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Under the hoods: How Quarkus operates with GraalVM demonstrated with Neo4j

Under the hoods: How Quarkus operates with GraalVM demonstrated with Neo4j

Nearly 3 years since the inception many of us have seen amazing demos: How fast Quarkus based applications start, how helpful dev mode is, we have even learned continuous testing. And when going to production, it even works natively on GraalVM. This talk is the story that starts after a small meeting back in early 2019 in London that led to making the Neo4j driver compatible with GraalVM native over to providing a Quarkus extensions for just the connectivity and eventually ending with full support of Neo4j-ObjectGraphMapping framework in Quarkus. We will talk about the mechanisms Quarkus applies to create a closed world assumption that fulfills the needs of GraalVM native, how extensions need to deal with and the different modules being in a Quarkus extension. This talk will help you understanding why things in Quarkus work the way they do and how you can benefit from them. All of that will be demonstrated with Neo4j and the official Java connectivity to the worlds leading Graph database.

Michael Simons

November 09, 2022
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  1. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 1 Under the hoods: How Quarkus and others operate on GraalVM Michael Simons, Java Champion & Staff Software Engineer @ Neo4j Øredev 2022
  2. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Neo4j • Graph database • Custom wire protocol with drivers for a broad range of languages • Web and CLI based shells, including visualization *and nice places like Aachen and Braunschweig and some others like London and San Mateo 2 MATCH (p:Product {name: 'Neo4j'}) -[:IS_CREATED_IN {with: '💙'}]-> (c:City {name: 'Malmö(*)'}) RETURN p, c View from Nordenskiöldsgatan
  3. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Why this talk? • Frameworks do magic all the time (i.e. beans seems to be created from thin air and injected into the right place) • Java allows access to all kind of things via magic incarnations • Resources can be easily accessed ➡ Understanding what happens in a software becomes even more important as many things taken for granted do work differently in GraalVM. We want Neo4j to be excellent with GraalVM! “They say a little knowledge is a dangerous thing, but it's not one half so bad as a lot of ignorance.” - Terry Pratchett in “Equal Rites”
  4. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 4 What is GraalVM? Native image, polyglot runtime, language framework or all of the before? 4
  5. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 5 GraalVM Architecture
  6. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 6 All of it! import static java.lang.System.out; import org.graalvm.polyglot.*; public class HelloJS { public static void main(String... args) { var program = """ const LocalDate = Java.type('java.time.LocalDate') let result = JSON.parse('{"greeting": "Hello, Øredev"}') result = { ...result, "when": LocalDate.now()} """; try (var context = Context.newBuilder().allowAllAccess(true).build()) { var result = context.eval(Source.create("js", program)); out.println( result.getMember("greeting") + " on " + result.getMember("when") ); } } }
  7. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Two execution modes • JVM Runtime Mode When running programs on the HotSpot JVM, GraalVM defaults to the GraalVM compiler as the top-tier JIT compiler. At runtime, an application is loaded and executed normally on the JVM. The JVM passes bytecodes for Java or any other JVM-native language to the compiler, which compiles that to the machine code and returns it to the JVM. • Native Image Native Image compiles Java code into a standalone native executable or a native shared library. The Java bytecode that is processed during the build of a native executable includes all application classes, dependencies, third party dependent libraries, and any JDK classes that are required.
  8. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 8 Build-Time- and Runtime-Initialization • Java semantics requires classes to be initialized at first access => Degrades performances, even hello world initializes a couple of hundred classes ◦ Native image can push this to Build-Time, including static state ◦ Used to be the default for nearly all classes • Runtime-Initialization now the default, required classes must be enumerated still ◦ JDK classes, including GC, are build-time initialized ◦ So are “safe” classes ◦ So are explicitly listed classes
  9. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 9 Demo native image public class Hello { public static void main(String... a) { System.out.println("Hello, Øredev"); } }
  10. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 10 Not so fast… public class Hello2 { // native-image --no-fallback Hello2 // java -agentlib:native-image-agent=config-output-dir=c Hello2.java // native-image -H:ReflectionConfigurationFiles=c/reflect-config.json Hello2 public static void main(String... a) throws Exception { var method = Hello2.class .getDeclaredMethod(a.length == 0 ? "greeting1" : a[0]); System.out.println(method.invoke(null)); } static String greeting1() { return "Hello, Øredev"; } static String greeting2() { return "God morgon, Øredev"; } }
  11. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 11 What is Quarkus? 11
  12. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Quarkus • First appearance 2019 • Java framework tailored for deployment on Kubernetes. ◦ Hotspot and GraalVM on par • Container first • unified configuration • "Batteries included" approach ◦ Live coding: Quick turnaround ◦ Dev mode ◦ Dev containers / (bast on Testcontainers) • Fast startup, low memory
  13. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 13 All-in towards build-time initialization • Configuration • (CDI-Lite) Beans • Resources • Entities Done for both JVM mode and Native mode!!! Building a lot of synthetic byte code
  14. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Goals Challenges for (Neo4j) connectivity • Creating persistent TCP connections • Discover classes (aka Entities) for OGM • Evaluate unified configurations • Discover or enumerate needed resources • Bossfight SSL
  15. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Create a closed world 15 Or at least, assume one. 15
  16. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Different solutions • Annotation processing (javax.annotation.processing.*) • Programmatically (Explicit) • Functional extension points / Hints (More for the developers building on frameworks and libraries)
  17. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Quarkus • Programmatically for providers of extensions • Hints (Annotationen) for end users and direct access to native-image related tools
  18. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Structure and flow of a Quarkus-Extension Augmentation Static Init Runtime Init
  19. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 19 Demo time (Break all the things) 19
  20. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Going with the defaults • GraalVM has defaulted to Runtime-initialization • We followed that (move everything Built-Time to Quarkus) and than this
  21. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 The relevance to the ecosystem 21 (and Neo4j) 21
  22. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 The relevance to the ecosystem • GraalVM and Quarkus challenged a lot of assumptions • Breath of fresh air, especially for Spring(!) ◦ Spring going into a different direction here (Code instead of Bytecode generation) • As a vendor, we want to not a single obstacle for our users to facilitate the driver in their native program
  23. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 Why? • Faster startup times, less resource usage ◦ (Startup times can be addressed by the CRaC (Coordinated Restore at Checkpoint) Project) • Elasticity (scale to 0, scale up) • Lambda • Probably more secure • Empowers Java to be used proper in CLI (together with PioCLI and others)
  24. © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka

    @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 © 2022 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Michael Simons aka @rotnroll666 at Øredev 2022 24 Tack! Tooling around GraalVM Email michael.simons@neo4j.com Twitter @rotnroll666 Profile https://github.com/michael-simons Ramblings about Frameworks