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Final Exam Review

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
December 09, 2011
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Final Exam Review

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

December 09, 2011
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  1. Final  Exam  Review   Exam  Format     Sec3on  I:

     Slide  IDs  (10)    Ar#st/Architect    Title    Culture/Stylis#c  Period    Cultural  Significance     Sec3on  II:  Chronology    Place  Slides  in  Proper    Chronological  Order.     Sec3on  III:  Essay    Study  your  major    themes   Good  to  Know…     Exam  Date:  Tuesday  Dec.   13,  8:00-­‐10:00     I  will  be  on  campus  on   Friday  (12/9)  and  Monday   (12/12)  if  you  would  like  to   make  an  appointment.     Full  study  guide  is  on   Blackboard  under  “Study   Guides.”    
  2. Slide  IDs:  Cultural/Stylis3c  Periods   1.  Late  An3que   2. 

    Byzan3ne   3.  Anglo-­‐Saxon   4.  Hiberno-­‐Saxon   5.  Visigoth   6.  Norse   7.  Carolingian     8.  Oconian     9.  Romanesque   10. Gothic   11. Late  Gothic  
  3. “a  fiery  light,  flashing  intensely,  came  from  the   open

     vault  of  heaven  and  poured  through  my   whole  brain.”     The  vision  of  Hildegard  of  Bingen,  from  Scivias   (detail  of  facsimile).    1150-­‐1175.     Author  Page,  from  Scivias  (detail  of  facsimile).     1150-­‐1175.    
  4. Reconstruc3on  drawing  of  Cathedral.  San3ago   de  Compostela,  1078-­‐1122.  

        The  vision  of  Hildegard  of  Bingen,  from  Scivias   (detail  of  facsimile).    1150-­‐1175.    
  5. “Afer  this  I  saw  a  vast  instrument,  round  and  

    shadowed,  in  the  shape  of  an  egg,  small  at  the   top,  large  in  the  middle,  and  narrowed  at  the   bocom;  outside  it,  surrounding  its  circumference,   there  was  a  bright  fire  with,  as  it  were,  a  shadowy   zone  under  it.    And  in  that  fire  there  was  a  globe   of  sparkling  flame  so  great  that  the  whole   instrument  was  illuminated  by  it.”     Vision,  from  Scivias  (detail  of  facsimile).     1150-­‐1175.    
  6. Hubert  Airy,  Illustra3on  of  visual  migraine  aura,   1870.  

    “Outward,  my  eyes  are  open.    So  I  have   never  fallen  prey  to  ecstasy  in  the   visions,  but  I  see  them  wide  awake,  day   and  night.    And  I  am  constantly  fecered   by  sickness,  and  ofen  in  the  grip  of  pain   so  intense  it  threatens  to  kill  me.”     Vision,  from  Scivias  (detail  of  facsimile).     1150-­‐1175.    
  7. The  legacy  of  the  Roman  Empire  in  medieval  art  

    Concepts:   Gestures  (oratory/ blessing)   Syncre3sm:  Wine   (Eucharist/Bacchus),   Winged  Figures   (Personifica3ons/Angels),         Examples:   Augustus  Primaporta,   Icons,     Archangel  Michael  (Ivory   Panel)   Catacombs        
  8. Good  Shepherd,  Orants,  and  the  Story  of  Jonah,  Catacomb  of

      SS.  Peter  and  Marcellinus,  Rome,  Late  3rd-­‐Early  4th  century  
  9. Figures  from  the  Story  of  Jonah,  Turkey  (?),  Late  Third

      Century  CE  
  10. Wine  Making,  Church  of  Santa  Costanza,  Rome,  c.  350  CE

      Dionysus  Seated  Among  Vines,   House  of  the  Masks,  Delos  Late   2nd  Century  BCE   John  15:1-­‐17    lI  am  the  true  vine,  and  my   Father  is  the  vinedresser…z  
  11. Church  of  Santa  Costanza,  Rome,  c.  350  CE   Mausoleum

     of  Augustus,  Rome,  c.  14  CE  
  12. Aula  Pala3na,  Trier,  4th  century  CE   Basilica  Ulpia,  Forum

     of  Trajan,  Rome,  112-­‐117,   dedicated  117  CE.  
  13. St.  Michael  the  Archangel,  Ivory  Panel,   Constan3nople,  6th  Century

     CE   Could  be  another   angel  or  an   emperor  receiving   this  orb.   Diptych  =  Di  (Two)  Ptukhe  (Fold)  
  14. The  Evangelist  Machew,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  Scotland  710-­‐725  CE.   Ezra

     Repairing  the  Gospels,   Codex  Amia3nus,  680-­‐715.  
  15. Saint Matthew. Folio 15. Coronation Gospels, from Aachen. c.800-810. Saint

    Matthew. Folio 18. Ebbo Gospels, from Hautevillers. c.816-835.
  16. ★  The  knowledge  to  make  concrete  was  lost  to  

    Medieval  Europe.   Saint-­‐Mar3n-­‐du-­‐Canigou,  French  Pyrenees,   1001-­‐1026.   Groin  Vault  
  17. Controversy  over  images  in  Chris3anity   Concepts:   Iconoclasm  

       Iconoclasts:    idolatry,      iconophiles:  focus,    venera3on,     Bernard  of  Clairvaux:   distrac3ng,  expensive,   Abbot  Suger:  expensive   images  honored  God,       Examples:  
  18. Eleousa   Vladimir  Virgin,   Constan3nople,  12th   Century  

    “Virgin  of   tenderness.”   Or   Glykophilsousa   “Virgin  of  Sweet   Kisses”  
  19. Iconoclasts  (Breakers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  akin  to

     the  “graven  images”  men3oned   in  the  second  commandment:  “4  Thou  shalt  not   make  unto  thee  any  graven  image,  or  any  likeness   of  any  thing  that  is  in  heaven  above,  or  that  is  in   the  earth  beneath,  or  that  is  in  the  water  under   the  earth:5    thou  shalt  not  bow  down  thyself  to   them,  nor  serve  them.”  (Exodus  20:  4-­‐5)   2)  Icons  are  man  made,  as  opposed  to  relic,  and  do   not  deserve  to  be  venerated:  “The  divine  nature  is   completely  uncircumscribable  and  cannot  be   depicted  or  represented  by  arEsts  in  any  medium   whatsoever.”  (IconoclasEc  Council,  754)  
  20. Iconodules  (Lovers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  powerful  didac3c

     tools:  “An  image  is,  aJer   all,  a  reminder;  it  is  to  the  illiterate  what  a  book  is   to  the  literate,  and  what  the  word  is  to  hearing,  the   image  is  to  sight.”  (John  of  Damascus)   2)  Icons  are  a  valuable  proxy  by  which  the  faithful  could   demonstrate  their  love  and  honor  for  the  divine:   “God  created  man  to  his  own  image”  (Genesis  1:27)   3)  Icons  are  a  valid  way  to  communicate  Christ’s   humanity  and  suffering:  “How,  indeed,  can  the  Son   of  God  be  acknowledged  to  have  been  a  man  like  us —he  who  was  deigned  to  be  called  our  brother—if   he  cannot  be  depicted?”  
  21. The  Crucifixion  and   Iconoclasts   whitewashing  an   icon

     of  Christ,   Khludov  Psalter,   850-­‐75.  
  22. Simon  Magus  and   Patriarch   Nikephoros,   Khludov  Psalter,

    850-­‐75.  
  23. Theodora  Instruc3ng  her  Daughters  in  the  Venera3on   of  Icons,

     Madrid  Skylitzes,  12th  Century.    
  24. Icon  of  the   Triumph  of   Orthodoxy,   Constan3nople,

      1400.  
  25. Portal,  Fontenay  Abbey   Portal,  Priory  Church,  Moissac   Façade,

     Fontenay  Abbey,  France,   1139-­‐1147.  
  26. “immoderate  height  of  [Cluniac]  churches…their   immoderate  length,  their  excessive

     width,   sumptuous  decora3on  and  finely  executed   pictures,  which  divert  the  acen3on  of  those   who  are  praying.”     –  Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  Apologia.     Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,   France,  1139-­‐1147.   Nave,  Monastery  at  Cluny,   France,  1088-­‐1130.  
  27. Capital  Detail   Capital  Detail   Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,  

    France,  1139-­‐1147   Cloister,  Priory  Church,   Moissac,    
  28. “What  profit  is  there  in  those  ridiculous  monsters,  in  

    that  marvelous  and  deformed  comeliness,  that   comely  deformity?...So  many  and  so  marvelous  are   the  varie3es  of  divers  shapes  on  every  hand  that  we   are  more  tempted  to  read  in  the  marble  than  in  our   books,  and  spend  the  whole  day  in  wondering  at   these  things  than  in  medita3ng  upon  the  law  of  God.     For  God’s  sake,  if  men  are  not  ashamed  of  these   follies,  why  at  least  do  they  not  shrink  from  the   expense?”     –Bernard  of  Clairvaux   Historiated  Capital  with  Lions’  Heads,  Cloister,   Priory  Church,  Moissac,  France,  c.  1115.  
  29. Ambulatory  and  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey   Church  of  St.  Denis,

     France,   1140-­‐1144.   Transept,  Abbey  Church  of   St.  Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  30. Interac3on  between  the  viewer  and  art   Concepts:   Romanesque:

     fear,   anxiety,  intensity.   Gothic:     Examples:  
  31. Eleousa   Vladimir  Virgin,   Constan3nople,  12th   Century  

    “Virgin  of   tenderness.”   Or   Glykophilsousa   “Virgin  of  Sweet   Kisses”  
  32.             Christ  in  Majesty  

              Good                                    Wicked                           Hell                           Heaven   Monastery  of  Ste.  Foy,  Conques,  France,   11th  and  12th  Century.  
  33. Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy (St. Faith), Conques, France, 9th-10th

    centuries. Furtum  Sacrum  =     “Sacred  Thef”  
  34. Ambulatory  and  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey   Church  of  St.  Denis,

     France,   1140-­‐1144.   Transept,  Abbey  Church  of   St.  Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  35. Upper  Chapel,  Church  of  Sainte-­‐Chapelle,   Paris,  1239-­‐1248.  

  36. Virgin  and  Child,  originally   from  St.  Denis,  c.  

    1324-­‐1339.   Virgin  of  Paris,  Notre  Dame   de  Paris,  c.  14th  century  
  37. Virgin  of  Paris,  Notre  Dame   de  Paris,  c.  14th

     century   Virgin  and  Child,  Auvergne,   France,  12th  century    
  38. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia3on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.  
  39. Art  as  didac3c  materials   Concepts:   How  have  images

     been   jus3fied  as  “didac3c”?   Why  was  it  so  important   at  this  3me  for  art  to   teach  the  viewer?   What  are  some  of  the   limita3ons  of  artworks  as   learning  materials?   Examples:   Look  below  
  40. Eleousa   Vladimir  Virgin,   Constan3nople,  12th   Century  

    “Virgin  of   tenderness.”   Or   Glykophilsousa   “Virgin  of  Sweet   Kisses”  
  41. Miracles   Miracle  at  Chonae,   St.  Catherine’s   Monastery

     at  Mt.   Sinai,  12th  Century.  
  42. The  Ladder  of  Divine  Ascent,   from  St.  Catherine’s  at

      Mount  Sinai,  7th  Century.  
  43. Chi  Rho  Iota  Page,  Book  of  Kells,  Hiberno-­‐ Saxon,  9th

     Century  CE.    
  44. Pentateuch   Story  of  Adam  and  Eve,  from  the  Ashburnham

      Pentateuch,  6th  Century  CE.   Abel  tending  his  flock   Cain  working  the  land   Cain  Murdering  Abel  
  45. Gelasian  Sacramentary,  Merovingian,  8th  century   Alpha   Omega  

    The  beginning  and  the   end.  
  46. Death   of  a   Miser   Torment  of  

    Avarice   Torment   of  Lust   Scene  of   Torment  
  47. Religious  Spaces   Concepts:   •  basilicas,     • 

    centrally  planned   churches,     •  luminosity,     •  vaul3ng,     Examples:   See  below  examples  
  48. Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia

    Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), 532-537.
  49. Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland, 9th

    Century CE. Although  it  was  never  built,  the  plan  of  St.  Gall  remains   the  model  for  ideal  monasteries.  
  50. Nave,  Fontenay  Abbey,   France,  1139-­‐1147.   Nave,  Monastery  at

     Cluny,   France,  1088-­‐1130.  
  51. Ambulatory  and  Apse  Chapel,  Abbey   Church  of  St.  Denis,

     France,   1140-­‐1144.   Transept,  Abbey  Church  of   St.  Denis,  France,  1140-­‐1144.  
  52. Upper  Chapel,  Church  of  Sainte-­‐Chapelle,   Paris,  1239-­‐1248.  

  53. Materiality   Concepts:     •  Wealth   •  gold,

        •  luminosity,     •  illuminated  manuscripts     •  stone  churches   Examples:   See  Below  Examples  
  54. Virgin  and  Child,  originally   from  St.  Denis,  c.  

    1324-­‐1339.   Virgin  of  Paris,  Notre  Dame   de  Paris,  c.  14th  century  
  55. Upper  Chapel,  Church  of  Sainte-­‐Chapelle,   Paris,  1239-­‐1248.  

  56. Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy (St. Faith), Conques, France, 9th-10th

    centuries. Furtum  Sacrum  =     “Sacred  Thef”  
  57. Fantasy/Animals   Concepts:   •  historiated  columns     • 

    relief  sculpture  of   Romanesque  churches   •  Anglo-­‐Saxon  art     •  Hiberno-­‐Saxon   manuscripts   Examples:   Look  below  for  more   examples  
  58. Trumeau, South Portal, Lions (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre,

    Moissac, France, c.1115
  59. Cloister  Relief   “Dove  Capital,”  Cloister,  Moissac,  France,  c.  

    1115.  
  60. The  Followers  of  Jesus,  Historiated  Capital,   Cloister,  Moissac,  France,

     c.  1115.   “Monsters”  
  61. Historiated  Capital  with  Lions’  Heads,  Cloister,   Priory  Church,  Moissac,

     France,  c.  1115.   Lions’  Heads   Griffons  acacking  lions  
  62. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia3on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.   Jous3ng  Scene   Marginalia  
  63. Jean  Pucelle,  Betrayal  of  Judas  and  the  Annuncia3on,   the

     Book  of  Hours  of  Jeanne  d’Evreux,  1325-­‐1328.   Marginalia   Children  playing