public good and should be shared effectively to maximise the beneﬁts that arise from the public funding of research. To achieve this the default position must be that data is open. We support the use of the CC0 waiver and CC-BY licenses as the most appropriate licenses for openness. • We endorse the concept of “Intelligent Openness” from the Royal Society report. Data must be accessible, legally usable, and technically usable to maximise the beneﬁts from sharing. • In speciﬁc and limited cases access to, or release of, research data should be restricted. There is existing and appropriate best practice in this space that can be adopted. • To support and maximise the re-use of publicly funded research data funders should promote and require best practice in data sharing and explicitly monitor and reward those who can demonstrate the re-use of data generated.
or places that best support its discovery and re-use, preferably in subject speciﬁc repositories. This will differ from domain to domain and between types of data. We do not think that publishers websites are an appropriate location for the storing of this data. • Support for the development of infrastructure that tracks the usage and discussion of data is crucial, we broadly support the ORCID initiative as part of that infrastructure. • Systems that support data citation and the tracking of usage are developing, require support, and should be retained in the public domain. We recommend and support the principles of the Amsterdam Manifesto on Data Citation. • Funders need to act explicitly to demonstrate that they value data sharing. This can be achieved through a) acting as exemplars of best practice in sharing their own data b) supporting those that demonstrate and embody best practice in datasharing and the development of new tools that support data sharing c) requiring data sharing as a condition of funding. Key recommendations II