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Art of the Classical World: Greece and Rome

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March 14, 2013

Art of the Classical World: Greece and Rome



March 14, 2013


  1. Art  of  the  Classical  World:   Ancient  Greece  and  Rome

      Reading   Ar+orms,  226-­‐236     Range   900  BCE-­‐400  CE   Archaic  (Greece),  Classical  (Greece),   Hellenis8c  (Greece),  Roman  Republic,   Roman  Empire     Terms/Concepts   Kouros  (Kouroi),  Archaic  Smile,   Canon  of  ProporGons,  Contrapposto,   Arch,  Arcade,  Aqueduct,   Amphitheater,  Engaged  Column,   Doric,  Ionic,  Corinthian,  Oculus,   Coffer,     Key  Monuments     Metropolitan  Kouros,  AOca,   Archaic,  c.  600  BCE     KriGos  Boy,  Early  Classical,  c.  480   BCE     Polykleitos,  Doryphoros  (Spear   Bearer),  High  Classical  c.  5th   Century  CE     Nike  of  Samothrace,  Sanctuary  of   the  Great  Gods,  Samothrace,   HellenisGc,  c.  180  BCE       Pont  du  Gard,  Nîmes  (France).     Late  first  century  BCE.         Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),   Rome,  72-­‐80  BCE.    
  2. Metropolitan  Kouros,  AOca,  Archaic,  c.   600  BCE  

  3. Metropolitan   Kouros,  AOca,   Archaic,  c.  600   BCE

      Portrait  Statue  of   Mentuemet,  Late   Period  Egypt,   660-­‐650  BCE  
  4. Metropolitan  Kouros,  AOca,  Archaic,  c.  600  BCE.  

  5. Metropolitan Kouros. From Attica. c.600 BCE. Menkaure and a Queen,

    perhaps Khamerernebty II (from Giza). c.2490- 2472 BCE. Egyptian pharaoh (king) Psammetichos I (r.664-610) invited Greek mercenaries and merchants to Egypt
  6. None
  7. Anavysos  Kouros,  Cemetery  at  Anavysos,  near  Athens,   c.  530

     BCE   “Stay  and  mourn  at  the   monument  for  dead  Kroisos   whom  violent  Ares  destroyed,   fighGng  in  the  front  rank.”    
  8. Peplos  Kore,  Acropolis,  Athens,   Archaic,  c.  530  BCE  

  9. Dying  Warrior,  West  Pediment,  Temple  of  Aegina,  Aphaia,  Greece,  c.

     500  BCE   Dying  Warrior,  East  Pediment,  Temple  of  Aegina,  Aphaia,  Greece,  c.  480  BCE  
  10. A  Turning  Point   KriGos  Boy,  Athenian  Acropolis,  Early  

    Classical,  c.  480  BCE  
  11. Myron,  Diskobolos  (Discus  Thrower),   Roman  copy  of  an  Early

     Classical,  470-­‐440   BCE  
  12. Eadweard  Muybridge,  Man  Throwing  Discus,  Collotype  from  glass   negaGve,

  13. None
  14. Different  Roman  copies  (1st-­‐2nd  centuries  CE)  of  Myron’s  5th-­‐century  CE

     bronze  original.  
  15. Warrior,  Found  in  the  sea  off  Riace,  Italy,  Early  Classical,

     460-­‐450  BCE  
  16. Warrior  (Detail),  Found  in  the   sea  off  Riace,  Italy,

     Early   Classical,  460-­‐450  BCE  
  17. Warrior  (Detail),  Found  in  the   sea  off  Riace,  Italy,

     Early   Classical,  460-­‐450  BCE  
  18. The  Canon  of  Polykleitos   Polykleitos,  Doryphoros  (Spear  Bearer),  Roman

     Copy  from   Greek  Original,  High  Classical  c.  5th  Century  CE  
  19. “but  beauty,  he  thinks,  does  not  reside  in  the  proper

      proporGon  of  the  elements  but  in  the  proper  proporGon   of  the  parts,  such  as  for  example  that  of  finger  to  finger   and  all  these  to  the  palm  and  base  of  hand,  of  those  to   the  forearm,  of  the  forearm  to  the  upper  arm  and  of   everything  to  everything  else,  just  as  described  in  the   Canon  of  Polykleitos.  For  having  taught  us  in  that  work   all  the  proporGons  of  the  body,  Polykleitos  supported   his  treaGse  with  a  work  of  art,  making  a  statue   according  to  the  tenets  of  the  treaGse  and  calling  it,  like   the  treaGse  itself,  the  Canon.  So  then,  all  philosophers   and  doctors  accept  that  beauty  resides  in  the  due   proporGon  of  the  parts  of  the  body.”  
  20. None
  21. None
  22. None
  23. Contrapposto   Pythagorean  Table  of  Opposites      Finite  

         Infinite    Odd        Even    One      Many    Right        Leg    Rest      MoGon    Straight    Crooked    Light      Darkness    Good      Evil    Square      Oblong  
  24. None
  25. The  Canon  of  Lysippos   Lysippos,  Apoxyomenos  (The  Scraper),  Roman

     Copy  of  a  Greek  Original,   Late  Classical,  4th  century  CE  
  26. Doryphoros,  5th  century  BCE.   Apoxyomenos,  4th  century  BCE.  

  27. Lysippos. Weary Herakles. Roman copy signed by Glykon of Athens

    after bronze original of c. 320 BCE. Lysippos. Man Scraping Himself (Apoxyomenos). Roman copy, after a bronze original of c.350-325 BCE. Praxiteles. Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy after original of c.350 BCE.
  28. Nike  of  Samothrace,  Sanctuary  of  the  Great  Gods,   Samothrace,

     HellenisGc,  c.  180  BCE    
  29. Nike  of  Samothrace,  Sanctuary  of  the  Great  Gods,   Samothrace,

     HellenisGc,  c.  180  BCE    
  30. Rome  

  31. ★Rome is known fundamentally as an urban civilization Model  of

     the  City  of  Imperial  Rome   Mosaic  of  the  Goddess   Roma,  1st-­‐2nd  Century  CE    
  32. Nîmes

  33. Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century BCE. • 

     Aqueduct:  An  arGficial  channel  for  transporGng  water  from  a  distant  source   Water  
  34. Water Channel, Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century

    BCE. 100  gallons  per  person   30  Miles  North   Channel  would  have  been  covered  to  prevent   heaGng  and  contaminaGon  
  35. Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century BCE.

  36. Pont du Gard, Nîmes (France). Late first century BCE. Scaffolding

     used  for   construcGon  and  repair.  
  37. •  Voussoir: A wedge- shaped block used in the construction

    of an arch •  The central voussoir is the keystone
  38. The  distribuGon  of  weight  on  an  arcade.  

  39. Flavian  Ampitheater  72-­‐80  CE   Titus    79-­‐80  CE  

    Vespasian    69-­‐79  CE  
  40. None
  41. Doric Ionic Corinthian Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),  Rome,   72-­‐80  BCE.

        Engaged columns ★Engaged  columns  only  give  the  impression  of   support.    The  arcades  could  support  themselves.  
  42. Extensive  quarrying  of  the  façade.     Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),

     Rome,   72-­‐80  BCE.    
  43. Groin  Vault   Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),  Interior   Vaults,  Rome,

     72-­‐80  BCE.    
  44. Diagram of an arch Diagram of a barrel vault Vaults

     supported  the  seats  and  substructure  of   the  Coliseum.  
  45. Diagram of a barrel vault Diagram of a groin vault

    Groin  vaults  are  two  crossed  barrel  vaults.  
  46. Flavian  Amphitheater  (Colosseum)   ReconstrucGon,  Rome,  72-­‐80  BCE.    

  47. Inaugural festivities by Emperor Titus: 100 days, in which 9,000

    animals and 2,000 gladiators were killed. Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),  Rome,   72-­‐80  BCE.    
  48. Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),  Rome,   72-­‐80  BCE.    

  49. Gladiatorial  Entertainments,  “Zliten  Mosaic”,  Dar  Buc   Ammera  Villa,  Zliten,

     Libya,  c.  before  80  CE  
  50. Gladiatorial  Entertainments,  “Zliten  Mosaic”,  Dar  Buc   Ammera  Villa,  Zliten,

     Libya,  c.  before  80  CE   Musicians  and  Costumed  Performers  
  51. Gladiatorial  Entertainments,  “Zliten  Mosaic”,  Dar  Buc   Ammera  Villa,  Zliten,

     Libya,  c.  before  80  CE   Gladiator  vs.  Gladiator  
  52. Gladiatorial  Entertainments,  “Zliten  Mosaic”,  Dar  Buc   Ammera  Villa,  Zliten,

     Libya,  c.  before  80  CE   Gladiator  vs.  Beast  
  53. Gladiatorial  Entertainments,  “Zliten  Mosaic”,  Dar  Buc   Ammera  Villa,  Zliten,

     Libya,  c.  before  80  CE   Beast  vs.  Beast  
  54. Flavian  Amphitheater  (Coliseum),  Rome,   72-­‐80  BCE.     ★

    80  exits  to  accommodate  50,000  spectators    
  55. The  Pantheon   Hadrian    117-­‐138  CE    

  56. The  Pantheon   Pantheon  

  57. ★ Temple dedicated to all the gods (pan=all and theion=gods)

    pediment porch   dome   cylindrical     drum   The  Pantheon,  Rome,  c.  118-­‐125  CE.  
  58. Temple, perhaps dedicated to Portunus. In the Cattle Market, Rome.

    Late second century BCE. The  Pantheon,  Rome,  c.  118-­‐125  CE.  
  59. Oculus   Coffer   The  Pantheon,  Rome,  c.  118-­‐125  CE.

      ★ 143 feet ★60  feet   ★  20  feet  
  60. The  Pantheon,  Interior,  Rome,  c.   118-­‐125  CE.   ★Niches

     once  held  the  statues  of  gods,  but  were  replaced   by  saints    in  609  by  Pope  Boniface  IV.