your last vacation? 2. Brag about someone you love? 3. Explain what you do for a living? 4. Defend your choice of vehicles? 5. Give reasons why you love your favorite sports team? 6. Ask others to support a worthy cause? 7. Describe your pet?
1. We almost never speak on something we know nothing about. We have some knowledge and, indeed, expertise on our topic. 2. This is not middle school; the audience wants you to succeed. 3. You have something to offer the audience, so focus on the audience. 4. Speakers use a standard speaking format. Learn it to gain confidence! 5. Speaking is 10% skill, 90% confidence.
scores for items 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 13, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, and 34 • Step 2. Add the scores for items 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 24, and 26 • Step 3. Complete the following formula: • PRPSA = 72 - Total from Step 2 + Total from Step 1 • Your score should be between 34 and 170. If your score is below 34 or above 170, you have made a mistake in computing the score. – Score < 98 = High Anxiety when giving presentations – 98-131 = Moderate Anxiety – > 131 = Lower Anxiety • Mean = 114.6 • .
Good Speakers Are Born Not Made • Good Speakers Never Suffer Stage Fright • Good Speakers Don't Have To Work At It • Good Speakers Don't Get Nervous • The Audience Can See How Nervous I Am Beliefs That Bind • I failed before . . . . • Everybody must love me • I must be perfect
fully poised, confident, and at ease when I speak to anyone. 2. I project self-assurance and confidence to others. 3. My body, voice, and words are in harmony with one another. 4. I am able to express my ideas in my own unique style with enthusiasm and sincerity. 5. I enjoy expressing my ideas and thoughts to others. 6. l am: – poised, prepared, and positive – composed, confident, and convincing – effective, energetic, and enthusiastic – (make up your own) Repeat your statement over and over, keeping out all negativity.
stay calm while you are waiting to give your presentation: – Plan to feel good – Wear your favorite outfit – Do isometrics – Meet the audience – Remember, you are the expert – Think only positive thoughts – Psych yourself up – Focus on your opening line – Don't rush into it
Trust and enjoy the audience • Put your audience at ease • Breathe • I Get dressed at home • Use hands and gestures • I Eye contact • Risk • Breathe • Move your body • Talk with your face • Get right into your subject • Use active verb forms • Breathe • Give yourself positive feedback • Keep your hands above your waist • Make eye contact with three people before you say a single word • Smile • Memorize your opening./Don't memorize your opening. NEVER: Apologize Tell them when you are nervous
Analyze your audience. Step 2 Define your specific objectives. Step 3 Prepare and not for the sake of the audience, but for yourself. Step 4 Organize the ideas and materials your audience must know if you are to achieve your objectives. Step 5 Clarify your meaning. Step 6 Develop effective opening and closing statements that enhance your main points. Step 7 Rehearse - you need to feel comfortable with your presentation.
has one of four goals: 1. To make something clear 2. To impress and convince 3. To get action 4. To entertain Know your goal and how you want to achieve it. Define your specific objectives. Ask yourself: 1. Why am I speaking at this time? 2. What do I want the audience to do when I am finished speaking? (results?) Write: "After my presentation, my audience will (identify, accept, agree to, help support, etc.)
is nine-tenths delivered. 1. Develop an inner urge. Make the message real in your heart as well as your head. 2. Know everything there is to know about your topic. Assemble 100 ideas, then discard 90. 3. Limit your topic. 4. Let your speech grow. Do not try to write a speech in a matter of minutes. Think about it, discuss it, jot down ideas. 5. Write ideas in an outline or on note cards. Don't plan to memorize your speech word for word. 6. Plan to keep your speech short. 7. Decide if and when you will answer questions.
rules can be given for the arrangement of your speech. • Organization depends on your objective. • Some possible methods of organization: 1. Chronological Order 2. Problem/Solution 3. Topical Division 4. Experiential Order 5. Advantage/Disadvantage 6. Cause/Effect 7. Comparison/Contrast 8. Escalation • Write key ideas on note cards and spread them out where you can see them. Play "Solitaire" with them to see their relationship to one another.
Present your supporting material in the clearest way possible. Appeal to the heads and the hearts of your audiences so they will be interested and understand. 1. Avoid using technical terms 2. Describe things that people don't know by likening them to things they do know. 3. Appeal to the sense of sight by the use of visuals, exhibits, handouts. 4. Paint "mental pictures" with words. 5. Involve the audience in an active exchange by asking for a show of hands, etc. 6. Talk about people through stories, anecdotes. 7. Use short words and short sentences. 8. Keep it short. Don't try to cover too many points. • Think of public speaking as an enlarged conversation. • Talk to, not at, your audience.
OPENING: The minds of your audience are open and easy to impress. Gain their attention by: 1. Arousing curiosity 2. Relating a human interest story 3. Giving a specific illustration 4. Using a visual 5. Asking a question 6. Quoting someone famous 7. Tying the topic to a vital interest of the audience 8. Presenting shocking facts CLOSE: The close is the most strategic point of the speech and likely to be remembered the longest. Plan to leave your audience with something memorable by: 1. Summarizing the main points you have covered 2. Appealing for action 3. Using a famous quote 4. Paying the audience a sincere compliment 5. Building a climax Always stop before your audience is ready for you to.
your presentation first - then develop visuals 2. Be certain the visual aid is large enough and clear enough to be seen. 3. Keep it simple. Use key words, phrases, or pictures. 4. Control your environment. Check facilities and try to set up materials before the talk. 5. Use a pointer only to indicate a specific item on a large screen. Stand to one side. Use the hand nearer the visual for pointing. Don't turn your back on your audience. 6. Know how to operate the gadget! Test mechanical equipment. Be sure slides are in proper sequence. 7. Don't reveal your visual aid until you're ready for your audience to focus on it. Cover your poster or overhead with another sheet of paper. 8. Look at the visual aid only when you must. 9. Pause as you change visuals. 10. Don't gather up visual aids as you conclude.
before you speak. • Stay calm and reasonable. • Don't get angry. Keep total control of your temper. • Refuse to take any attack personality. • Be positive. • Give information rather than denials. • Be explanatory. Don't succumb to the temptation to argue. • Take lots of time. Let your opponent rush, shout, scream, run off at the mouth, and argue. By taking your time, you will infuriate him or her even further and make your opponent appear irrational to your audience. • Be the voice of reason. • Be Mr. or Ms. Nice.
• Ignore signs of audience fatigue. • Be afraid to stray from your script. • Turn your back on the audience. • Stand in the back of the room when showing audio visuals - or come between the light and the screen. • Panic. You've done your homework, you've practiced your presentation, and you're ready to go on stage.
Communication • Make eye contact with everyone in the room. • Ask questions to maintain interest and involvement. • Be aware of audience reactions, and modify your tone of voice, rhythm and tempo to keep people listening. • Move around the platform or the room to shift your physical audience focus.