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Androidify Yourself!

Androidify Yourself!

Android introduction slides for GDG Riga event

Alexey Buzdin

April 19, 2014
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  1. Androidify Yourself!

  2. Alexey Buzdin Aleksey Nikolaenko @AlexeyBuzdin @echoAlexey

  3. Google Developers Group • Place to discuss, learn, and share

    passion for technology • Focused on developer culture & technical content • Free as beer
  4. None
  5. Today’s agenda • Setup environment • Introduction to Android •

    Android application development • GDG Raffle http://goo.gl/HIYmeC
  6. Android Studio • IntelliJ IDEA based • Gradle build support

    • Comes with Android SDK • Layout editor with preview and much more…
  7. Android platform • Android is a Linux-based operating system and

    a software stack designed for touchscreen mobile devices
  8. Android Anatomy

  9. Android Runtime • On Android you develop in Java •

    ... but Android does not run Java Bytecode !
  10. Android Runtime • Custom Virtual Machine. Why? Constraints Designed for

    64M RAM No swap Phone tech v. Desktop CPU specific Oracle JVM problems Memory Hog Slow startup IP licensing restrictions
  11. Anatomy of Android application • AndroidManifest • Activities • Fragments

    • Intents • Services • Content providers • Broadcast receivers
  12. Android Manifest • general configuration for your application • contains

    all component definitions of your appication
  13. Activity • An activity represents a single screen with a

    user interface • An activity is implemented as a subclass of Activity
  14. Fragment • A Fragment represents a behavior or a portion

    of user interface in an Activity • Affected by lifecycle of Activity • subclass of Fragment
  15. Intent Intent is used to invoke different components: • Start

    a service • Launch an activity • Display a web page • Broadcast a message
  16. Service • Background process that performs long- running operations or

    remote processes • No user interface for service • A service is implemented as a subclass of Service • Service can be local (accessed within application) or remote (scope of device)
  17. Content providers • Content providers are used to share data

    between applications • Can store data in SQLite, Web and other storages and perform CRUD operations with Content providers • subclass of ContentProvider
  18. Broadcast receiver • Component that responds to system-wide broadcast announcements

    (e.g.. Screen is turns on-off, SMS received, • Broadcast delivered as Intent • Don’t have user interface • Subclass of BroadcastReceiver
  19. Android UI fundamentals

  20. Android UI fundamentals Screen size • actual physical size, measured

    as the screen's diagonal • 2.55”, 3.2”, 4.0”, 10.1”, ... Android groups into four generalized sizes: • Small • Normal • Large • Xlarge
  21. Android UI fundamentals Screen density • quantity of pixels within

    a physical area of the screen (dots per inch, dpi). • "low" density screen has fewer pixels • Android groups actual screen densities into four generalized densities: • Low (ldpi, 120) • Medium (mdpi, 160) • High (hdpi, 240) • Extra high (xhdpi, 320)
  22. Android UI fundamentals Density-independent pixel (dp) • virtual pixel unit

    to express layout dimensions or position in a density-independent way • equivalent to one physical pixel on a 160 dpi screen • px = dp * (dpi / 160) • system transparently handles any scaling of the dp units
  23. Android UI fundamentals Best practices • Do not use hard-coded

    pixel values in your application code • Use size and density-specific resources • Use wrap_content, match_parent, or the dp unit for layout dimensions • Test Your Application on Multiple Screens
  24. Android resources

  25. Resources Android supports the externalization of resources • strings, colors,

    images, themes, menus, layouts • system resources Why? • easier to maintain, update, and manage • easier to define alternative resource values for internationalization and to support variations in hardware
  26. res/ & R res/ • Generated by ADT Wizard •

    Each resource type is stored in a different subfolder R.java • Resources from /res are „indexed“ by ADT or aapt tool • Enables to reference resources in code
  27. Default v. Alternative Resources • For any type of resource,

    we can specify default and multiple alternative resources • Default resources are used regardless of the device configuration when no alternative resources match the current configuration • Alternative resources are designed for use with a specific configuration
  28. How to specify Alternative Resources • Create a new directory

    in res/ • res/<resources_name>- <config_qualifier> • <config_qualifier> specifies a configuration for which these resources are to be used • Save your alternative resources in new directory and name it as the default resource files
  29. Resource types • Layouts • Simple values – Strings –

    Plurals – Colors – Dimensions – Styles – String or integer arrays Stored within XML files in the res/values folder
  30. Resource types Styles and Themes • Let your applications maintain

    a consistent look and feel by enabling you to specify the attribute values used by Views • The most common use of is to store the colors and fonts for an application
  31. Building User Interfaces

  32. View View • base class for all visual interface elements

    controls, widgets • an object that draws something on the screen that the user can interact with View Group • extends View class • an object that holds other Views View group is an invisible container that organizes child views, while the child views draw some part of the UI
  33. Android Layouts • A layout defines the visual structure for

    a user interface, such as the UI for an activity or app widget. • Can be defined in XML or programmatically during runtime. • XML layouts stored in res/layout folder and are qualified as resource
  34. Layout Advantages of declaring UI in XML • Separation of

    the presentation from the code that controls its behavior • modify UI without having to modify source code • create XML layouts for different screen orientations, different device screen sizes, and different languages • Easier to visualize the structure of your UI • Easier to design/debug UI • Visualizer tool (ADT)
  35. Layout example ViewGroup View

  36. Layout types LinearLayout • Aligns all children in a single

    direction - vertically or horizontally • All children are stacked one after the other • Layout weight (android: layout_weight) assigns an "importance" value to a view in terms of how much space is should occupy on the screen
  37. LinearLayout

  38. Layout types RelativeLayout • view group that displays child views

    in relative positions • can eliminate nested view groups and keep your layout hierarchy flat, that improves performance • specify the location of child objects relative to each other (child A to the left of child B) or to the parent
  39. Layout Parameters Layout Parameters (layout_something) • parent view group defines

    layout parameters for each child view (including the child view group) • child element must define LayoutParams that are appropriate for its parent
  40. Basic widget toolbox

  41. Questions & Answers

  42. Want to host a workshop or presentation? [email protected]

  43. None