You Are Where You Eat: Foursquare Checkins as Indicators of Human Mobility and Behaviour

627b1a10da6bd579fd7f2ea8c73774b8?s=47 Matt J Williams
March 19, 2012
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You Are Where You Eat: Foursquare Checkins as Indicators of Human Mobility and Behaviour

Research talk.
Venue: International Workshop on the Impact of Human Mobility in Pervasive Systems and Applications (PerMoby), Lugano, Switzerland.

627b1a10da6bd579fd7f2ea8c73774b8?s=128

Matt J Williams

March 19, 2012
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Transcript

  1. You are where you eat: Foursquare checkins as indicators of

    human mobility and behaviour International Workshop on the Impact of Human Mobility in Pervasive Systems and Applications (PerMoby) 19 March 2012 Gualtiero Colombo, Martin Chorley, Matthew Williams, Stuart Allen, Roger Whitaker Cardiff University School of Computer Science & Informatics
  2. Overview • Background • Motivation • Foursquare • Data collection

    • Observations
  3. Motivation • Areas of study: • Presence of routine (regularity)

    in mobility and encounters • Relationship between personality traits and mobility behaviour • Heterogeneity in individuals’ behaviours • Applications: • Content provisioning • User profiling • Recommender systems
  4. Why Foursquare? • Appropriate datasets hard to find! • In

    addition to the mobility trace, we want: • social graph • profiles of individuals • properties of the places individuals visit • ...and comprehensive coverage of a geographic region!
  5. About Foursquare • “Location-based online social network” • Users ‘check-in’

    to their current venue to indicate they’ve visited it • Venues are user-contributed • Points, “mayorships”, and discounts to incentivise participation
  6. About Foursquare visit history social graph user database venue database

    + category hierarchy
  7. World Foursquare usage Text http://blog.foursquare.com/2011/01/24/2010infographic/

  8. Data collection Cardiff city area: 140 km2 city population: 341,000

  9. city area: 116 km2 Data collection Cambridge city population: 130,000

  10. Collected data City pop. Collection area # users (≥ 1

    visit) # venues (≥ 1 visit) Checkins Checkins Checkins City pop. Collection area # users (≥ 1 visit) # venues (≥ 1 visit) Total per venue per user 320,000 7.0 x 9.0 km 1,701 1,234 13,299 10.78 7.82 120,000 5.0 x 3.5 km 1,196 852 6,464 7.59 5.40 Collection period: Mon 21st March – Fri 13th May 53 continuous days Cardiff Camb.
  11. Checkins heatmap Cardiff Cambridge 2km 2km fewest most

  12. Areas of analysis • User activity and venue popularity •

    Inter-checkin time and distance • Co-located checkins • Checkin patterns
  13. User activity and venue popularity

  14. User activity 1 10 100 Number of Checkins 1 10

    100 1000 Number of Users Cardiff Cambridge • Users with exactly one checkin: • Cambridge: 31% • Cardiff: 43% • Top 1% of users responsible for 15% of all checkins
  15. Venue popularity 1 10 100 Number of Checkins 1 10

    100 Number of Venues Cardiff Cambridge • Small minority of very-popular venues • Most-popular tend to be transport hubs • A large number of venues with very few checkins • Usually “Home” venues
  16. Inter-checkin time and distance

  17. Inter-checkin time and jump distance A→B 5min 300m B→C 3hrs

    100m • Jump distance: • (or: “inter-checkin distance”) • distance between two consecutive checkins • Inter-checkin time: • time between two consecutive checkins • staying time + travel time
  18. 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 Time

    between Checkins (seconds) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 P(X  x) Time between Checkins Cardiff Cambridge Inter-checkin time • 50% of consecutive checkins within five hours • 20% of consecutive checkins within one hour Cardiff & Camb. 1h 3h 12h 24h 5h inter-checkin time ≤ 24hr
  19. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Distance between

    Checkins (metres) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 P(X  x) Distance between Checkins 3 Hours 6 Hours 12 Hours 1 Day 2 Days 1 Week 1 Month Max inter- checkin time: 1k 0.5k Jump distance Cardiff Cardiff: • 60% to 70% of consecutive checkins within 1km • 48% to 55% of consecutive checkins within 0.5km (...depending on max inter- checkin time)
  20. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Distance between

    Checkins (metres) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 P(X  x) Distance between Checkins Cardiff Cambridge Jump distance • For consecutive checkins within three hours... • Cardiff: 75% of jumps less than 1km • Camb.: 66% of jumps less than 1km • On average, Cambridge users travel farther between checkins Cardiff & Camb. 1km inter-checkin time ≤ 3hr
  21. Co-located checkins

  22. Co-visiting behaviour • The co-visiting patterns of users: • Two

    users checking in at the same venue within one hour of each other are said to have “co-visited” • Other co-visit thresholds can be chosen • How many users ‘meet’ in this way? • Does friendship influence co-visiting behaviour?
  23. Number of co-visitors • At a co-visit threshold of one

    hour: 10% of users co-visited with more than 10 different people 35% of users co-visited with at least one other person The most people a user met is 35 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Number of Users 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 P(X  x) Number of Unique Users with Co-located Checkins (per User) 1 Hour 3 Hours 6 Hours 12 Hours 1 Day 2 Days Cardiff Co-visit threshold:
  24. Time between co-visits: friends vs. non-friends In Cardiff... average time

    between co-visits in a one-hour threshold... between friends: 8.3 mins between any users: 18.2 mins average time between co-visits in a three-hour threshold... between friends: 27 mins between any users: 63 mins 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Time between Co-located Checkins (seconds) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 P(X  x) Time between Co-located Checkins All Users - 1 Hours Friends - 1 Hours All Users - 3 Hours Friends - 3 Hours Cardiff
  25. Checkin patterns

  26. Sequence analysis • Can we find repeated patterns of checkins?

    • Look at n-grams frequencies... ... Central Train Station Starbucks School of ComSc Uni Cafe → → → → →... 8:30am 8:45am 9:00am 10:30am A-B-C-D-A-B-C-C-A-B-C example string: sequence count (#repeats) ABC 3 BCD 1 CDA 1 BCC 1 CCA 1 CAB 1 DAB 1 3-grams
  27. Recurring sequences per user 0 10 20 30 40 50

    60 70 Number of unique tuples 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 P(X  x) Distribution of unique tuples quadruples44u triples33u doubles22u Number of recurring sequences per user Number of recurring sequences Cardiff 2-grams: • 84% of users with no recurring sequences • 10% of users had between one and five recurring sequences • 6% of users had more than five recurring sequences 3-grams: • 90% of users with no recurring sequences • 6% of users had between one and five recurring sequences • 4% of users had more than five recurring sequences
  28. Fuzzy sequences • Allow different intermediate venues ... Central Train

    Station Starbucks? School of ComSc Uni Cafe → → → → →... Costa Coffe? Caffe Nero? • Allow up to n intermediate venues when matching a pattern • Similar to regular expression matching... Pattern: C *{0,2} A ...has two matches A-B-C-D-A-B-C-C-A-B-C
  29. Distinct fuzzy sequences per user 100 101 102 103 104

    Number of doubles 100 P(X  x) Distribution of doubles doubles2u doubles2 doubles3 doubles5 doubles10
  30. Summary • Users tend to make frequent and regular checkins

    to a limited number of venues • A small subset of users show repeated sequences of checkins • The type of venue affects regularity: • Home and Work venues are very regular; Outdoors venues are less regular • Movement of friends influences co-visit behaviour • City-specific characteristics affects user behaviours • Temporal behaviour is universal, but jump distance affected by geography?
  31. Ongoing and future research • Individual checkin patterns: regularity, predictability,

    heterogeneity • Influence of friendship on co-visiting behaviour -- causality or commonality? • Relationship between personality traits and visiting behaviour
  32. Thanks for listening! Questions? Matt Williams www.mattjw.net M.J.Williams@cs.cardiff.uk @voxmjw www.gplus.to/mattjw

    Supported by... { G.Colombo, M.J.Chorley, M.J.Williams, Stuart.M.Allen, R.M.Whitaker } @cs.cardiff.ac.uk www.recognition-project.eu