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Getting back in the ring! Comparing Eclipse Microprofile to Spring Boot

Getting back in the ring! Comparing Eclipse Microprofile to Spring Boot

After many years of arguments debating the differences between Spring and JEE, it seemed that the Spring Framework finally came out on top. With the rise of cloud environments and microservices, application servers had nothing to offer against Spring Boot.
In 2016, the Eclipse foundation presented a new contender: MicroProfile. This approach for Cloud-Native Java, based on the proven Java EE technology, was advanced with an ambitious roadmap to catch up on Spring Boot. Time for a closer look: How do both compare? We are exploring similarities and differences in development, configuration, and operations and take a look at how well the MicroProfile project prepared enterprise Java for the cloud.

Tim Zöller

May 09, 2019
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Transcript

  1. Getting
    back in the
    ring
    09.05.2019, Mainz

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  2. Tim Zöller
    what do I do?
    2
    Mainz
    Freiburg
    Hamburg
    IT Consultant / Team Lead
    Java Developer since 2008
    Co-Founder of JUG Mainz
    javahippie
    @javahippie

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  3. Speed Memory PACKAGE SIZE A WINNER
    Things I won’t cover
    … although They might be important
    3
    Feel free to discuss these aspects with me afterwards

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  4. The Scenario

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  5. Online shop is running on
    own infrastructure
    Want to adapt new
    technology
    Nerd Fashion Inc.
    Imaginary Online Shop
    5

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  6. Sarah
    Senior Software Developer
    Matthew
    Senior Software Developer
    ABOUT THE TEAM
    Employees at Nerd Fashion Inc.
    6
    Helen
    Department Lead
    ?

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  7. Application Landscape 7
    Customer Service
    (existing)
    Complaint Service Order Service
    REST
    REST
    REST
    REST

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  8. Communicate via REST, Document Interfaces
    04
    03
    02
    01
    Requirements
    Apply resilience measurements
    Provide health status and metrics
    Configure everything externally
    8

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  9. Initializing

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  10. Maven or Gradle
    Java, Kotlin, Groovy
    Java 8 or 11
    Many(!) libraries
    Spring Initializr
    Access via Web or API
    10

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  11. Specification Examples
    Server implementations
    Java 8 only
    No additional libraries
    Microprofile starter
    Still in beta
    11

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  12. CONFIGURATION PROPERTIES

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  13. Configuration … 13
    … Should not require the application to be
    repackaged
    … should provide Multiple mechanisms
    … should be changeable at runtime

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  14. Spring Boot - Config
    Type safe Configuration Classes
    14
    @Value("customerservice.uri")
    private String clientServiceUri;
    @Autowired
    private Environment env;
    String uri = env.getProperty("customerservice.uri");
    1
    2

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  15. Spring Boot - Config
    Property Sources
    15
    1.Devtools global settings properties
    2.@TestPropertySource annotations on your tests.
    3.properties attribute on your tests.
    4.Command line arguments.
    5.Properties from SPRING_APPLICATION_JSON
    6.ServletConfig init parameters.
    7.ServletContext init parameters.
    8.JNDI attributes from java:comp/env.
    9.Java System properties
    10.OS environment variables.
    11.A RandomValuePropertySource that has properties only in random.*.
    12.Profile-specific application properties outside of your packaged jar
    13.Profile-specific application properties packaged inside your jar
    14.Application properties outside of your packaged jar
    15.Application properties packaged inside your jar
    16.@PropertySource annotations on your @Configuration classes.
    17.Default properties
    ORDINAL

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  16. Spring Boot - Config
    Write your own property source
    16
    public class MyPropertySource extends PropertySource> {
    Map myMap = new HashMap<>();
    public MyPropertySource() {
    super("myProperties");
    }
    @Override
    public Object getProperty(String name) {
    return myMap.get(name);
    }
    }
    2
    3
    1

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  17. Spring Boot - Config
    WIRE your own property source
    17
    @Configuration
    public class PropertySourceConfig {
    @Autowired
    private ConfigurableEnvironment env;
    @Bean
    @Lazy(false)
    public MyPropertySource test() {
    MyPropertySource propertySource = new MyPropertySource();
    env.getPropertySources().addBefore("systemProperties", propertySource);
    return propertySource;
    }
    }
    1
    2

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  18. Microprofile Config
    How to access the Config
    18
    @ConfigProperty(name = "customerservice.uri") // Injection Time
    private String clientServiceUri;
    @ConfigProperty(name = "customerservice.uri") // Just in time
    private Provider clientServiceUriProdiver;
    clientServiceUriProvider.get();
    Config config = ConfigProvider.getConfig(); // Programmatically
    config.getValue("customerservice.uri", String.class);
    1
    2
    3

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  19. Microprofile Config
    Config Sources
    19
    Static Properties File
    Environment Variables
    System Properties
    Your Own ConfigSource
    400
    300
    100
    ???
    Ordinal

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  20. Microprofile Config
    Write your own ConfigSource
    20
    public class MyConfigSource implements ConfigSource {
    @Override
    public Map getProperties() {…}
    @Override
    public int getOrdinal() {…}
    @Override
    public String getValue(String propertyName) {…}
    @Override
    public String getName() {…}
    }
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5

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  21. CALLING REST SERVICES

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  22. REST Clients … 22
    … should be type safe
    … should require low configuration

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  23. Spring Boot - REST TEMPLATE
    Simple construction of clients
    23
    1
    2
    @Component
    public class CustomerClient {
    @Value("${customerservice.uri}")
    String resourceUrl;
    RestTemplate restTemplate;
    public CustomerClient() {
    this.restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    }
    public Customer findCustomerByNumber(String customerNumber) {
    String path = resourceUrl + "/" + customerNumber;
    ResponseEntity response = restTemplate.getForEntity(path, Customer.class);
    return response.getBody();
    }
    }

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  24. Spring Boot - Feign
    Declarative Clients with feign
    24
    @FeignClient(name = "customers", url = "${customerservice.uri}")
    public interface CustomerService {
    @GetMapping(value = "/{customerNumber}", produces = "application/json")
    Customer findCustomerByNumber(@PathVariable("customerNumber") String customerNumber);
    @GetMapping(value = "/search", produces = "application/json")
    List searchCustomerByNumber(@RequestParam("searchString") String searchString);
    }
    1
    2
    3

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  25. Microprofile - JSON-B
    Define the interface to be called
    25
    @Path("/customer")
    public interface CustomerService {
    @GET
    @Path("/{customerNumber}")
    @Produces("application/json")
    Customer findCustomerByNumber(@PathParam("customerNumber") String customerNumber);
    @GET
    @Path("/search")
    @Produces("application/json")
    List searchCustomerByNumber(@QueryParam("searchString") String searchString);
    }
    1
    2
    3

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  26. Microprofile - JSON-B
    Build the REST Client
    26
    @ApplicationScoped
    public class CustomerClient {
    @Inject
    @ConfigProperty(name = "customerservice.uri")
    private URI clientServiceUri;
    @Produces
    public CustomerService build() {
    return RestClientBuilder.newBuilder()
    .baseUri(clientServiceUri)
    .build(CustomerService.class);
    }
    }
    1
    2

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  27. DIRECT COMPARISON

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  28. DIRECT COMPARISON
    Pretty similar
    28
    @FeignClient(name = "customers", url = "${customerservice.uri}")
    public interface CustomerService {
    @GetMapping(value = "/{customerNumber}", produces = "application/json")
    Customer findCustomerByNumber(@PathVariable("customerNumber") String customerNumber);
    @GetMapping(value = "/search", produces = "application/json")
    List searchCustomerByNumber(@RequestParam("searchString") String searchString);
    }
    1
    2
    3

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  29. DIRECT COMPARISON
    Pretty similar
    29
    @Path("/customer")
    public interface CustomerService {
    @GET
    @Path= "/{customerNumber}")
    @Produces("application/json")
    Customer findCustomerByNumber(@PathParam("customerNumber") String customerNumber);
    @GET
    @Path("/search")
    @Produces("application/json")
    List searchCustomerByNumber(@QueryParam("searchString") String searchString);
    }
    1
    2
    3

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  30. PROVIDING REST SERVICES

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  31. REST Services … 31
    … should be type safe
    … should require low configuration
    … should provide documentation

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  32. Spring Boot - REST CONTROLLER
    Defining a REST Controller
    32
    @RestController @RequestMapping("/api/order")
    public class OrderController {
    @Autowired
    private OrderRepository orderRepository;
    @Autowired
    private CustomerService customerService;
    @PostMapping
    public ResponseEntity create(@RequestParam("customerNumber") String customerNumber,
    @RequestParam("orderText") String orderText) {
    Customer customer = customerService.findCustomerByNumber(customerNumber);
    Order order = new Order(customerNumber, orderText);
    orderRepository.createOrder(order);
    return ResponseEntity.created(constructCreationUri(order)).build();
    }
    }
    1
    2
    3
    4

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  33. Spring Boot - REST CONTROLLER
    Swagger documentation
    33
    GET /v2/api-docs

    "/api/order/{orderNumber}": {
    "get": {
    "tags": ["order-controller“],
    "summary": "getOrder",
    "operationId": "getOrderUsingGET",
    "consumes": [ "application/json"],
    "parameters": [
    {
    "name": "orderNumber",
    "in": "path",
    "description": "orderNumber",
    "required": true,
    "type": "string"
    }
    ]

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  34. Spring Boot - REST CONTROLLER
    Swagger documentation
    34
    GET /v2/api-docs

    "/api/order/{orderNumber}": {
    "get": {
    "tags": ["order-controller“],
    "summary": "getOrder",
    "operationId": "getOrderUsingGET",
    "consumes": [ "application/json"],
    "parameters": [
    {
    "name": "orderNumber",
    "in": "path",
    "description": "orderNumber",
    "required": true,
    "type": "string"
    }
    ]

    Library needed!

    io.springfox
    springfox-swagger2

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  35. Microprofile - JAX-RS
    Defining a REST Controller
    35
    @Path("/complaint")
    public class ComplaintController {
    @Inject
    private ComplaintRepository repository;
    @Inject
    private CustomerService customerService;
    @POST
    public Response create(@QueryParam("caption") String caption,
    @QueryParam("content") String content,
    @QueryParam("customerNumber") String customerNumber) {
    Customer customer = customerService.findCustomerByNumber(customerNumber);
    Complaint complaint = repository.createComplaint(caption, content, customer);
    return Response.created(this.constructCreationUri(complaint)).build();
    }

    }
    1
    2
    3
    4

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  36. Microprofile - JAX-RS
    OPEN API Support
    36
    GET /openapi
    {
    "openapi": "3.0.1",
    "info": {
    "title": "Generated API",
    "version": "1.0"
    },
    "paths": {
    "/api/complaint": {
    "get": {
    "responses": {
    "200": {
    "description": "OK",
    "content": {
    "*/*": {}
    }
    }

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  37. DIRECT COMPARISON

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  38. DIRECT COMPARISON
    PRETTY SIMILAR
    38
    @RestController @RequestMapping("/api/order")
    public class OrderController {
    @Autowired
    private OrderRepository orderRepository;
    @Autowired
    private CustomerService customerService;
    @PostMapping
    public ResponseEntity create(@RequestParam("customerNumber") String customerNumber,
    @RequestParam("orderText") String orderText) {
    Customer customer = customerService.findCustomerByNumber(customerNumber);
    Order order = new Order(customerNumber, orderText);
    orderRepository.createOrder(order);
    return ResponseEntity.created(constructCreationUri(order)).build();
    }
    }
    1
    2
    3
    4

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  39. DIRECT COMPARISON
    PRETTY SIMILAR
    39
    @Path("/api/order")
    public class OrderController {
    @Inject
    private OrderRepository orderRepository;
    @Inject
    private CustomerService customerService;
    @POST
    public Response create(@QueryParam("customerNumber") String customerNumber,
    @QueryParam("orderText") String orderText) {
    Customer customer = customerService.findCustomerByNumber(customerNumber);
    Order order = new Order(customerNumber, orderText);
    orderRepository.createOrder(order);
    return Response.created(constructCreationUri(order)).build();
    }

    }
    1
    3
    4
    2

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  40. RESILIENCE MEASURES

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  41. RESILIENCE … 41
    … should react on different error scenarios
    … should enable the developer to provide
    fallbacks

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  42. Hystrix Resilience4j
    Spring Boot – Fault Tolerance
    An overview
    42

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  43. Spring Boot – Hystrix
    Application
    43
    @Component
    public class CustomerClient {
    @Value("${customerservice.uri}")
    String resourceUrl;
    RestTemplate restTemplate;
    public CustomerClient() {
    this.restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    }
    @HystrixCommand(raiseHystrixExceptions = HystrixException.RUNTIME_EXCEPTION)
    public Customer findCustomerByNumber(String customerNumber) {
    String path = resourceUrl + "/" + customerNumber;
    ResponseEntity response = restTemplate.getForEntity(path, Customer.class);
    return response.getBody();
    }
    }
    1

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  44. Retry
    Try and call the same method again
    Rate Limiter
    Define the number of calls per timeframe
    Fallback
    React to an outage with a fallback
    Circuitbreaker
    Let services fail fast and don’t call them again
    Bulkhead
    Limit concurrent requests
    Spring Boot – Resilience4j
    Mechanisms
    44

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  45. Spring Boot – Fault Tolerance
    Resilience4j – Circuit breaker
    45
    @RestController @RequestMapping("/api/order")
    public class OrderController {
    @Autowired
    private CustomerClient customerClient;
    @Autowired
    private CircuitBreakerConfig cbConfig;
    private Function clientCall;
    @PostConstruct
    public void init() {
    CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker = CircuitBreakerRegistry.of(cbConfig).circuitBreaker("customer-client");
    clientCall = CircuitBreaker.decorateFunction(circuitBreaker, customerClient::findCustomerByNumber);
    }
    private Customer findCustomer(String customerNumber) {
    return clientCall.apply(customerNumber);
    }
    1
    2
    3

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  46. Spring Boot – Fault Tolerance
    Resilience4j – Circuit breaker
    46
    1
    @Component
    public class CustomerClient {
    @Value("${customerservice.uri}")
    String resourceUrl;
    RestTemplate restTemplate;
    public CustomerClient() {
    this.restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    }
    @CircuitBreaker(name = "customer-cb")
    @RateLimiter(name = "customer-limiter")
    public Customer findCustomerByNumber(String customerNumber) {
    String path = resourceUrl + "/" + customerNumber;
    ResponseEntity response = restTemplate.getForEntity(path, Customer.class);
    return response.getBody();
    }
    }

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  47. Spring Boot – Fault Tolerance
    Resilience4j – Circuit breaker
    47
    1
    @Component
    public class CustomerClient {
    @Value("${customerservice.uri}")
    String resourceUrl;
    RestTemplate restTemplate;
    public CustomerClient() {
    this.restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    }
    @CircuitBreaker(name = "customer-cb")
    @RateLimiter(name = "customer-limiter")
    public Customer findCustomerByNumber(String customerNumber) {
    String path = resourceUrl + "/" + customerNumber;
    ResponseEntity response = restTemplate.getForEntity(path, Customer.class);
    return response.getBody();
    }
    }
    Library needed!
    io.github.resilience4j
    resilience4j-spring-boot2
    0.13.2

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  48. Spring Boot – Fault Tolerance
    Resilience4j – Circuit breaker
    48
    1
    @Component
    public class CustomerClient {
    @Value("${customerservice.uri}")
    String resourceUrl;
    RestTemplate restTemplate;
    public CustomerClient() {
    this.restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    }
    @CircuitBreaker(name = "customer-cb")
    @RateLimiter(name = "customer-limiter")
    public Customer findCustomerByNumber(String customerNumber) {
    String path = resourceUrl + "/" + customerNumber;
    ResponseEntity response = restTemplate.getForEntity(path, Customer.class);
    return response.getBody();
    }
    }
    Library needed!
    io.github.resilience4j
    resilience4j-spring-boot2
    0.13.2

    BUT WAIT!
    https://github.com/spring-cloud-
    incubator/spring-cloud-circuitbreaker

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  49. Retry
    Try and call the same method again
    Timeout
    Define a maximum wait time
    Fallback
    React to an outage with a fallback
    Circuitbreaker
    Let services fail fast and don’t call them again
    Bulkhead
    Limit concurrent requests
    Microprofile - FAULT TOLERANCE
    Mechanisms
    49

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  50. Microprofile - FAULT TOLERANCE
    Example with Timeout, Circuit breaker and fallback
    50
    @Path("/customer")
    public interface CustomerService {
    @GET
    @Path("/{customerNumber}")
    @Produces("application/json")
    @Timeout(value = 500, unit = ChronoUnit.MILLIS)
    @CircuitBreaker(requestVolumeThreshold = 5, failureRatio = 0.25, delay = 5000L, successThreshold = 1)
    @Fallback(CustomerFallbackHandler.class)
    Customer findCustomerByNumber(@PathParam("customerNumber") String customerNumber);
    }
    1
    2
    3
    4

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  51. HEALTH CHECK

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  52. Health Check … 52
    … should be accessible via HTTP
    … should indicate health status to K8s
    … should expose complex health conditions

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  53. Spring – Actuator Health
    Constructing the health endpoint
    53
    @Component
    public class HealthCheck implements HealthIndicator {
    @Override
    public Health health() {
    Status status = (jdbcConnectionIsUp() && amqpIsConnected()) ? Status.UP : Status.DOWN;
    return Health
    .status(status)
    .withDetail("datapoint", "my-app-data")
    .build();
    }
    }
    2
    3
    1

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  54. Spring – Actuator Health
    Payload
    54
    GET /actuator/health
    {
    "status": "UP",
    "details": {
    "healthCheck": {
    "status": "UP",
    "details": {
    "datapoint": "my-app-data"
    }
    },

    }
    }

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  55. Microprofile Health
    Constructing the Health Endpoint
    55
    @Health
    @ApplicationScoped
    public class ServiceHealthCheck implements HealthCheck {
    @Override
    public HealthCheckResponse call() {
    return HealthCheckResponse.named(ServiceHealthCheck.class.getSimpleName())
    .withData(“datapoint", “my-app-data")
    .state(jdbcConnectionIsUp() && amqpIsConnected())
    .build();
    }
    }
    1
    2
    3
    4

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  56. Microprofile Health
    PAYLOAD
    56
    GET /health
    {
    "outcome": "UP",
    "checks": [
    {
    "name": "ServiceHealthCheck",
    "state": "UP",
    "data": {
    “datapoint": “my-app-data"
    }
    }
    ]
    }

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  57. DIRECT COMPARISON

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  58. DIRECT COMPARISON
    QUITE SIMILAR
    58
    GET /actuator/health
    {
    "status": "UP",
    "details": {
    "healthCheck": {
    "status": "UP",
    "details": {
    "datapoint": "my-app-data"
    }
    },

    }
    }

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  59. DIRECT COMPARISON
    QUITE SIMILAR
    59
    GET /health
    {
    "outcome": "UP",
    "checks": [
    {
    "name": "ServiceHealthCheck",
    "state": "UP",
    "data": {
    “datapoint": “my-app-data"
    }
    }
    ]
    }

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  60. METRICS … 61
    … should be accessible via HTTP
    … should be integrated with monitoring solutions
    … should expose complex metrics

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  61. Spring – Actuator Metrics
    query metrics via HTTP
    62
    GET /actuator/metrics/hystrix.circuit.breaker.open
    {
    "name": "hystrix.circuit.breaker.open",
    "description": null,
    "baseUnit": null,
    "measurements": [
    {
    "statistic": "VALUE",
    "value": 1
    }
    ],
    "availableTags": […]
    }

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  62. Spring – Actuator Metrics
    Add your own metrics
    63
    @Component
    public class OrderRepository {
    private Counter counter;
    private List orders = new ArrayList<>();
    @Autowired
    public OrderRepository(MeterRegistry registry) {
    this.counter = registry.counter("metric.business.order.created");
    }
    public Order createOrder(Order order) {
    this.orders.add(order);
    counter.increment();
    return order;
    }
    }
    1
    2

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  63. Spring – Actuator Metrics
    query metrics via HTTP
    64
    GET /actuator/metrics/metric.business.order.created
    {
    "name": "metric.business.order.created",
    "description": null,
    "baseUnit": null,
    "measurements": [
    {
    "statistic": "COUNT",
    "value": 14
    }
    ],
    "availableTags": []
    }

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  64. Microprofile METRICS
    BASE
    65
    GET /metrics/base
    {
    "classloader.totalLoadedClass.count": 14849,
    "cpu.systemLoadAverage": 2.57568359375,
    "thread.count": 83,
    "classloader.currentLoadedClass.count": 14844,
    "jvm.uptime": 40513,
    "gc.PS MarkSweep.count": 3,
    "memory.committedHeap": 1216348160,
    "thread.max.count": 90,
    "gc.PS Scavenge.count": 12,
    "cpu.availableProcessors": 8,
    "thread.daemon.count": 14,
    "classloader.totalUnloadedClass.count": 5,
    "memory.maxHeap": 3817865216,
    "memory.usedHeap": 892483384,
    "gc.PS MarkSweep.time": 367,
    "gc.PS Scavenge.time": 229
    }

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  65. Microprofile METRICS
    Application
    66
    GET /metrics/application
    {
    "ft.{…}.CustomerService.findCustomerByNumber.circuitbreaker.open.total": 0,
    "ft.{…}CustomerService.findCustomerByNumber.circuitbreaker.closed.total": 16354121928,
    "ft.{…}.CustomerService.findCustomerByNumber.invocations.total": 13,
    "ft.{…}.CustomerService.findCustomerByNumber.circuitbreaker.halfOpen.total": 0,
    "ft.{…}.CustomerService.findCustomerByNumber.fallback.calls.total": 12,
    "ft.{…}.CustomerService.findCustomerByNumber.circuitbreaker.callsSucceeded.total": 13,
    "ft.{…}.CustomerService.findCustomerByNumber.timeout.callsNotTimedOut.total": 13,
    {…}
    }

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  66. Microprofile METRICS
    Getting the units
    67
    OPTIONS /metrics/base/jvm.uptime
    {
    "jvm.uptime": {
    "unit": "milliseconds",
    "type": "gauge",
    "description": "Displays the start time of the Java virtual machine in milliseconds. This
    attribute displays the approximate time when the Java virtual machine started.",
    "displayName": "JVM Uptime",
    "tags": ""
    }
    }

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  67. Microprofile METRICS
    Add your own
    68
    1
    2
    @ApplicationScoped
    public class ComplaintRepository {
    @Inject
    @Metric(name = "metric.business.complaint.created")
    private Counter counter;
    private List complaints = new ArrayList<>();
    public Complaint createComplaint(String caption, String text, Customer customer) {
    Complaint complaint = new Complaint(caption, text, customer.getCustomerNumber());
    complaints.add(complaint);
    counter.inc();
    return complaint;
    }
    }

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  68. Something is missing… ?

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  69. Security?
    HARD TO COMPARE
    70
    MP JWT
    SPRING SECURITY
    ALL IN
    ONE
    JWT
    ONLY

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  70. Matthews impressions
    Building a new service with spring boot
    72
    „I was able to complete all
    requirements.
    I liked the huge ecosystem that I
    could access, if I needed to.
    I spent some time searching for
    spring cloud dependencies.
    Openapi docs and fault tolerance
    needed external libraries“

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  71. Sarahs impressions
    Building a new service with microprofile
    73
    „I was able to complete all
    requirements.
    I liked that everything could be
    solved with the microprofile API
    and the huge variety of fault
    tolerance methods.
    The startup time and the ‚Getting
    started‘ webpage could be better“

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  72. Helens Impressions
    Running both services in production
    74
    „Both services are working as
    expected and were completed in
    roughly the same time.
    Operations is able to configure
    them in Kubernetes and set up
    monitoring with prometheus.
    I am not able to tell a difference.“

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  73. Tims Impressions ;)
    After working with both
    75
    „Both approaches are viable.
    Spring boot has the bigger
    ecosystem, It can do more.
    Microprofile has fresh ideas based
    on proven methods.
    Microprofiles API approach with
    different implementations is a
    blessing and a curse.“

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