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Sustainability in Software Engineering - How to make a difference

Sustainability in Software Engineering - How to make a difference

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Martin Lippert

April 22, 2021
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  1. ©2021 VMware, Inc. Sustainability in Software Engineering How to make

    a difference Martin Lippert Spring Tools Lead, VMware April 2021
  2. 2 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Climate change is real. There is

    no need to argue about whether climate change exists, is human made, or life-threatening – all this is real and urgent. We need to stop climate change, not discuss whether it is real or not.
  3. 3 ©2021 VMware, Inc. This is a huge challenge, and

    we can make a huge difference. Software is eating the world and can have a huge impact. Let’s not wait for others to solve the problem. Everybody is involved – we all share the same responsibility.
  4. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 4 Contributions to climate change Greenhouse gases:

    • CO2: 74.36% (carbon) • CH4: 17.32% • N20: 6.19% • F-Gas: 2.13%
  5. We need to decarbonize the entire world of software engineering.

  6. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 6 Employee Commute Energy Production Business Travel

    Food in the office Hardware Hardware Production Heating / Cooling Data Center Operation Network Traffic CPU Cycles Memory Consumption SWAG production Shipping / Transport Energy consumption There is a wide range of topics
  7. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 7 89% 7% 4% Energy - 89%

    Land-use - 7% Industrial processes - 4% What causes carbon emissions?
  8. 8 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Energy Production

  9. The energy question. We need 100% renewable energy. This will

    take a very long time. And we don‘t have a very long time.
  10. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 10 Increase renewable energy production Decrease energy

    consumption We need to tackle this from both sides
  11. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 11 Electricity Generation Losses: 60% 40 Watts

    Data Center Losses: 30% Server Losses: 80% 28 Watts 100 Watts <5 Watts Useful Computing Source: Rocky Mountain Institute Impact of saving energy
  12. 12 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Energy Consumption

  13. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 13 Employee Commute Energy Production Business Travel

    Food in the office Hardware Hardware Production Heating / Cooling Data Center Operation Network Traffic CPU Cycles Memory Consumption SWAG production Shipping / Transport Energy consumption Energy consumption
  14. 14 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Rule of thumb: Try to run

    your software with less hardware.
  15. 15 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Step 0: Virtualize to use less

    hardware.
  16. • Hardware production consumes lots of energy and resources. •

    Buying less hardware is cheaper and better for the environment.
  17. 17 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Step 1: Do not run your

    software.
  18. • Only run software when necessary (scale to zero). •

    Eliminate “zombies”. They consume energy, space, and hardware.
  19. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 19 1. In 2019, VMware consolidated a

    datacenter in Singapore. 66% of the host machines were “zombies“. They were decomissioned. 2. In a 2017 study, Jon Kooney surveyed 16,000 non- virtualized and virtualized physical servers, across 10 datacenters. He concluded that 25% of the physical servers were “zombies“ and 30% of the virtual machines were “zombies“. Two pieces of evidence
  20. 20 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Step 2: Run your software using

    less energy.
  21. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 21 Memory constantly consumes energy • 1GB

    RAM consumes about 2W (varying)* CPUs consume a lot of energy • Lets assume an average of 50W* Rule of thumb • Reserve less memory • Reserve less vCPUs (* average rough number, varies depending on type of RAM, power vs. idle mode, and other factors)
  22. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 22 A real win-win situation Fight climate

    change AND reduce cost of operation
  23. To put that into perspective One flight from FRA ->

    SFO, Economy, 747-8 ~640 kgCO2 Dell PowerEdge R560, 32GB, 2 CPUs, x4 300 GB HDD ~1930 kgCO2 / year
  24. 29 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Where to run the software?

  25. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 32 Choose data center in cold regions

    (less cooling needed) Choose data center where the energy mix is best (depending on solar/wind conditions) Dynamically reschedule when conditions change
  26. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 33 Small scale: Kubernetes

  27. 41 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Last Resort Offsetting emissions A topic

    of its own
  28. ©2021 VMware, Inc. 42 Offsetting is generally a good idea

    • Offsetting projects generally do good things • Choose the project wisely, not every offsetting project really pays off The important difference is: • Avoid emissions in the future (many offsetting projects are in this category) • Vs. Actively removing the same amount of CO2 from the atmosphere
  29. 48 ©2021 VMware, Inc. “Sustainability is the next frontier in

    innovation” Nicola Acutt, VMware Sustainability Lead
  30. 49 ©2021 VMware, Inc. Learn more: Course by Microsoft: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/learn/modules/sustainable-

    software-engineering-overview/ Principles for sustainable software engineering https://principles.green
  31. ©2021 VMware, Inc. Thank You Martin Lippert @martinlippert lippertm@vmware.com