Stephan Friedl. CISCO, United States

Bd1c4acb24d143c7ca8dff849461ebe3?s=47 Multicore World
July 20, 2012
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Stephan Friedl. CISCO, United States

Multicore and the Data Center: How Did We Get Here

Bd1c4acb24d143c7ca8dff849461ebe3?s=128

Multicore World

July 20, 2012
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  1. Cisco Confidential 1 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Multicore and the Data Center How Did We Get Here…. Stephan Friedl Systems Architect Virtual Experience Infrastructure
  2. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 2 The opinions, viewpoints, and any errors or omissions in this presentation are my own. Opinions herein are mine, they do not necessarily reflect those of my employer, Cisco Systems.
  3. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 3 • Systems Architect at Cisco Systems • I work and live in Boulder, CO • Second Best City in the World After Wellington • Concentration on Desktop Virtualization • Data Center Implications - Rich Media • 2 Years at Cisco • Background in Enterprise Applications • Startups, Siebel Systems, Avaya, BOC Gases • Been Writing Thread Reentrant Code for 20+ years • CDC Cyber, VAX 8600, DEC Alpha, x86, ARM
  4. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 4 • Angry Customers…. • Send Friedl ! • Need to fill last slot on last day of sales conference…. • Send Friedl !
  5. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 5 The key to why things change is the key to everything James Burke Science Historian + Normans Stirrup = Web
  6. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 6 An event that changes the way we think and act. • Andy Grove
  7. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 8 Fundamental Theorem of Multicore Processors: Speed/Power Tradeoff means it's no longer worth the cost in terms of power consumed and heat dissipated to drive CPU clock frequencies higher Graph Copyright © 2009 Herb Sutter
  8. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 9 It’s like Déjà Vu all over again • Lawrence ‘Yogi’ Berra Philosopher
  9. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 10 HDD RPM Advances Stalled at 15k RPM in 2000 Capacity continues to increase, but seek time doesn’t change HDD Experience is 5 years ahead of CPU 1000 5000 10000 15000 x x x x Platter RPM
  10. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 11 • Seagate introduced first 15k RPM HDD in Feb. 2000 Cheetah X15 18.6GB 3.9 ms seek time • 20k RPM HDDs not happening Physics – Heat and Vibration Flash has eliminated market incentives for faster HDDs • Don’t Wait for Multi-TB 15k HDDs either Density and rotational speed don’t play well together
  11. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 12 Stick a Whole Bunch of Drives Together and Spread your I/O Loads Across Them
  12. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 13 • Even if Rotational Speed Plateaus, Sequential BW for HDD I/O benefits from improvements in Areal Density • Tightly packed bits pass under the read head faster than loosely packed bits • Random I/O Is pretty well bound to rotational speed • If the bits you need are on other side of platter, then you get to wait • Historically, the Pendulum has swung several times between HDD and CPU technology being the limiting factor for business app performance • Remember HDD Interleave?
  13. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 14 • SANs change the model from managing drives to managing storage • Drives become no more than an component in the SAN • SANs offer improved performance and reliability over individual HDDs • By sequencing writes across multiple platters, IOPS and throughput improve • Think Drum Memory…. Storage Array Disk Drive Simplify The Data Center
  14. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 15 Stick a Whole Bunch of Discrete CPUs Together and Spread your Computational Loads Across Them
  15. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 16 Amazing Compute Density - Cisco UCS can pack 128 Cores and 2TB of Memory into 10U Cisco B440 Full Width Blade 4 Sockets -> 32 Cores 32 DIMM Slots
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    Confidential 17 Consolidating services from 20 lightly loaded servers onto a single multicore server makes lots of sense, until that single server crashes for some reason (HW or SW) Consider the prior diagram. Each server probably had a 1Gig Ethernet link, would a single 1 Gig link be sufficient for the whole rack, particularly if the blades don’t have local storage? Compute Density is grand but a big multicore server won’t do you much good if the rest of your environment isn’t equipped to handle it
  17. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 18 It Doesn’t Fix Your Single-Threaded Applications Big Monsters Demand Big Meals MultiCore Servers Require Super-Sized Networking and Storage
  18. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 19 Virtualization Makes it Cheaper and Easier to Create New Virtual Machines for Whatever the OS and Application Combination -or- Virtualization Makes it Easier to Run Amuck With VM Bloat Cisco B440 Full Width Blade 4 Sockets -> 32 Cores 32 DIMM Slots App OS App OS App OS App OS App OS App OS App OS App OS App OS App OS
  19. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 21 • Single Servers Dedicated to Single Services Are Easy • Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity • HW Failure is Coupled To Service Failure • Hosting Multiple Services on a Single Server is Harder • HW Failure Wipes Out Multiplicity of Services • Have to Keep Track of What is Running Where • Load Balancing Takes Thought and Care • Does Little for Storage Issues
  20. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 22 $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 $300 Spending (US$B) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 60 Virtualization makes things worse 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Physical server installed base (millions) Logical server installed base (millions) Source: IDC Admin Costs Dominate Budgets New server spending Power and cooling costs Server mgmt. and admin. costs Operations & Maintenance Now ~80% of IT Budgets and Growing
  21. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 23 Unified Computing System Server • Unified Computing makes collection of servers the managed entity • No more managing discrete servers • No one should care how many servers they have: Computing matters • Individual HW elements are stateless Simplify The Data Center
  22. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 24 SANs make a bunch of small HDDs look like one big HDD Multicore does not make a bunch of discrete cores look like one big core Multicore is a bit like Nuclear Physics Fission is Easy, Fusion is Hard + == Xeon 5600 Xeon 5600 Xeon 11200 + !=
  23. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 25 Virtualization Web Client Server Minicomputer 2010 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 First Inflection Point Mainframe Distributed Computing Second Inflection Point
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    Confidential 27 2 Increase automation Cost per VM hour (2GB instance) 20¢ 18¢ 16¢ 14¢ 12¢ 10¢ 8¢ 6¢ 4¢ 2¢ 0¢ 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% Increase utilization 1 Utilization
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    Confidential 28 • Google® The Dalles (OR) •68,680 Sq Ft (6,380 m2) • Microsoft® Quincy •470,000 Sq Ft (43,655 m2) •47 MWatts • Yahoo® Wenatchee & Quincy •2 Million Sq Ft (185,800 m2)
  26. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 29 Cloud Computing Utility Model Workload not VM Centric Plastic Highly Automated Cloud Storage Utility Model Completely Logical Containers Web Service Ifxs High Latency but Parallelizable
  27. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 30 FC Cloud Computing Cloud Storage HTTP Traditional Apps Assume Dedicated HW, OS and App Server connected to High Bandwidth, Low Latency Storage Cloud provides App Container without local persistent storage, abstracted from OS and HW connected to Medium Bandwidth, High Latency Storage through Web Services
  28. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 31 • September 16, 1994 • May 21, 2011 • October 21, 2011 • Harold Camping Numerologist and Failed End of Days Predictor X X X I’m not sure what will come next, but I’ll bet it will seem like déjà vu all over again.
  29. © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

    Confidential 32 • Lawrence ‘Yogi’ Berra Philosopher