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The Immobile Web

The Immobile Web

Device diversity is about to get an order of magnitude worse. SmartTVs are hitting the market in mass this year. Sony, LG, Vizio, and Samsung are all shipping televisions with Google TV built in.

And if the rumors that Apple will release a TV this year are true, 2012 will turn out to be the year web developers start to tackle the glass screen hanging on our walls.

Why should web developers focused on mobile learn about the web on TVs? Because TVs represent the next challenge in device proliferation. They share common characteristics with their smaller brethren. They create new challenges and opportunities we haven't encountered yet. And most importantly, learning how to build for TVs helps inform our practices of building for mobile devices.

Jason Grigsby

April 16, 2012

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  1. e Immobile Web Jason Grigsby • @grigs • cloudfour.com Slides:

  2. Follow along @grigs bit.ly/immobile-web http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevegarfield/4247757731/

  3. None
  4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alphachimpstudio/4990357031/

  5. Photo by Alan Light http://www.flickr.com/photos/alan-light/216012860/

  6. None
  7. None
  8. Image source: http://gigaom.com/video/99-dollar-logitech-revue-worth-buying/

  9. Vimeo on Google TV

  10. Woah… it’s just a web page?

  11. View in Couch Mode

  12. If there is a coming zombie apocalypse of devices… http://www.flickr.com/photos/adactio/6301799843

  13. then TVs are likely the next wave. http://www.flickr.com/photos/athena1970/3935208655/

  14. consumes 32.7% of peak downstream traffic in U.S.

  15. Big enough to get its own button.

  16. 88% tablet 86% smartphone People often use mobile while watching

    tv. owners say they use their device while watching TV at least once a month. http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/double-vision-global-trends-in-tablet- and-smartphone-use-while-watching-tv/
  17. None
  18. http://www.flickr.com/photos/acaben/541334636/ “I nally cracked it.”

  19. None
  20. None
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  22. None
  23. http://www.flickr.com/photos/yamagatacamille/4267887034/

  24. http://allthingsd.com/20091111/nokia-apple/

  25. e current Apple TV doesn’t have a browser…

  26. http://www.flickr.com/photos/acaben/541334636/

  27. [People] “don’t want a computer on their TV,” Apple CEO

    Steve Jobs said today. “ ey have computers. ey go to their wide-screen TVs for entertainment. Not to have another computer. is is a hard one for people in the computer industry to understand, but it's really easy for consumers to understand. ey get it.” http://www.flickr.com/photos/acaben/541334636/
  28. And so, it turns out people want keyboards. I mean,

    when I started in this business one of the biggest challenges was that people couldn’t type.… And if you do email of any volume, you gotta have a keyboard. So we look at the tablet and we think it’s gonna fail. —Steve Jobs, 2003 http://www.flickr.com/photos/acaben/541334636/
  29. Big opportunity is an App Store on Apple TV.

  30. None
  31. Major Brands Using Combo of Web and Native

  32. Even Apple uses embedded webviews

  33. None
  34. None
  35. Apps = http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/1314251273/

  36. Apps = http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/1314251273/ Embedded Web Views =

  37. Apps = http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/1314251273/ Embedded Web Views =3rd Party Browsers

  38. Apps = If that is true, don’t you think Apple

    will ship Safari? http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/1314251273/ Embedded Web Views =3rd Party Browsers
  39. “By the summer of 2012, the majority of the televisions

    you see in stores will have Google TV embedded in it” Photo by JD Lasica/Socialmedia.biz http://www.flickr.com/photos/jdlasica/5181380514/
  40. ?!?!

  41. None
  42. Samsung 23.6% Vizio 15.4% LG Electronics 12.4% Sony 8.0% Toshiba

    7.8% Others 32.8% Q4 2011 US LCD TV Market Share
  43. Samsung 23.6% Vizio 15.4% LG Electronics 12.4% Sony 8.0% Toshiba

    7.8% Others 32.8% Q4 2011 US LCD TV Market Share
  44. Samsung 23.6% Vizio 15.4% LG Electronics 12.4% Sony 8.0% Toshiba

    7.8% Others 32.8% Q4 2011 US LCD TV Market Share
  45. Samsung 23.6% Vizio 15.4% LG Electronics 12.4% Sony 8.0% Toshiba

    7.8% Others 32.8% Q4 2011 US LCD TV Market Share ?
  46. None
  47. None
  48. =

  49. =

  50. http://www.unwiredview.com/2011/12/21/andy-rubin-%E2%80%9Candroid-daily-activations-top-700k-a-day%E2%80%9D-on-the-way-to-1-million-a-day-in-q2-2012/ Will Google TV follow Android’s path?

  51. Considering TVs helps inform how we build for mobile. http://www.flickr.com/photos/revdancatt/3789612273/

  52. And can help us avoid short-sighted solutions http://www.flickr.com/photos/pss/4876189045/

  53. So let’s dig in shall we?

  54. First, the good news.

  55. Surprisingly good browsers in newer TVs.

  56. Year Brand Model Score Bonus Points Notes 2011 LG 60PZ950

    221 6 2011 Sony KDL55HX729 222 6 2011 Sony NSZ-GT1 343 8 Google TV v3.2 2012 LG 47LS5700 302 8 2012 LG 55LM62BND1 302 8 2012 Sharp LC80LE844 281 0 2012 Samsung UN55ES6100 229 2 2012 Samsung UN55ES8000 244 2 2012 Sony KDL55HX750 267 6 2012 iPhone 4S 305 9 Running iOS 5.1 2012 Google Chrome 378 13 Chrome 18 on Mac html5test.com Total possible points: 475
  57. • backgroundsize • borderimage • borderradius • boxshadow • canvas

    • canvastext • csstransforms • csstransitions • fontface • generatedcontent • hashchange • hsla • input:autofocus • input:max • input:min • input:pattern • input:required • input:step • multiplebgs • opacity • postmessage • rgba • sessionstorage • smil • svg • svgclippaths • textshadow 100% of Smart TVs tested support
  58. • localstorage • applicationcache • csscolumns • cssgradients • history

    • input:multiple • input:placeholder • inputtypes:email • inputtypes:number • inputtypes:search • inputtypes:tel • inputtypes:url • webworkers • audio:m4a • audio:mp3 • cssanimations • cssre ections • draganddrop • exbox-legacy • inputtypes:range • video:h264 • websqldatabase 70% or more support
  59. • websockets • inlinesvg • inputtypes:date • inputtypes:datetime • inputtypes:datetime-

    local • inputtypes:month • inputtypes:time • inputtypes:week • input:autocomplete • input:list • geolocation • indexeddb • inputtypes:color • audio:wav • webgl • audio:ogg • csstransforms3d • exbox • touch • video:ogg • video:webm • audio* • video* Poor support for the following * is has to be a mistake.
  60. More importantly, the 2012 models are much faster.

  61. More importantly, the 2012 models are much faster. (How fast

    remains a secret. No one publishes CPU speeds.)
  62. So what’s it like to use these TVs?

  63. http://www.flickr.com/photos/nathaninsandiego/4829858186/

  64. e biggest problem is input.

  65. Welcome back T9. We’ve missed you.

  66. None
  67. None
  68. Which is why you see remotes like this

  69. Apple hasn’t solved this problem either

  70. Apple’s iOS Remote App Makes Life Bearable

  71. Nearly every manufacturer has their own apps now.

  72. Nearly every manufacturer has their own apps now.

  73. Nearly every manufacturer has their own apps now.

  74. One of the core lessons: Multi-screen world. It’s a multi-screen

    world. http://www.flickr.com/photos/marcof/5139160297/
  75. How does the web play in this new world?

  76. Two main methods of input on these TVs. (Other than

    linked apps)
  77. D-pads

  78. Pointers http://thecoolgadgets.com/lg-magic-motion-remote-control-updating-with-3d-button-gesture-and-voice-recognition/

  79. When done properly, D-Pad works very well. (Free Opera TV

    SDK Emulator!)
  80. When done properly, D-Pad works very well. (Free Opera TV

    SDK Emulator!)
  81. But when D-pads control on-screen pointers… Yuck!

  82. Pointers work well with on screen cursors, but are harder

    to use precisely. Easy to miss your target. Well implemented D-pad is faster.
  83. Plenty of experiments.

  84. None
  85. Touchpads integrated into remotes

  86. Voice control?

  87. Gesture Controls?

  88. Eventually something will stick, right?

  89. e TV Context http://www.flickr.com/photos/imnohero/2330548144

  90. e TV Context Yes, I said “Context.” http://www.flickr.com/photos/imnohero/2330548144

  91. Two great sources for information on designing for TVs

  92. http://dev.opera.com/articles/view/creating-web-content-for-tv/

  93. https://developers.google.com/tv/web/docs/design_for_tv

  94. http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisbartow/5835428673 Designing for a 10-foot UI

  95. • Limit paragraphs to 90 words • Break into small

    chunks • Line length: 5-7 words • Body text around 21pt on 720p and 28pt on 1080p • Add more leading • Minimum font size of 22px • Line length: 10 words or less • Generous leading Making text easy to read Google Opera
  96. None
  97. “A good rule of thumb is to increase the size

    of an element (such as an image or font) 1.5x for 720p and 2.0x for 1080p relative to the size of that element in a normal PC browser experience.” —Google TV Guide
  98. • When designing a web page for TV, the viewable

    area should display less information overall, and what's there should focus on a con ned set of tasks (even consider performing their desired task automatically or select by default). • Primary activity often revolves around quick information look- up (for instance, cast and crew details for a particular movie, weather reports, TV listings) and quick access to services. Web content for TV should therefore be optimised — in terms of overall presentation, navigation and functionality — and task- focused, giving quick and clear access to all relevant features and information. Optimize for tasks Google Opera
  99. None
  100. Hover is back!

  101. “ e main interface of Google TV encourages the use

    of the D-pad on the remote to make selections on a screen -- it's likely that users will keep this habit even on the web.”
  102. /* CSS */ #copyright { nav-down: #logo; } CSS3 Basic

    User Interface speci cation for directional focus navigation http://dev.opera.com/articles/view/tweaking-spatial-navigation-for-tv-browsing/
  103. button#b1 { nav-index:1; nav-right:#b2; nav-left:#b4; nav-down:#b2; nav-up:#b4; } button#b2 {

    nav-index:2; nav-right:#b3; nav-left:#b1; nav-down:#b3; nav-up:#b1; } W3C’s example of four buttons button#b3 { nav-index:3; nav-right:#b4; nav-left:#b2; nav-down:#b4; nav-up:#b2; } button#b4 { nav-index:4; nav-right:#b1; nav-left:#b3; nav-down:#b1; nav-up:#b3; } http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-ui/#nav-dir
  104. Unfortunately, only 2 of the 10 TVs I tested supported

    spatial navigation.
  105. Google TV jQuery UI Library http://code.google.com/p/gtv-resources/

  106. Unfortunately, I had trouble getting the Google TV jQuery UI

    library to work on non-Google TVs. Needs more testing.
  107. Both solutions require adding a layer of CSS or JS

    speci cally to support TV interaction. Interactions map to normal keystrokes which could cause unintended outcomes.
  108. • Google TV may not be able to render a

    page as quickly as your workstation. Performance Challenges Google Opera • Modest hardware. Somewhere between high-end smart phones and low end laptops. • Avoid overly heavy and complex JavaScript. • Avoid layering and opacity. • Low limit on caching. Cannot assume assets cached. Cannot rely on cookies for subsequent session.
  109. http://thereisnofold.com/ Uh oh… scrolling sucks on many TVs.

  110. Horizontal paging is preferred http://gtv-resources.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/gtv-jquery-demo/index.html

  111. Possible Screen Resolutions NTSC PAL Standard Definition (SDTV) 720x480 720x576

    Enhanced Definition (EDTV) 720x480 progressive screen 720x576 progressive High definition (HDTV) 1280×720 (720p) 1980x1080 (1080i/p) 1280×720 (720p) 1980x1080 (1080i/p)
  112. http://www.flickr.com/photos/horrortaxi/111625808/

  113. http://www.flickr.com/photos/horrortaxi/114911713

  114. • Only HDTVs. • 720p and 1080i/p • e exact

    pixel dimensions of the display varies by TV manufacturer. • Provides an auto-zoom feature which you need to design for or around. Supporting different screen resolutions Google Opera • Most modern web-enabled TVs support 1280×720 as a minimum resolution. • 720p content is usually upscaled • Virtual resolutions — as an example, the Nintendo Wii has a virtual width of 800 pixels. Height varies based on the type of TV (4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio) and user settings.
  115. Browserscope report screen sizes Actual resolutions differ greatly.

  116. Be aware of overscan issues http://www.flickr.com/photos/geektechnique/2476319455/

  117. None
  118. No problem. We’ll adapt to the screen resolution. http://bradfrostweb.com/blog/web/mobile-first-responsive-web-design/

  119. No problem. We’ll adapt to the screen resolution. http://bradfrostweb.com/blog/web/mobile-first-responsive-web-design/

  120. None
  121. HDTV!

  122. No worries. We’ll use media type. <link rel="stylesheet" media="screen" href="...">

    <link rel="stylesheet" media="tv" href="...">
  123. None of the TVs supported the TV media type.

  124. https://twitter.com/#!/patrick_h_lauke/status/190078528568569856 https://twitter.com/#!/patrick_h_lauke/status/190078688287653889 Media types are useless except for screen and

  125. Web developers are litter bugs. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpdaigle/3393858438/

  126. None
  127. Sympathy for the Browser Makers

  128. We need to be careful of the impact we have

    on the world. http://www.flickr.com/photos/samout3/3411361042/
  129. Detect a TV with JavaScript?

  130. Detect a TV with JavaScript? Nope.

  131. http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5351372848/ Alright ne. We’ll use device detection.

  132. Mozilla/5.0 (DirectFB; Linux; ko-KR) AppleWebKit/534.26+ (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0 Safari/534.26+

    User Agent String for a 2012 LG Smart TV
  133. Mozilla/5.0 (DirectFB; Linux; ko-KR) AppleWebKit/534.26+ (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0 Safari/534.26+

    User Agent String for a 2012 LG Smart TV Nothing we can use in that string!
  134. at sucks. http://www.flickr.com/photos/plunkmasterknows/357836855/

  135. What’s the solution? Honestly, I don’t see anyone actively working

    on it.
  136. Are Smart TVs the equivalent of phones before the iPhone

    was released? http://www.flickr.com/photos/rhodes/6297487639/
  137. Are Smart TVs the equivalent of phones before the iPhone

    was released? is gives me hope. http://www.flickr.com/photos/rhodes/6297487639/
  138. Responsive web design still makes sense.

  139. Choosing responsiveness, as a characteristic shouldn’t necessarily de ne the

    wider implementation approach. Device Experiences (i.e. standalone sites, aimed at a group of devices) can also be responsive, providing the exibility to support a much wider range of devices. —Stephanie Rieger

    M B E R 14, 2010 Smartphone Browser Landscape by P E T E R - P A U L K O C H Published in: User Interface Design, Mobile, Mobile Design, Mobile Development Discuss this article » | Share this article » Users expect websites to work on their mobile phones. In two to three years, mobile support will become standard for any site. Web developers must add mobile web development to their skill set or risk losing clients. How do you make websites mobile compatible? The answer is obvious: By testing them on all mobile phones, and by solving the problems you encounter. But, that’s a useless answer. It’s impossible to test your designs on every mobile phone out there. Within the mobile phone landscape, there are at least ten operating systems (OSs) and fifteen browsers that require consideration. Mobile devices are expensive, and not every web developer can afford to buy five to ten of them. Testing “on all mobile phones” is impossible for most web developers. In this article, I’ll give you an overview of the mobile web market, as well as phone platforms and their browsers, so that you can decide which mobile devices to test on. Then, we’ll look at how to set up a mobile test bed. Search ALA include discussions Topics Code Content Culture Design Mobile Process User Science Snapshot Most web designers and developers (not to mention the entire blogosphere) fall squarely in the high-end market. A cultural bias exists against OSs aimed at any other market. As a result, most people focus on the struggle between iOS and Android, and ignore the rest. This has to change. Stay in better touch with customers with No. 320
  141. “Testing on as many devices as possible is a great

    idea in theory, but in practice it is untenable. Even if we buy a few devices to try to cover more ground, they will be outdated in just a few months or a year at most. So are we supposed to buy multiple devices per year?” posted at 11:32 am on December 14, 2010 by klayon “If that’s the mobile landscape, I want no part of it.” posted at 07:22 am on December 15, 2010 by Polsonby http://www.alistapart.com/comments/smartphone-browser-landscape/
  142. What’s the solution? Honestly, I don’t see anyone actively working

    on it.
  143. Most stores have no remotes and no wi- http://www.flickr.com/photos/elmada/1431918753/

  144. Bring your phone for tethering to TVs http://www.flickr.com/photos/bendodson/3367856091/

  145. Don’t be surprised if your data gets used…

  146. What are people actually expecting when they buy a smart

    tv? http://www.flickr.com/photos/presta/623444414/
  147. Storage capacity not listed as a spec.

  148. Is there a Smart TV market?

  149. Opera TV Emulator http://www.opera.com/business/tv/emulator/

  150. None
  151. Google TV Emulator https://developers.google.com/tv/android/docs/gtv_emulator

  152. Google TV Spotlight in Chrome Fullscreen http://www.google.com/tv/spotlight-gallery.html

  153. Google TV Spotlight in Chrome Fullscreen http://www.google.com/tv/spotlight-gallery.html

  154. What lessons can we take away from TVs?

  155. 320 px Too much focus on the smaller screen.

  156. Why do we need to look at our phones to

    get directions? One vibration for left. Two for right. http://www.flickr.com/photos/williamhook/4225307113
  157. TV resolution reinforces this idea 1980 px 1080 px This

    is HDTV
  158. It may be multiple screens interacting together. Need to think

    about multiple screens. http://www.apple.com/ipad/features/
  159. It may be multiple screens interacting together. Need to think

    about multiple screens. http://www.apple.com/ipad/features/
  160. What does TV tell us about context?

  161. No context Context? What does TV tell us about context?

  162. Do we need a new way to talk about context?

  163. Or is TV context different simply because we’re still in

    the feature phone era of Smart TVs? http://www.flickr.com/photos/rhodes/6297487639/
  164. Net ix: posture de ning different experiences http://www. ickr.com/photos/ezu/66815736/

  165. “Some people at Net ix have been arguing for a

    single experience across all devices. is has never born out in any kind of testing. Instead, Net ix has a variety of experiences on different devices and even regions.” http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1339
  166. • User posture: Stationary, Lean back, on-the-go, shared • Input

    capabilities: pointer/keyboard, LRUD/OSK, Gesture/OSK • Navigation style: controls & windows, panes • Display capabilities: Hi-Res, near, far away, small, medium, large • ese constraints are really powerful. You need to embrace them to get to appropriate designs. http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1339
  167. When we need more control to craft an experience for

    a given device, how can we do so in a sustainable manner?
  168. http://www.flickr.com/photos/nathaninsandiego/4829858186/ Yes, Smart TVs suck right now.

  169. But it would be dangerous to dismiss them.

  170. None
  171. None
  172. Fundamental Truth: We can’t extrapolate future behavior from an experience

    that sucks.
  173. So even if we don’t have to design for TVs

  174. It behooves us to start thinking about and planning for

    what it will be like to do so…
  175. Flickr photo by Drift Words: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/11846265/ So we won’t build

    solutions for today’s problems and then nd ourselves surprised by what comes next.
  176. None
  177. Jason Grigsby @grigs • cloudfour.com Slides: bit.ly/immobile-web ank You! Special

    thanks to Patrick H. Lauke, the Google TV team, Flickr users sharing under creative commons & the kind folks at Beaverton Video Only. http://www.flickr.com/photos/sualk61/4083223760/
  178. Get 40% off of the print and 50% off of

    ebook version using code AUTHD at oreilly.com. OR Amazon link (no code): http://bit.ly/hf-mw