org • http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=astrometry.net
  6. lecture 1 overview - coordinates observational astronomy Useful software: •

    stellarium Useful apps for smart phones: • google sky map app • the invisible universe
  7. lecture 1 overview - coordinates sky map app

  8. lecture 1 overview - coordinates sky map app

  9. lecture 1 overview - coordinates sky map app the invisible

    universe Joshua Peek
  10. lecture 1 overview - coordinates goals:

  11. lecture 1 overview - coordinates goals: •familiarize with and orient

    yourself in the night sky •understand (and predict!) basic observable astronomy phenomena •understanding the scientific method
  12. lecture 1 overview - coordinates goals: •familiarize with and orient

    yourself in the night sky •understand (and predict!) basic observable astronomy phenomena •understanding the scientific method
  13. lecture 1 overview - coordinates

  14. None
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  22. on a different night ... on a different night ...

  23. on a different night ...

  24. on a very different night ...

  25. lecture 1 overview - coordinates

  26. lecture 1 overview - coordinates north and south celestial poles

    Taide Observatory, Canary islands, Spain
  27. lecture 1 overview - coordinates THE UNIVERSE IS NOT A

    SPHERE! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lD-5ZOipE48 Frank Summers, Space Telescope Science Institute
  28. lecture 1 overview - coordinates the celestial sphere http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rotating_earth_(Very_small).gif

  29. lecture 1 overview - coordinates the celestial sphere

  30. lecture 1 overview - coordinates concepts about angles: 1 degree

    = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 365 days 360 degrees = 24 hours -> 1 hour = 15 degree
  31. lecture 1 overview - coordinates concepts about angles: 1 degree

    = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 360 degrees = 24 hours -> 1 hour = 15 degree 90o
  32. lecture 1 overview - coordinates concepts about angles: 1 degree

    = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 360 degrees = 24 hours -> 1 hour = 15 degree 180o
  33. lecture 1 overview - coordinates concepts about angles: 1 degree

    = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 360 degrees = 24 hours -> 1 hour = 15 degree 270o
  34. lecture 1 overview - coordinates concepts about angles: 1 degree

    = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 360 degrees = 24 hours -> 1 hour = 15 degree 270o
  35. lecture 1 overview - coordinates concepts about angles: 1 degree

    = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 360 degrees = 24 hours -> 1 hour = 15 degree 270o 90o
  36. lecture 1 overview - coordinates concepts about angles: 1 degree

    = 60 arcminutes = 3600 arcseconds 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 360 degrees = 24 hours -> 1 hour = 15 degree 255o 105o
  37. lecture 1 overview - coordinates Distances and angles

  38. lecture 1 overview - coordinates s D Distances and angles

  39. lecture 1 overview - coordinates s D Distances and angles

  40. lecture 1 overview - coordinates s D small angle approximation

    Distances and angles
  41. lecture 1 overview - coordinates THE EARTH IS A SPHERE

    http://chandra.harvard.edu/xray_astro/navigation4.html
  42. lecture 1 overview - coordinates THE EARTH IS A SPHERE

  43. lecture 1 overview - coordinates THE EARTH IS A SPHERE

  44. lecture 1 overview - coordinates NP SP NP SP THE

    EARTH IS A SPHERE
  45. lecture 1 overview - coordinates NP SP THE EARTH IS

    A SPHERE
  46. lecture 1 overview - coordinates NP SP Equator THE EARTH

    IS A SPHERE
  47. lecture 1 overview - coordinates NP SP NP SP THE

    EARTH IS A SPHERE
  48. lecture 1 overview - coordinates s D Central theme in

    astronomy: IT IS REALLY HARD TO DETERMINE THE DISTANCE TO THINGS why? most things look like shapeless dots unless we have really powerful telescopes. Two objects at distance D separated by some separation s APPEAR separated by some angle theta. But seeing them separated by that angle doesn’t imply anything about how far away they are! Distances and angles
  49. lecture 1 overview - coordinates D Distances and angles Central

    theme in astronomy: IT IS REALLY HARD TO DETERMINE THE DISTANCE TO THINGS why? most things look like shapeless dots unless we have really powerful telescopes. Two objects at distance D separated by some separation s APPEAR separated by some angle theta. But seeing them separated by that angle doesn’t imply anything about how far away they are!
  50. lecture 1 overview - coordinates D Distances and angles Central

    theme in astronomy: IT IS REALLY HARD TO DETERMINE THE DISTANCE TO THINGS why? most things look like shapeless dots unless we have really powerful telescopes. Two objects at distance D separated by some separation s APPEAR separated by some angle theta. But seeing them separated by that angle doesn’t imply anything about how far away they are!
  51. lecture 1 overview - coordinates D Distances and angles s

    Central theme in astronomy: IT IS REALLY HARD TO DETERMINE THE DISTANCE TO THINGS why? most things look like shapeless dots unless we have really powerful telescopes. Two objects at distance D separated by some separation s APPEAR separated by some angle theta. But seeing them separated by that angle doesn’t imply anything about how far away they are!
  52. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle NCP Celestial Equator NP SP Eq SCP
  53. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle NCP Celestial Equator NP SP Eq •Vernal Equinox SCP
  54. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle NCP Celestial Equator NP SP Eq •Vernal Equinox R.A. SCP
  55. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle NCP Celestial Equator NP SP Eq •Vernal Equinox R.A. Decl. SCP
  56. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle Alt. / Az : tied to the observer •Celestial horizon •Zenith/Nadir •(north direction) zenith nadir C.E. NP SP Eq Horizon NORTH
  57. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle Alt. / Az : tied to the observer •Celestial horizon •Zenith/Nadir •(north direction) zenith nadir C.E. NP SP Eq Horizon NORTH Az
  58. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle Alt. / Az : tied to the observer •Celestial horizon •Zenith/Nadir •(north direction) zenith nadir C.E. NP SP Eq Horizon NORTH Az Alt.
  59. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle H.A. / Dec: tied to the observer/object •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Hour circle •Observer’s Meridian Alt. / Az : tied to the observer •Celestial horizon •Zenith/Nadir •(north direction)
  60. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle NCP SCP Celestial Equator NP SP Eq H.A. Decl. Alt. / Az : tied to the observer •Celestial horizon •Zenith/Nadir •(north direction) H.A. / Dec: tied to the observer/object •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Hour circle •Observer’s Meridian
  61. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle H.A. / Dec: tied to the observer/object •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Hour circle •Observer’s Meridian Other Concepts: •Ecliptic Alt. / Az : tied to the observer •Celestial horizon •Zenith/Nadir •(north direction) 23.4o
  62. lecture 1 overview - coordinates celestial coordinates R.A. / Dec:

    tied to the object, never changes •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Vernal Equinox •Hour circle H.A. / Dec: tied to the observer/object •Celestial Equator •North/South Celestial Pole •Hour circle •Observer’s Meridian Alt. / Az : tied to the observer •Celestial horizon •Zenith/Nadir •(north direction) Other systems: •Ecliptic •Galactic Other Concepts: •Ecliptic •Local Sidereal Time
  63. lecture 1 overview - coordinates summary 1. Celestial bodies move

    in the sky daily and seasonally due to the motion of the Earth 2. Although we live in a 3D universe for convenience we define position of celestial objects as if they were on a sphere with the earth at the center. 3. Some basic trigonometric concepts are needed to understand “spherical astronomy” 4. We use several coordinate systems, some tied to the celestial body, some tied to the observer 6. The earth spin axis and orbit of the earth around the sun are used to define these coordinates 8. The 3 main coordinate system are RA/Dec, Alt/Az, and HA/Az
  64. lecture 1 overview - coordinates reading Must read Edmund page

    2-4 carefully at least before the first lab (even if you are in Monday session: it is only 3 pages!!) Kaler Chapter 1-2 by next class. I realize this is two full chapters, and quite tedious as well. But we have to get over the basics of spherical astronomy quite quickly to be able to do the labs and to move on to more amusing material!