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Icons and Iconoclasm

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April 04, 2013

Icons and Iconoclasm



April 04, 2013


  1. Icons  and  Iconoclasm   Readings:     Stokstad,  232-­‐263.  

      Range:   500-­‐1425  CE   Byzan2ne     Key  Terms/Concepts:   Icon,  Venera:on,  proskynesis,   acheiropoietai,  palladium,  Iconoclasm,   Pantokrator,  Acheiropoietos,   Theotokos,  Hodegetria,  Orans,   Blacherni:ssa,  Eleousa,   Glykophilsousa,  Festal,  Iconoclast,   Iconophile,  Iconodule,  Iconostasis.     Key  Monuments:     8-­‐28,  Vladimir  Virgin,   Constan:nople,  12th  Century     8-­‐14,  Virgin  and  Child  with   Saints  and  Angels,  St.  Catherine   at  Mt.  Sinai,  second  half  of  the   6th  century.     8-­‐15,  The  Crucifixion  and   Iconoclasts  whitewashing  an   icon  of  Christ,  Khludov  Psalter,   850-­‐75.     8-­‐35,  Andrey  Rublyov,  The  Old   Testament  Trinity  (Three  Angels   Visi:ng  Abraham),  1410-­‐1425.  
  2. Reminders   •  Mythological  Comparison  is  due  THURSDAY   April

     11th.   •  Final  Exam  is  on  Tuesday  May    14th  8:00-­‐10:00   AM  in  Tivoli  Theater  12.  
  3. What  is  an  Icon?     General:  Two-­‐ dimensional  

    representa:ons     Specific:  Pictures  of   holy  persons,  events,   venerated  by  the   Eastern  church.  
  4. Byzan:ne  Empire  in  the  6th  Century  

  5. None
  6. None
  7. None
  8. None
  9. Iconostasis  

  10. Iconostasis  

  11. c D00D0DDN000000cD c B lo2 t X B 2 A

    8 6 5 4 7 9 A 3E S3 Worship  Row   Deesis  Row   Festal  Row   Prophets  Row   Row  of  Patriarchs   Typical  Iconostasis.  
  12. Types  of  Icons   Christ   Virgin  and  Child  

    Angels   Saints   Festal   Narra:ve  
  13. Christ  

  14. Pantokrator   “The  All   Powerful”  

  15. Man  of  Sorrows  

  16. None
  17. Theotokos  =  The  Bearer  of  God   Orans   Eleousa

      Kyrio:ssa   Hodegetria  
  18. Kyrio:ssa   “She  who  reigns   in  majesty”  

  19. Hodegetria   “She  who  shows   the  way.”  

  20. Orans   “Virgin  of  the   sign.”   “Praying  Virgin”

      Or   Blacherni:ssa  
  21. Eleousa   “Virgin  of   tenderness.”   Or   Glykophilsousa

      “Virgin  of  Sweet   Kisses”  
  22. Saints  

  23. None
  24. Angels   Portraits   Miracles  

  25. Miracles  

  26. Festal  

  27. Orthodox  Festal  Days     Feast  days  ordered  by  calendar

     date     Bap:sm  of  Jesus  by  John  the  Forerunner  (January  6)     The  Presenta:on  of  Jesus  in  the  Temple  (February  2)     The  Annuncia:on  (March  25)     The  Raising  of  Lazarus  (Saturday  before  Palm  Sunday)     Entry  into  Jerusalem  (Palm  Sunday)     The  Crucifixion  (Good  Friday)     The  Resurrec:on  (Easter  or  Holy  Pascha)     The  Ascension  (40  days  aeer  Easter)     Meso-­‐Pentecost  (Jesus,  12  years  old,  lectures  the  Jewish   Priests  in  the  Temple)     The  Descent  of  the  Holy  Spirit  (Pentecost,  50  days  aeer   Easter)     The  Transfigura:on  (August  6)     The  Dormi:on  of  the  Holy  Virgin  *  (August  15)     The  Na:vity  of  the  Virgin  Mary  (September  8)     The  Exalta:on  of  the  Cross  (by  Arch.  Zinon,  Courtesy   Orthodox  World)  *     The  Presenta:on  of  the  Virgin  in  the  Temple  (November   21)     The  Na:vity  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  (December  25)    
  28. Narra:ves  

  29. None
  30. None
  31. *Venera/on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Processions  
  32. None
  33. *Venera/on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.     Kissing  
  34. None
  35. *Venera/on  is  the  act  of  honoring   Christ  and  saints

     through  their  image.    
  36. None
  37. Iconoclasm   (Eikon  =  Image)  +  (Klao  =  Break)  

  38. Iconoclasts  (Breakers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  akin  to

     the  “graven  images”  men:oned   in  the  second  commandment:  “4  Thou  shalt  not   make  unto  thee  any  graven  image,  or  any  likeness   of  any  thing  that  is  in  heaven  above,  or  that  is  in   the  earth  beneath,  or  that  is  in  the  water  under   the  earth:5    thou  shalt  not  bow  down  thyself  to   them,  nor  serve  them.”  (Exodus  20:  4-­‐5)   2)  Icons  are  man  made,  as  opposed  to  relic,  and  do   not  deserve  to  be  venerated:  “The  divine  nature  is   completely  uncircumscribable  and  cannot  be   depicted  or  represented  by  ar/sts  in  any  medium   whatsoever.”  (Iconoclas/c  Council,  754)  
  39. Iconodules  (Lovers  of  Images):   1)  Icons  are  powerful  didac:c

     tools:  “An  image  is,  aQer   all,  a  reminder;  it  is  to  the  illiterate  what  a  book  is   to  the  literate,  and  what  the  word  is  to  hearing,  the   image  is  to  sight.”  (John  of  Damascus)   2)  Icons  are  a  valuable  proxy  by  which  the  faithful  could   demonstrate  their  love  and  honor  for  the  divine:   “God  created  man  to  his  own  image”  (Genesis  1:27)   3)  Icons  are  a  valid  way  to  communicate  Christ’s   humanity  and  suffering:  “How,  indeed,  can  the  Son   of  God  be  acknowledged  to  have  been  a  man  like  us —he  who  was  deigned  to  be  called  our  brother—if   he  cannot  be  depicted?”  
  40. None
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  46. Cri:cal  Thinking  Ques:ons   1.  What  is  an  icon?  

     What  role  did  they  play  in   Byzan:ne  worship?   2.  How  does  the  icon  interact  with  the  sacred?   3.  What  are  the  arguments  for  and  against  the   use  of  icons  in  the  church?   4.  What  is  Iconoclasm?    What  were  the   circumstances  that  led  to  the  Iconoclasm?