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Priority Ceiling Protocol

Priority Ceiling Protocol

Priority Ceiling Protocol is an advanced task scheduling algorithm, principles of which were presented in the context of the Wireless Embedded Systems MSc.

Konstantinos Goutsos

April 23, 2015
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  1. Priority Ceiling Protocol
    Konstantinos Goutsos
    EEE8068: Real-Time Computer Systems
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
    Newcastle University
    1
    April 2015

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  2. Presentation Outline
    •Introduction
    • Resources: Shared and Exclusive
    • Semaphores and Critical Sections
    • Task blocking and Deadlocks
    •Priority Inversion Phenomenon
    •Priority Inheritance Protocol
    •Priority Ceiling Protocol
    • Justification
    • Definition
    • Example
    2
    April 2015

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  3. Resources
    • Software structures used by processes
    • Shared resources: can be used by multiple
    processes
    • Exclusive resources: protected against simultaneous
    use by more than one process using critical sections
    3
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  4. Critical Sections
    • Task sections which should not be interrupted
    • Used to control access to exclusive resources
    • Usually implemented with semaphores
    • Semaphores: provided by the OS, bound to an
    exclusive resource
    • Semaphores can be used only by the wait and
    signal primitives
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  5. Task blocking and Deadlocks
    • A task can stay in a waiting state: task blocking
    • The maximum blocking time is very important for real-
    time systems
    • Deadlock: a situation where two or more tasks are
    waiting for each other to complete
    5
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  6. Priority Inversion Phenomenon
    • Appears when using preemption and critical sections
    • A high priority task has to wait for a lower priority one
    to exit a critical section in order to enter its own
    • Happens when a low priority task has entered its
    critical section first
    • May create unbounded blocking as the waiting time
    depends on the execution time of lower priority tasks
    6
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  7. Priority Inversion Phenomenon: Example
    7
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    [Buttazzo 2011]

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  8. Priority Inversion Phenomenon: Example
    8
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    [Buttazzo 2011]
    1
    > 2
    > 3

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  9. Dealing with the Phenomenon
    • Simple solution: Disable preemption during critical
    sections
    • Complex priority protocols
    • Static priorities: Priority Inheritance, Priority Ceiling
    • Static & dynamic priorities: Stack Resource Policy
    9
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  10. Priority Inheritance Protocol
    • A task causing blocking temporarily assumes the
    priority of the blocked task
    • Plus: Bounds the maximum blocking time (which can
    be calculated)
    • Minus: Blocking time is not reduced and deadlocks are
    not prevented
    10
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  11. Priority Ceiling Protocol
    • Builds on the Priority Inheritance Protocol
    • Adds a rule for granting lock requests on semaphores: Each
    semaphore is assigned a priority ceiling
    • The ceiling is equal to the priority of the highest priority job
    that can lock the semaphore
    • A task can only lock a semaphore if its priority is higher than
    the larger priority ceiling among all locked semaphores
    • Makes sure that once a job enters a critical section it cannot
    be blocked by lower priority jobs
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  12. Priority Ceiling Protocol: Example
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    [Buttazzo 2011]
    1
    > 2
    > 3

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  13. References
    G. C. Buttazzo, Hard Real-time Computing Systems: Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and
    Applications. 2011.
    April 2015 13

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